Beyond Steel

[1] "What One Hears About Prohibition," Easton Daily Free Press, 10 Feb. 1919, 5.

[2] Norman H. Clark, Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition (New York: W.W. Norton, 1976), 120-132.

[3] Gregg Smith, Beer: A History of Suds and Civilization from Mesopotamia to Microbreweries (New York: Avon Books, 1995), 127-128.

[4] Clark, Deliver Us from Evil, 120-132.

[5] Clark, Deliver Us from Evil, 132-141, 194; Edward Behr, Prohibition: Thirteen Years that Changed America (New York: Arcade Publishing, 1996), 77-79.

[6] "Officer Fenton Shot; Martyr to System," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 12 Nov. 1927, 1, 7.

[7] "Police Have No Clue to Murderer of Officer Fenton, on South Side," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 14 Nov. 1927, 1, 10. According to Yeakle's 1928 report, police finally caught the men in Cleveland, Ohio, cited in James M. Yeakle, "Seventh Annual Message of Mayor James M. Yeakle...January 1928," Mayor's Reports, 5th-9th 1926-1930 Annual Message of James M. Yeakle (Bethlehem, Pa.: n/pub, n/d), 20-31.

[8] "Police Have No Clue," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 1, 10.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] "Conditions in City Not So Bad as They're Painted, Says Mayor," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 15 Nov. 1927, 1, 14.

[12] "Businessmen of South Side Urge a Vice Crusade," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 15 Nov. 1927, 1, 8.

[13] "Vice Petitions Circulating," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 3 Dec. 1927, 1, 17.

[14] "Look to Mayor to Change System or Get Out," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 16 Nov. 1927, 1.

[15] Frank Orpe and Jean Pfeifle McQuade, Dare to be Brave (Center Square, Pa.: Alpha Publications, 1977), 31-39 in passim.

[16] "Unofficial Returns of Primary Election Held in this City," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 16 Sept. 1929, 18.

[17] Ibid.

[18] "Robert Pfeifle Elected Mayor; Groman and Wear are Chosen New Members of City Council," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 6 Nov. 1929, 1.

[19] "Unofficial Vote of the City in Tuesday's Election," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 6 Nov. 1929, 18.

[20] Orpe, Dare to be Brave, 16-18.

[21] Robert Pfeifle, "First Annual Message of Mayor Robert Pfeifle to the Honorable Members of City Council and the Citizens of Bethlehem, Pa., January 1930," Mayor's Report, 1st Annual Message of Robert Pfeifle (Bethlehem, Pa.: n/pub, n/d), 4-5.

[22] Orpe, Dare to be Brave, 33-34.

[23] "Tell-tale Phone Message to the Local Police Department Gives Intimation of the Crookedness that Has Taken Place," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 9 Jan. 1930, 1.

[24] "What People of this City are Saying and Thinking These Days," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 9 Jan. 1930, 1, 16.

[25] Ibid.

[26] "Church Endorses Mayor's Policy," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 9 Jan. 1930, 1, 22.

[27] "Tell-tale Phone Message to the Local Police Department Gives Intimation of the Crookedness that Has Taken Place," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 1

[28] "Police Report Covers Clean-Up," Bethlehem Globe-Times, 7 Feb. 1930, 1, 21; Orpe, 40-46.

[29] Robert Pfeifle, "Second Annual Message of Mayor Robert Pfeifle...January 1931," Mayor's Report, 2nd Annual Message of Robert Pfeifle (Bethlehem, Pa.: Quinlin Printing Company, n/d), 7, 32-36.

[30] Pfeifle, "Second Annual," 34-37.

[31] Pfeifle, "Second Annual," 37-38.

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