152 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF JOHN FRITZ
amount of phosphorus, Mr. Bessemer's Umit being 0.02. At this time the steel-rail question cUd not look inviting, and I was glad we had so far kept out of it. A short time after this the Lehigh VaUey sent two more steel rails, made by another EngUsh firm, which had been broken in the track. This looked so very discouraging that the end of the steel rail seemed in sight. But knowing about the marvelous wearing quaUties of the one steel rail laid on the Midland Railway in 1857, I thought it important to inves¬ tigate the subject further. So I sent for the track master of the Lehigh VaUey Raflroad and went to the place where the breakage of the second and third rails had taken place. I there learned that a loaded coal car had from some unknown cause left the rafl. Upon close examination we found the flange of the wheel had struck the head of the spike that held the rail in place, causing injury to the rail, and in each case of breakage we found it had occurred at a point in the flange immediately under the head of the spike. I came to the conclusion that that had caused the breakage of the rails. We had the two broken rails analyzed and found them to contain each about 0.06 of phosphorus.
The analysis of the two rails that were broken in the track inspired new hope, and we took the ore question up again and had a number of analyses made of the Lake Superior ores, but all were too liigh in phosphorus, to keep as low as the two rails broken in the track; after carefully looking over the analyses of the ores we had previously made, we did find some ores in other locaUties that were so low in phosphorus as to give us hope that steel could be made within the Umit of 0.06 of phosphorus, but the ore was not foimd in large quantities and was low in iron. It was a question in my nuiid whether sufficient ores of the quaUty desired could be reUed on for any length of time. However, we must have a better rail in some way, and concluded to