"Villainy Detected!" Crime and Consequences in Britain and America in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
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127 Items.

  1. [External Resource] The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders
    This fictional autobiography traces the life of Moll, whose mother was convicted of theft before her birth. Her mother is sent to America and Moll remains in England. When Moll is all grown up, she has some relationship trouble, and ends up on a plantation in Virginia with her new husband. After realizing that she married her brother, she leaves him and begins a life of thievery, later being punished, just as her mother had.
    Book. 1722
  2. A General and True History of the Lives and Actions of the most Famous Highwaymen, Murderers, Street-Robbers, &c...
    A General and True History of the Lives and Actions of the most Famous Highwaymen, Murderers, Street-Robbers, &c. To Which is added, A Genuine Account of the Voyages and Plunders of the most Noted Pirates. Interspersed with several Remarkable Tryals of the most Notorious Malefactors, at the Sessions-House in the Old Baily, London. Adorn'd with the Effigies, and other material Transactions of the most remarkable Offenders, engraved on Copper-Plates.
    Book. 1742
  3. [External Resource] An enquiry into the causes of the late increase of robbers, &c...
    An enquiry into the causes of the late increase of robbers, &c., with some proposals for remedying this growing evil. In which the present reigning vices are impartially exposed: and the laws that relate to the provision of the poor, and to the punishment of felons are largely and freely exampled. Reprinted in a 1903 collection of Fielding's works.
    Book. 1751, 1903
  4. The trial of William Lord Byron, Baron Byron of Rochdale, for the murder of William Chaworth, Esq...
    The trial of William Lord Byron, Baron Byron of Rochdale, for the murder of William Chaworth, Esq; before the right honourable The House of Peers, in Westminster-Hall, in full parliament. On Tuesday the 16th, and Wednesday the 17th of April, 1765: on the last of which days the said William Lord Byron was acquitted of Murder, but found guilty of manslaughter. Published by order of the House of Peers
    Pamphlet. 1765
  5. [External Resource] A Collection of the Most Remarkable and Interesting Trials: Particularly of Those Persons who Have Forfeited Their Lives to the Injured Laws of Their Country
    This was a two volume series that contained trial reports for fifty-three men and six women. Volume 2 contains the chronological listings of trials for murder, treason, piracy, riot, perjury, and other assorted crimes.
    Book. 1776
  6. Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 1]
    Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 1] : Being select trials at Doctors Commons, for adultery, fornication, cruelty, impotence, &c. from the year 1760, to the present time, including the whole of the evidence on each cause : together with the letters &c. that have been intercepted between the amorous parties / taken in short-hand by a civilian.
    Book. 1779 - 1780
  7. Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 2]
    Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 2] : Being select trials at Doctors Commons, for adultery, fornication, cruelty, impotence, &c. from the year 1760, to the present time, including the whole of the evidence on each cause : together with the letters &c. that have been intercepted between the amorous parties / taken in short-hand by a civilian.
    Book. 1779 - 1780
  8. Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 3]
    Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 3] : Being select trials at Doctors Commons, for adultery, fornication, cruelty, impotence, &c. from the year 1760, to the present time, including the whole of the evidence on each cause : together with the letters &c. that have been intercepted between the amorous parties / taken in short-hand by a civilian.
    Book. 1779 - 1780
  9. Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 4]
    Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 4] : Being select trials at Doctors Commons, for adultery, fornication, cruelty, impotence, &c. from the year 1760, to the present time, including the whole of the evidence on each cause : together with the letters &c. that have been intercepted between the amorous parties / taken in short-hand by a civilian.
    Book. 1779 - 1780
  10. Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 5]
    Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 5] : Being select trials at Doctors Commons, for adultery, fornication, cruelty, impotence, &c. from the year 1760, to the present time, including the whole of the evidence on each cause : together with the letters &c. that have been intercepted between the amorous parties / taken in short-hand by a civilian.
    Book. 1779 - 1780
  11. Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 6]
    Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 6] : Being select trials at Doctors Commons, for adultery, fornication, cruelty, impotence, &c. from the year 1760, to the present time, including the whole of the evidence on each cause : together with the letters &c. that have been intercepted between the amorous parties / taken in short-hand by a civilian.
    Book. 1779 - 1780
  12. Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 7]
    Trials for adultery, or, The history of divorces [Volume 7] : Being select trials at Doctors Commons, for adultery, fornication, cruelty, impotence, &c. from the year 1760, to the present time, including the whole of the evidence on each cause : together with the letters &c. that have been intercepted between the amorous parties / taken in short-hand by a civilian.
    Book. 1779 - 1780
  13. [External Resource] Panopticon Or the Inspection House
    One of the earliest innovations in prison reform, Bentham's plan for the model prison allowed the guards to constantly observe their prisoners. This work laid out the method for implementing his plan and also his emphasis on rehabilitating as well as punishing the criminal.
    Book. 1791
  14. [External Resource] The Trial of John Taylor, Commonly Called Barm-Jock, for the Supposed Crime of Being the Principal Ringleader of the Riots, which Took Place in Edinburgh, June 6, 1792
    This short work contains a trial report of John Taylor who allegedly led the riots in Edinburgh in June 1792. The book contains a number of depositions from the case and the jury's verdict of not guilty as well as the author's belief that the entire trial was a farce.
    Book. 1792
  15. [External Resource] The Monk: A Romance
    Ambrosio is a well-respected monk in Spain during the time of the Inquisition. This novel traces his downfall from piety to lust, rape, and murder. Once caught by the Spanish Inquisition and given the death sentence, he makes a pact with the devil. Characteristics of the gothic novel and of the historic English mistrust of Roman Catholicism are seen throughout the book.
    Book. 1796
  16. [External Resource] Reports of Cases Adjudged in the Court of King's Bench: From Hilary Term, the 14th of George III. 1774, to Trinity Term, the 18th of George III. 1778. Both Inclusive
    This is the second edition of a previous volume. It covers predominantly civil cases, but also includes a number of criminal cases as well that appeared before the King's bench over a four year span. The trial reports focus on the legal arguments presented before the court in each case,
    Book. 1800
  17. [First] Report of the Committee of the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline, and for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders.
    In this report issued from the Committee of the Society, the group shares their grievances with the prison conditions and the increasing rate of juvenile delinquency. The committee offers strong suggestions for prison and societal reform with optimism that their suggestions will bring the needed change.
    Book. 1818
  18. [External Resource] An Essay on Crimes and Punishments
    This text was originally published in Italian as Dei delitti e delle pene. It presents detailed explanations of the rights and laws relating to punishment along with the degrees and classifications of crimes. Also discussed are evidence and proof of crimes and the types of punishments given.
    Book. 1819
  19. [Second] Report of the Committee of the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline, and for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders.
    In the preface, this report includes notes from a general meeting of the Subscribers and Friends to the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline and for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders that was held in May 1820. This book is in response to the first report given two years prior on the reception of the ideas offered and the continued rates of crime among children and youth.
    Book. 1820
  20. The Third Report of the Committee of the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline, and for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders
    This report, the third of a series, also includes meeting notes, and focuses more attention on the necessary reform of prison discipline. Included is a large appendix documenting general information about a number of specific prisons in England, along with documentation of correspondence with other countries and some other miscellaneous information.
    Book. 1821
  21. Mornings at Bow Street. A selection of the most humourous and entertaining reports which have appeared in the Morning Herald with twenty-one illustrative drawings by George Cruikshank.
    This collection makes light of a great number of news stories that appeared in the Morning Herald in the early 19th century. The author took the original stories and compiled them after making "some necessary enlargements and corrections, and in a somewhat more finished state than the rapid demands of a daily paper allowed." Included are illustrations that add to the humor of this collection.
    Book. 1824
  22. The Newgate Calendar [Vol. 1]
    The Newgate Calendar [Vol. 1]; Comprising Interesting Memoirs of the Most Notorious Characters who have been Convicted of Outrages on the Laws of England since the Commencement of the Eighteenth Century; with Occasional Anecdotes and Observations, Speeches, Confessions, and Last Exclamation of Sufferers.
    Book. 1824
  23. Use of the dead to the living: An appeal to the public and to the legislature, on the necessity of affording dead bodies to the schools of anatomy, by legislative enactment
    Mackenzie reflects upon the need to study anatomy in order to understand diseases and enhance the study of medicine. The author states that it is necessary for doctors and surgeons to be able to study human organs in order to have a full understanding of anatomy, diseases that pervade the body, and how to operate properly. Based on this medical discussion, the author goes on to discuss the historical background of human dissection, the laws and punishments that were associated with it, and how laws against exhumation led to secretive exhumations for medical purposes.
    Article. 1824
  24. [External Resource] The Newgate Calendar vol. 2
    This text includes the memoirs of notorious English criminals held in Newgate Prison in the 18th century. Two attorneys recorded these anecdotes, observations, speeches and confessions by the criminals.
    Book. 1825
  25. [External Resource] A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors from the Earliest Period to the year 1783, with Notes and other Illustrations
    This collection was published in twenty-one volumes. In Volume 19, the trials of nineteen people for murder, assault, perjury, forgery, rebellion, trespass, libel and treason are described in detail and presented in chronological order.
    Book. 1826
  26. [External Resource] Limbird's Edition of the British Novelist; Forming a Choice Collection of the Best Novels in the English Language, Embellished with Engravings. Vol. 1. "The Mysteries of Udolpho" and "A Sicilian Romance"
    In The Mysteries of Udolpho, the orphaned heroine is imprisoned in a medieval fortress; this novel delves into characters' psychological states. The second novel, A Sicilian Romance, explores Sicily's castles and convents in a way that reveals the aristocracy’s shame.
    Book. 1826
  27. [External Resource] The Adventures of Caleb Williams; Or, Things as They Are, Vol. 2
    Godwin's famous novel is the fictional and dystopian view of Caleb Williams, the son of a peasant. He is the secretary to a wealthy man who is accused of a crime and then murders his accuser. When Caleb discovers the truth, the man frames him, and Caleb, though innocent, is convicted, imprisoned, and tormented after his escape.
    Book. 1830
  28. Skillman's New York Police Reports.
    In this book, the author seeks to educate the public about the "art and devices which are resorted to by the idle and iniquitous" for not only enlightenment but also amusement.
    Book. 1830
  29. The schoolmaster's experience in Newgate [Parts 1-2]
    Wall describes the life of criminals, particularly thieves, drawing upon his experience at Newgate prison. He focuses on the character of criminals, both adult and juvenile, the sentences they've received, and their views of punishment. In Part 2, Wall discusses London's Old Bailey court and the areas in need of improvement. Specifically, he mentions the effect judicial influence has on sentences. He also focuses on hurried trials and the need for a court of appeals.
    Article. 1832
  30. The schoolmaster's experience in Newgate [Parts 3-5]
    A continuation of Wall's article about the lives of criminals from Newgate prison and the situation of the Old Bailey court. Part 3 focuses on the need for an appeals court. Part 4 details pardon powers. In the last section, Wall details different types of criminals, such as housebreaker, pickpockets, etc. and describes their traits.
    Article. 1832
  31. The Old Bailey experience
    Wall discusses the current situation of English penal law, and the necessary revisions that need to be made. He points out the flaws in the justice system by discussing the lack of distinct separation between felonies and misdemeanors, the lack of a Court of Appeals, the nature of trials at Old Bailey, and the disparity in punishments for similar crimes.
    Article. 1834
  32. The United States Criminal Calendar...
    The United States Criminal Calendar: or an Awful Warning to the Youth of America; Being an Account of the Most Horrid Murders, Piracies, Highway Robberies, etc. etc.
    Book. 1835
  33. [External Resource] Oliver Twist
    This novel's central theme is the hardship of the lower class. Oliver was a pauper child who was treated badly at a workhouse. He escaped to London, where he received an 'education' from the gang of Fagin.
    Book. 1837
  34. [External Resource] The History of the Life of Jonathan Wild, The Great. To Which is Added A Contemporary Life of Jonathan Wild.
    The story of the British rogue, Jonathan Wild, is chronicled here from birth to death.
    Book. 1840
  35. Going to see a man hanged
    Thackeray recounts his personal experience as well as the public's reaction to a public execution at Newgate prison. The execution detailed is of Courvoisier, of whom another article about his crime is included in this collection. The crowd's demeanor while waiting for the hanging is described in detail; Thackerary adds his personal comments and feelings about the experience.
    Article. 1840
  36. The condemned cells: From the notebook of the ordinary of Newgate [Chapters I-III]
    Wall describes the experiences of the ordinary (minister) of Newgate prison with various types of criminals, particularly those on death row. Crimes such as forgery and robbery are detailed (throughout various the chapters) and prison life is also discussed.
    Article. 1840
  37. [External Resource] American Criminal Trials vol. 2
    This volume describes criminal trials in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York and Pennsylvania between the years 1778-1798. It includes details about trials for murder, espionage, the improper conduct of an Army officer and aiding and abetting Benedict Arnold.
    Book. 1841
  38. Popular admiration for great thieves
    Mackay recounts the lives of renowned thieves throughout Europe, including Robin Hood, Jack Sheppard, and Dick Turpin. Bandits such as these were admired and portrayed in penny theatres throughout Europe. Their acts of thievery brought them fame and admiration from the people.
    Article. 1841
  39. The condemned cells: From the notebook of the ordinary of Newgate [Chapters IV-VIII]
    Wall provides detail accounts of various crimes through the experiences of the ordinary (minister) of Newgate prison. Chapter IV deals with the crime of poisoning and the trial that followed for the particular case discussed. Chapter V recounts the story of a criminal found guilty of arson. Chapter VI describes an account of brothers accused of robbery; Chapter VII deals with the racial prejudices found in the prison. Lastly, Chapter VIII recounts the story of a swindler (these chapters are in continuation from Volume 22).
    Article. 1841
  40. The condemned cells: From the notebook of the ordinary of Newgate [Chapters IX-X]
    Wall continues to describe various accounts of crime and the perpetrators. Chapter IX describes the crime of burglary and murder; Chapter X deals with the crime of receiving stolen goods, and discusses their guilt as well as punishments that fit this crime (these chapters are in continuation from Volumes 22 and 23).
    Article. 1841
  41. [External Resource] Jane Eyre
    Jane Eyre is a fictionalized autobiography of the author, who is orphaned at a young age and put in the custody of her cruel aunt. An escape leads her to the Lowood Institution, and she is trained to be a teacher, just as Charlotte was at the Cowan Bridge Institute. The rest of the book follows her teaching posts, including with the child of Mr. Rochester, where some romantic sparks light up.
    Book. 1847
  42. Trial of Professor John W. Webster, for the Murder of Doctor George Parkman. Reported Exclusively for the N.Y. Daily Globe.
    This very detailed report includes information on the trial, sentence, and imprisonment of John W. Webster for the murder of Dr. George Parkman.
    Pamphlet. 1850
  43. The philosophy of murder
    Paget states that the old styles of theft and murder are no longer occurring, but rather, poisoning is on the rise (especially among the poor). Specific reasons are provided for why this is the case. Furthermore, he states that this crime often goes unpunished because it is quite often difficult to prove (provides statistics of this crime) and Paget goes on to advocate for harsh sentences for the crime of poisoning, stating that capital punishment should be retained.
    Article. 1851
  44. [External Resource] Tales of Mystery, Imagination, & Humour: and Poems
    This collection of Poe tales includes the three famous Auguste Dupin detective stories: The Murders in the Rue Morgue, The Mystery of Marie Roget, and The Purloined Letter. Dupin is an exemplary detective who applies reason to his crime cases. The first story is a locked room murder; the second is fiction based on the real murder of Mary Cecilia Rogers; and the third is the page-turning search for the culprit that stole from the Queen.
    Book. 1852
  45. [External Resource] Bleak House
    This novel explores the author's frustration with the British legal system through a mixture of fiction and reality. It also boasts one of the first detectives to be in British fiction.
    Book. 1852-1853
  46. Suicide in life and literature
    Lewes examines how suicide is portrayed in daily life as well as in literature. He uses medical essays to discount the common claim that suicide is always committed by madmen and is a criminal act.
    Article. 1857
  47. [External Resource] The Novels of Charles Brockden Brown, Consisting of Wieland; or, The Transformation. Arthur Mervyn; or, Memoirs of the Year 1793. Edgar Huntly; or, Memoirs of a Sleep-Walker. Jane Talbot. Ormond; or, The Secret Witness. Clara Howard; or, The Enthusiam of Love. With a Memoir of the Author. Vol. 5
    Brown has a way of combining fictional characters and real historical situations, and draws on subjects such as the world of commerce and personal identity.
    Book. 1859
  48. [External Resource] The Marble Faun: or, The Romance of Monte Beni
    This novel, set in Rome, confronts the relationship between the real and the fake in life through its display in the world of art. It is a guidebook for Roman tourists, the story of a murder, and a parable to the Fall of Man.
    Book. 1860
  49. Thieves and thieving
    Holland, a clergyman, recounts his experiences ministering to thieves and writes of his accounts in order to gain an understanding of the nature of crime. He discusses the lifestyle, mindset, language, and organizational structure of thieves, as well as the measures taken by society to deter these crimes, namely prison. Through his experience, he deduces the causes of crime and elaborates on them in this article.
    Article. 1860
  50. [External Resource] Lady Audley's Secret
    This book created quite a stir when it surfaced and rebelled against the typical stereotype of the Victorian woman. The plot includes murder, madness, bigamy, adultery, arson, blackmail; the list can go on.
    Book. 1862
  51. On the treatment of female convicts
    This article examines different aspects of female criminals. Carpenter discusses the characteristics of female convicts, such as the effect that they have on children they raise, their effect on society. Treatment of female convicts in prison, and what becomes of them afterwards. Statistics of female crime are also provided.
    Fraser's Magazine 67. Jan-June (1863): 31-46.; Article. 1863
  52. The science of garotting and housebreaking
    Holland describes the crime of garroting and robbery in London during the 19th century. He discusses the tactics, tools, methods, and types of items thieves normally sought.
    Article. 1863
  53. [External Resource] Report of the Council of Hygiene and Public Health of the Citizens' Association of New York upon the sanitary condition of the City
    The report includes instructions to the physicians who served as public health inspectors and were each assigned to assess the sanitary conditions and diseases in a particular ward in New York City. The findings of these inspections are then provided in rates of illnesses and deaths in the city. Recommendations for how to improve sanitary conditions and prevent the spread of diseases are also a part of the report.
    Book. 1865
  54. [External Resource] Celebrated Naval and Military Trials
    This text describes the trials of notable British naval and military officers. Included, among others, are those who participated in the mutiny on The Bounty and Captain Kidd, who had a Royal Commission despite being a pirate. (Limited preview)
    Book. 1866
  55. Criminal women
    The nature of women criminals in London- the why and how of what they do- are discussed. Owen compares the differences between men and women criminals, and goes on to describe why women become criminals, as well as the types of criminals they become. She names a lack of education and a young woman's upbringing as leading causes of a life of crime for women.
    Article. 1866
  56. A note on pauperism
    The conditions of pauperism in London are discussed in this article by Nightingale. She focuses on why and how people come to be paupers, and what can be done to help prevent pauperism. The labor situation in London is discussed in detail. Florence Nightingale is best known as the English nurse who ushered in modern nursing.
    Article. 1869
  57. The decay of murder
    Stephen discusses how the act of murder has lost its sensationalism due to the uniformity of society. He focuses on the lack of originality in society and how this has changed the nature of murder and people's reaction to it. He ends the article signed "The Cynic."
    Article. 1869
  58. [External Resource] The Dangerous classes of New York and twenty years' work among them
    Brace describes several causes of crime in New York including weak marriages, overcrowding and intemperance and identifies different groups among the poor within the city. He addresses the causes of juvenile pauperism and crime specifically and attributes the success of his Children's Aid Society to its focus on teaching self-help and industriousness.
    Book. 1872
  59. [External Resource] The Nether Side of New York; or, the Vice, Crime and Poverty of the Great Metropolis
    This work chronicles the crime in New York, from 1868 to 1871. Crapsey, a journalist for the newspaper The Galaxy, seeks to provide the public with his observations and conclusions about the Nether side of New York.
    Book. 1872
  60. [External Resource] The Moonstone: A Novel
    Rachel Verinder inherits the large Indian diamond called the Moonstone on her eighteenth birthday from her corrupt uncle. The Moonstone is valuable and holds religious significance. Three Indian Hindus have dedicated their lives to recovering the diamond. Rachel wears the diamond at her birthday party for all to see, and it is stolen that night. The police are suspicious of a few people, including Rachel.
    Book. 1874
  61. [External Resource] The Beecher Trial: A Review of the Evidence
    As defendant in a criminal case, Henry Ward Beecher reviews the evidence of his own trial after the jury was unable to reach a verdict regarding the charges of adultery leveled against him.
    Book. 1875
  62. Argument of Franklin B. Gowen, Esq. of Counsel for the Commonwealth in the Case of The Commonwealth vs. Thomas Munley...
    Argument of Franklin B. Gowen, Esq. of Counsel for the Commonwealth in the Case of The Commonwealth vs. Thomas Munley, Indicted in the Court of Oyer and Terminer of Schuylkill County, PA., for the Murder of Thomas Sanger, a Mining Boss, at Raven Run, on September 1st, 1875.
    Pamphlet. 1876
  63. The punishment of infanticide
    Fyffe argues that the proper punishment for the crime of infanticide ought to be imprisonment, not death, since no jury would convict a woman to death. Particular cases of infanticide are discussed, as well as others' viewpoints on the proper punishment for such a crime. Fyffe states that the punishment ought to be rendered to do two things: it should be rendered according to the guilt of the offender, and it should work as a deterrent for others.
    Article. 1877
  64. Detectives of Europe and America, or Life in the Secret Service...
    Detectives of Europe and America, or Life in the Secret Service: A Selection of Celebrated Cases in Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Russia, Poland, Egypt, and America. A Revelation of Struggles and Triumphs of the most Renowned Detectives on the Globe for the Past Twenty-Five Years. Profusely Illustrated.
    Book. 1879
  65. [External Resource] Great Expectations
    A story of a boy named Pip, who grows up with no expectations. After he inherits a great sum of money, he learns that great expectations are not as great as they seem.
    Book. 1880
  66. The Murder of the Geogles and Lynching of the Fiend Snyder by the Otherwise Peaceable and Law-Abiding Citizens of Bethlehem, Pa., And its Vicinity.
    A family is asleep after an evening of entertaining guests. The father, Jacob Geogle works in the Coleman ore mines nearby and has let one of his co-workers, Snyder, board with him this last half of the year. Little did he know that Snyder would develop strong lust for his fourteen year-old daughter, and then murder Jacob and his wife in their sleep. This incidence was the first time the lynch law was used in Pennsylvania to punish a criminal.
    Pamphlet. 1881
  67. [External Resource] Chap-books of the Eighteenth Century: With Facsimiles, Notes, and Introduction
    Ashton's compilation of chapbooks provides a window into the past. These books had a wide distribution, and more people read them than read newspapers. Reading them sheds light on the thoughts and tastes of people in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
    Book. 1882
  68. A sketch of the criminal law
    Stephen provides an examination of English criminal law. He focuses on the different types of criminal courts, their procedures, and also focuses on particular types of crimes, namely murder and theft. This is a historical look at particular aspects of English criminal law.
    Article. 1882
  69. The Punishment and Prevention of Crime
    Sir Edmund F. Du Cane, who served as Chairman of Commissioners of Prisons, Chairman of Directors of Prisons, Inspector-General of Military Prisons, and Surveyor-General of Prisons, discusses the history of criminal punishment, the role of prisons, the reintroduction of former prisoners back into society, and juvenile delinquency and its prevention.
    Book. 1885
  70. [External Resource] Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
    Dr. Jekyll creates a drug that purifies himself but separates his evil side into the character of Mr. Hyde. This novel explores the way that people are made of contrary emotions of good and evil.
    Book. 1886
  71. Danger! A True History of a Great City's Wiles and Temptations. The Veil Lifted, and Light Thrown on Crime and its causes and Criminals and Their Haunts.
    This book is a comprehensive look at crime in New York City in the late 19th century. The authors write: "Despite the efficiency of our police and the activity of our many admirable reforming and reclaiming systems, crime still abounds, while the great tide of social impurity continues to roll one with unabated velocity." (p. iii) The authors go into depth in the history of prisons and punishment in the City, the activity of gangs, historical criminals, shop-lifting, robbery, abortion, divorce, black-mail, gambling, and slums. There is also a chapter in which the authors compare and contrast the City's detectives with the detectives in fiction. The book ends with stories of a number of interesting cases.
    Book. 1886
  72. Workhouse cruelties
    Twining's article calls for reforms in "Poor Law management" in terms of workhouses. She describes the cruelty against the sick, providing examples of the beatings that took place, and in some cases, deaths that occurred. She examines the need for better officials in the workhouses as well as the need for better rules for the poor who enter the workhouses (in terms of there coming and going).
    Article. 1886
  73. [External Resource] A Tragic Mystery: From the Diary of Inspector Byrnes
    Based on the diary of Inspector Thomas Byrnes, this text tells the story of the murder of wineshop owner Louis Hanier in New York and the search for and capture of his killer.
    Book. 1887
  74. The dock life of East London
    Potter describes the docks in East London and their operations. The types of men who work the docks are examined, typically those from the lower class of society.
    Article. 1887
  75. [External Resource] The Picture of Dorian Gray
    The sole novel of the author, The Picture of Dorian Gray is exactly as the title suggests. It starts with Dorian as a young boy and then progresses into his fall into murder and deception.
    . 1890
  76. [External Resource] The Twin Hells: A Thrilling Narrative of Life in the Kansas and Missouri Penitentiaries
    In this work, John Reynolds writes a first hand account of his experiences in the Kansas Penitentiaries. Convicted of mail fraud, Reynolds was sentenced to serve eighteen months in the Kansas penitentiary. He later interviewed and spoke to different convicts as part of his larger examination of the Missouri Penitentiary system
    Book. 1890
  77. Child-life insurance: A reply to the Rev. Benjamin Waugh
    Marshall refutes Benjamin Waugh's notion that children were being killed for insurance money by working-class parents in England. Marshall uses census data and statistics to discount these claims. Waugh was a social reformer who promoted legislative reform to protect children in nineteenth century England.
    Article. 1890
  78. Identification by finger-tips
    Galton discusses the use of fingerprints to identify persons, naming specific instances where it could be utilized, such as in criminal investigations. He explains the methods behind employing fingerprints as an identification tool (illustrations are provided) in detail.
    Article. 1891
  79. Hypnotism and humbug
    Hart discusses experiments with hypnotism and discusses how hypnotism can be used to have people perform criminal acts. He also makes mention of fortune-tellers, telepathy, etc.
    Article. 1892
  80. [External Resource] The Mystery of a Hansom Cab
    This Australian murder mystery novel is set in Melbourne. The driver of a Hansom cab finds his passenger dead, and evidence points to Brian Fitzgerald. Fitzergerald, to protect the reputation of a young woman, does not disclose where he was at the time of the murder.
    Book. 1893
  81. Maltreatment of wives
    The lack of protection for women abused by their husbands is examined. Crawford discusses the lack of strong punishments by the courts for husbands who abuse or kill their wives contributes to the lack of protection these women have. In addition, Crawford provides listing of specific crimes of this nature and the punishments the men received. Lastly, she discusses how children in homes where wives are abused have a tendency to grow up and be involved in crime themselves.
    Article. 1893
  82. Twenty-Two Years in State Prisons.
    This autobiographical story is about the author's struggle between succumbing to good or evil and is split up into two parts: the dark side of his life and the light side of his life. Carr shares about his rough childhood and the things that led up to his life of crime and frequent jail visits. The transition in the story comes when Carr meets a Christian and decides to end his struggles by also becoming a Christian.
    Pamphlet. 1893
  83. [External Resource] Daniel Deronda
    This novel was controversial in the time it was written because it is about the relationship between an Englishwoman and a Jew. It reveals the anti-Semitic attitudes of Victorian culture.
    Book. 1894
  84. Known to the police
    Spearman discusses ways in which to identify and capture "habitual criminals" in England. Specifically, the Bertillon anthropometric system, photographs, and fingerprinting are discussed in detail.
    Article. 1894
  85. [External Resource] "The Jukes"
    "The Jukes" is a pseudonym used by the author to refer to all of the forty-two family names of the prisoners he studied. Following the methods of natural science, the author examines the physical, mental, moral and ancestral characteristics of 233 prisoners in order to learn the best way to correct criminal behavior.
    Book. 1895
  86. [External Resource] Tess of the D'Ubervilles, A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented
    This novel goes through the downfall of the title character. Tess is a hard-working girl from a peasant family who ends up being a convicted criminal at the end of her life.
    Book. 1895
  87. Professional Criminals of America: New and Revised Edition.
    The late chief or police of New York City and author of this book hoped that the publication would deter people from crime. He explained the methods of American professional criminals and gave details on 204 specific criminals. Additional information is also given on specific laws per state on punishment of criminals and a list of state prisons, penitentiaries, and reformatories.
    Book. 1895
  88. Famous trials [1896]
    Atlay recounts the story of Madeleine Smith's murder trial, who was accused of poisoning a former fiance with arsenic. Atlay describes the story of the accused, along with the proceedings of the trial and its verdict.
    Article. 1896
  89. Crime in current literature
    The author discusses how literature (novels and plays) about crime and criminals may increases the public's enchantment with it. The author goes on to discuss how much of the literature of the time pertains to this topic. Detective stories are of particular interest in this article. The author is greatly concerned with the moral repercussions that this literature has on society.
    Article. 1897
  90. Famous trials [1897]
    Atlay recounts the story of Courvoisier's trial for the murder of Lord William Russell. Details of the murder and the trial of Courvoisier are provided. Courvoisier was found guilty and sentenced to death for his crime.
    Article. 1897
  91. [External Resource] The Scarlet Letter: A Romance
    This novel follows the implications of the adultery and illegitimate pregnancy of Hester Prynne, who is ostracized and forced to wear her shame on her clothing in the form of a scarlet letter 'A'.
    Book. 1898
  92. [External Resource] The Woman in White: A Novel
    One of the first "sensational novels," this is the story of an art instructor who encounters a mysterious woman in white and helps her in her state of distress. When he takes up a new position in Cumberland, he learns more of the woman.
    Book. 1899
  93. A crime and its causes
    Stratham discusses the legal issues of abortion in England during this time. The author provides details about the criminal charges physicians who perform such procedures (specific cases are mentioned). In addition, Stratham examines why women chose to have this done.
    Article. 1899
  94. [External Resource] Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
    First published in a magazine series, the collection of stories features the author's famous detective Sherlock Holmes.
    Book. 1900
  95. [External Resource] Darkness and Daylight, Or, Lights and Shadows of New York Life
    This text includes the reports of a woman, a journalist and a detective on life in New York. With the aim of depicting the city realistically, these reports describe poverty and crime. The book contains 250 illustrations drawn from photographs also included with the purpose of depicting the city realistically.
    Book. 1900
  96. [External Resource] The Hound of the Baskervilles: Another Adventure of Sherlock Holmes
    This full length Sherlock Holmes novel, narrated by his assistant Dr. Watson, documents their investigation of the supposed curse on the Baskerville family.
    Book. 1901
  97. [External Resource] A Study in Scarlet and The Sign of Four
    A Study in Scarlet is the first novel to feature the character of Sherlock Holmes. The first part of the novel includes the introduction of Dr. Watson to Holmes and the resolution of a case. The second half jumps to the United States and the Mormon community's involvement in kidnapping, murder, and enslavement. The Sign in Four is the second novel of the series and has a complex plot that humanizes the detective in a way not done in the first novel.
    Book. 1902
  98. [External Resource] The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes
    This is a collection of short stories written about adventures of the detective Sherlock Holmes, and ends with his final adventure.
    Book. 1903
  99. [External Resource] The Return of Sherlock Homes
    The title character was revived in this set of short stories, set in 1894 before his death. This collection ends with the detective's retirement and his request that no more stories be published about him.
    Book. 1903
  100. [External Resource] McTeague
    This novel reveals the depths of greed in the characters of Mac, Trina, and Marcus. These characters all had their battles with greed after Trina won the lottery.
    Book. 1905
  101. [External Resource] Vanity Fair: A Novel Without a Hero
    This satire of early 19th century England is the story of the fortunes and misfortunes of Amelia, Becky, and the men in their lives.
    Book. 1906
  102. [External Resource] The Literature of Roguery, Vol. 1
    This detailed study of the genre of roguery in literature first defines the genre and then follows the anti-hero through history. The first volume addresses earlier types of literature and authors.
    Book. 1907
  103. [External Resource] The Literature of Roguery, Vol. 2
    A continuation of F.W. Chandler's study that addresses specific authors classified in the genre of roguery in literature during the 18th and 19th centuries.
    Book. 1907
  104. [External Resource] An Anarchist Woman
    Hapgood tells the story of Marie, a 23-year old factory hand, servant girl and anarchist. Her biography is written as a natural history to explore the circumstances that create a social rebel.
    Book. 1909
  105. [External Resource] His Last Bow: A Reminiscence of Sherlock Holmes
    This collection contains eight Sherlock Holmes stories published between 1908 and 1917.
    Book. 1917
  106. [External Resource] The Newgate Calendar (edited)
    This edition of the Newgate Calendar includes much more material than other recent versions. It is based upon the 1926 edition published by the Navarre Society with additional material collected from other sources. The text contains the memoirs of 717 notorious English criminals and moral instruction about the consequences of wrongdoing. The Newgate Calendar was so popular it would have been found in most English homes between 1750 and 1850.
    Book. 1926, 2003?
  107. [External Resource] Crime and its Punishment in Provincial Pennsylvania
    In the seventeenth century, the Swedish South Company and the Dutch West India Company were responsible for trying and punishing criminal acts in the area that would become the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania before the English assumed control. These companies followed the rules of their respective home countries in handling crime and its punishment.
    Article. 1935
  108. [External Resource] Crime and Punishment
    This website contains the contemporary crime records of Powys Country, Wales. These records chronicle the crimes and the way the offenders were dealt with by the authorities in the counties of Montgomeryshire, Radnorshire, and Breconshire.
    Website. 1999
  109. [External Resource] Charles Booth and the Survey into Life and Labour in London (1886-1903)
    This online archive is a searchable resource which gives access to archived material from the Booth collections of the British Library of Political and Economic Science. The Booth collection contains Booth's original data from the 1886-1903 survey into the life and labor of London.
    Website. 2000?-
  110. [External Resource] Crime and the Victorians
    Professor Clive Emsley's article discusses the statistics, sensational crimes, criminal classes, penal policies and detective policing related to crime in Victorian Britain. The website provides additional information on people and events as well as links to related articles.
    Website. 2001
  111. [External Resource] Shooting Back
    In this article, producer and director Eric Stange discusses his development of a documentary about the infamous death of Dr. George Parkham, a Boston physician who was beaten to death and dismembered by a Harvard professor named John Webster.
    Article. 2001
  112. [External Resource] The Victorian Dictionary
    This website presents a searchable index of Lee Jackson's favorite selections from his work The Victorian Dictionary. The Victorian Dictionary is an illustrated A to Z guide to the Victorian London.
    Website. 2001
  113. [External Resource] These Hours of Backward Clearness
    In this two part article, author and historian Richard Wightman Fox discusses his use of the backward-moving narrative in his new work, Trials of Intimacy, a narrative based off the study of the Beecher-Tilton Scandal of 1874-75
    Article. 2001
  114. [External Resource] The Metropolitan Police
    The Victorian Web is resource for literature, history and culture in the age of Victoria.
    Website. 2002
  115. [External Resource] Before the Needles: The History of Executions in America Before Lethal Injection
    This site describes the history of executions in America before the use of lethal injection. It lists executions by state, race, age, crime committed, method used, and whether it was a federal or state, or military execution. It also discusses illegal executions, such as lynching. The site's information was developed from the National Science Foundation funded project, "Executions in the United States, 1608-1987: The ESPY File", Espy, M. Watt, and John Ortiz Smykla, Principal Investigators.
    Website. 2002-
  116. [External Resource] Highwaymen of the Peak
    This article on the BBC website describes the history of highwaymen in Derbyshire, East Midlands, UK. It provides information on the crimes of famous highwaymen such as Dick Turpin and Black Harry and the punishments they received.
    Website. 2003
  117. [External Resource] Murder at Harvard
    This website presents historical information about the murder of Dr. George Parkman at Harvard Medical College in Boston in November 1849. It provides descriptions of people and events related to the case, including the man convicted and hanged for the crime, Harvard professor John Webster.
    Website. 2003
  118. [External Resource] The Complete Newgate Calendar
    The Tartlton law library's searchable website contains all five volumes of the Newgate Calendar, as well as a general index of the Calendar.
    Book. 2003
  119. [External Resource] Victorian Detective Fiction
    This website makes an argument that the genre of Victorian detective fiction includes more than the Sherlock Holmes stories. The author goes through the change from sympathy for the criminal to detective story and sensational novel.
    Website. 2003
  120. [External Resource] Early Modern Crime and the Law: Glossary
    This website is a glossary of Early Modern Crime in England and Wales. This glossary was compiled using a number of sources in print and online.
    Website. 2004
  121. [External Resource] The Word on the Street
    The National Library of Scotland's online archive of nearly 1,800 broadsides allows for researchers to see what the "word on the street," was in Scotland during 1650 to 1910. Each broadside comes with commentary, and researchers have access to the full text.
    Pamphlet. 2004
  122. [External Resource] Crime and Punishment
    The National Archives site presents digital images of crimes and punishment for the general public to access. Images include letters from Jack the Ripper, and Catherine Howard, as well as Guy Fawkes' signed confession.
    Website. 2004-
  123. [External Resource] Law and Order in Enlightenment Edinburgh
    This article on the BBC website describes the establishment of the Town Guard in Edinburgh, Scotland in the late seventeenth century to fight the rise in crime in the city. It also describes how the Town Guard's methods caused it to fall out of favor and be replaced by the Edinburgh Police Force in 1805.
    Website. 2004?-
  124. [External Resource] Digital History
    This digital history's website presents a multimedia history of the United States from the Revolution to the present. This site was designed and developed to support history teachers and professors, and provides a interactive modules to teach history.
    Website. 2006
  125. [External Resource] Reconstructing Rachel: A Case of Infanticide in the Eighteenth-Century Mid-Atlantic and the Vagaries of Historical Research
    Laura Keenan's essay is an archival journey to learn more about Rachel Francisco, a woman with modest means, accused of infanticide in Delaware Valley, and how her life intertwined with one of the Valley's most prominent men, her defense attorney, John Dickinson.
    Article. 2006
  126. [External Resource] The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, London 1674 to 1834
    This searchable website contains the largest body of texts detailing the lives of non-elites in Old Bailey, London. These texts are contained within the accounts pertaining to the over 100,000 criminal trails heard in London's central criminal court.
    Book. 2006
  127. [External Resource] The Story of The Harris's List of Covent Garden Ladies
    The article on the BBC website describes the handbook of London prostitutes that was published each year between 1757 and 1795 and is estimated to have sold 250,000 copies.
    Article. 2006
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