11-15 of 19 Items.
- Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, 1769-1821.
[Portraits] of Napoleon and illustrations of his military engagements.
Napoleon rose to power in the wake of the French Revolution, winning key military victories against the British; in 1798 he commanded an expedition to Egypt to cut off the British trade routes to India (015-017). While there, the French began the study of Egyptology and found the Rosetta Stone. Napoleon returned to France and was voted consul for life in 1802, and then crowned Napoleon I, Emperor of France, in 1804 (031-035). While Emperor, he centralized the government, established a National Bank and police force, and codified the laws into the Napoleonic Code. From 1804-1812 he worked to build his Empire from the Atlantic to the Russian borders. He suffered a defeat at Trafalgar to the British navy in 1805 (037) and abdicated the throne, being exiled to Elba in 1814, from whence he reemerged to try to seize power once again (070), but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 (077-079) and exiled to the island of St. Helena where he died in 1821 (082). The portraits in the collection commemorate many of these events in Napoleon's life and military career.
- Newton, Isaac, Sir, 1642-1727.
[Manuscript] on miracles / [Isaac Newton].
Newton asserts that "Miracles are so called not because they are the works of God but because they happen seldom & for that reason create wonder." He proceeds to discuss the relation of these phenomena to natural philosophy and the opinions of Aristotle and Leibniz on "proving a Deity from the Phenomena of nature." He further states that all animal motion, even in people, is purely mechanical, and that God has created the world so perfectly, that it cannot fall into disorder. A natural philosopher and mathematician, Newton made contributions to the fields of optics, mechanics, and astronomy, inventing the first reflecting telescope in 1669. He was also interest in alchemy and theology, and corresponded with Leibniz in 1676 regarding calculus and infinite series. His master-work, Principia mathematica was published in 1687, after which time he worked for the Royal Mint. When he moved to London at the turn of the century, his niece Catherine Barton came to live with him and may have become romantically involved with Newton's friend and benefactor Charles Montagu, the earl of Halifax, who placed a 1706 codicil in his will leaving her money and jewels, and a later codicil (1713) leaving her the manor of Apscort in Surrey. These events may be referenced in the contract on the recto.
- Pasteur, Louis, 1822-1895.
[Letter] 1867 June 24, Paris [to] Ch. Raynal / Louis Pasteur.
The catalog note from the seller, Alwin Scheuer, states that this is an important letter regarding Pasteur's study of the diseases of silk worms. Pasteur published on germ theory and the need for antiseptic in surgery, demonstrating that microorganisms cause disease; he also developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax, and studied the fermentation process of beer and wine, and studied the process of "pasteurization" now named in his honor.
- Phillpotts, Eden, 1862-1960.
[Letter] 1919 December 5 [to] / Eden Phillpotts.
Phillpotts writes to thank the recipient for his courteous note. Phillpotts states that the book The sinews of war; a romance of London and the sea (1906) was written with Arnold Bennett and that they were approached with an offer for a "cheap edition" but Pinker, Bennett's agent, turned it down and now the book "had better be regarded as dead." In any case, Phillpotts opines, "the prices offered for translations... are never worth considering." In addition to collaborating on The statue, a story of international intrigue and mystery (1908) with Bennett, Phillpotts ouevre also includes mysteries, comedies, and narrative poems; these continued to be in print from the 1890s well into the 1930s.
- Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840.
[Manuscript] [c.1832] Synglosson: Fifth Book of Vocabularies of the Languages of Asia, Africa, Europe, & Polynesia, Philadelphia, PA / C.S. Rafinesque.
The Synglosson contains vocabulary lists documenting everything from "bread" and "bed" to "heaven" and "spirits." The represented languages with Rafinesque's notes include Chinese (015v), Japanese (021r), Arabic (027r), Polynesian (029v), Dutch (035r), Gipsy (011r), Celtic (012), Sumatran (058r), "Corean" (060v), Australian (061r, 085r, 090r) Indian (063v, 084r), Burmese (068r), Old English (048), Malayan (037r), and a list of Greek words derived from Hebrew and "akin to Oriental languages" (086r-088v). Rafinesque, a traveler, botanist, and linguist, wrote about his experiences and catalogued flora and fauna along with languages in his printed works, including his A life of travels and researches in North America and south Europe; or, Outlines of the life, travels and researches of C. S. Rafinesque... Containing his travels in North America and the south of Europe; the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean, Sicily, Azores, &c., from 1802 to 1835-with sketches of his scientific and historical researches &c. (1836).
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