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Abbey, David M. "The Thomas Jefferson Paternity Case." Nature 7 January 1999: 32.
According to Abbey, the DNA analysis of Y-chromosome haplotypes used by Foster et al. to evaluate Thomas Jefferson's alleged paternity of Eston Hemings Jefferson, the last child of his slave Sally Hemings, is impressive. However, the authors of the report did not consider all the data at hand in interpreting their results. Further collaborative data are needed to confirm that Jefferson did indeed father his slave's last child, as claimed in the title.
Alexander, Daryl Royster. "The Content of Jefferson's Character Is Revealed at Last, Or Is It?" New York Times 8 November 1998: 4.7.
The DNA study showed that Jefferson fathered Hemings' son Eston, which also proved the sexual relationship between Jefferson and Hemings existed. The article then gives the background of renowned Jefferson scholars and their unique perspectives on Jefferson and the truth behind the affair. It ends with the recalling part of a PBS interview of historians Ellis and Gordon-Reed, which asked them if they had a change of heart on the subject of the affair.
Boyd, Robert S, "DNA Proves Jefferson’s Paternity/President, Sally Hemings Had At Least One Child." Philadelphia Inquirer 1November 1998.
Branigin, William. "Historians' Report Attacks Hemings Link to Jefferson." Washington Post 13 April 2001: B9.
Reports on the release of the Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society study coupled with and contrasted with a White House reception celebrating Jefferson's birthday with members of the Hemings family.
Brokaw, Tom, and Bob Faw. "New Genetic Study Showing Thomas Jefferson May Have Fathered Child of one of His Slaves." NBC News Transcripts 2 November 1998.
Burstein, Andrew, Nancy Isenberg, Annette Gordon-Reed. "Three Perspectives on America's Jefferson Fixation." Nation 30 November 1998: 23-28.
These three scholars have an "informal colloquy" just before the DNA test results were announced.
Burton, Cynthia H. Jefferson Vindicated: Fallacies, Omissions, and Contradictions in the Hemings Genealogical Search. Keswick: Cynthia Burton, 2005.
Burton, who calls herself a "serious genealogist and historical researcher," presents an analysis of the DNA and its implications that rivals Annette Gordon-Reed's Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy in the scope of its coverage and details. In Burton's view, as James Bear says in the Foreword, the controversy is over an "alleged liaison," and the book "yet another effort in the ongoing struggle of defending Mr. Jefferson's honor." Key aspects of Burton's argument include Randolph Jefferson and the state of Jefferson's health.
Carroll, Joe, "DNA Makes it Self-evident that Jefferson Had Affair with Slave." Irish Times 2 November 1998.
Coates, Eyler Robert. Research Report on the Jefferson-Hemings Controversy: A Critical Analysis. Eyler Robert Coates, Sr. [rebuttal to the TJMF report]
Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation announced that it had reached a conclusion concerning the Jefferson-Hemings controversy. Their basic finding was that there is "a high probability that Thomas Jefferson fathered Eston Hemings, and that he most likely was the father of all six of Sally Hemings's children." However, an examination of this report and the methodology used in preparing it, shows it to be an unprofessional, unscientific accumulation of bias and prejudice, and an offense to the memory of the great man that this foundation was chartered to memorialize. The basic failure of the report derives from there being no rational and reasonable basis for evaluating evidence. The Research Findings of the Foundation's report may be divided into two parts: (1) a series of nine "historical and scientific facts" which the committee considered "uncontested," and (2) the interpretation of those facts in the form of commentary under each of the nine headings. The committee's "Research Findings and Implications" are a study in bias. Instead of presenting the various contradictory interpretations in their best possible light, weighing them against one another, and then providing reasons for choosing the one that is the most likely, the committee presented its findings as conclusions, and dismissed opposing possibilities, evidence, and interpretations out of hand.
Colquitt, Elaine. "Jeffersonian Scholars." (Letter to the Editor) New York Times 16 November 1998.
Corneliussen, Steven. "Have Scientific Data Proved Hemings-Jefferson Link?" Richmond Times-Dispatch 14 January 2007: E1.
Corneliussen disputes the entire basis of the “conception theory” by Neiman published in the William and Mary Quarterly, calling it “comically bogus.”
Davis, Gary. "The Thomas Jefferson Paternity Case." Nature 7 January 1999: 32.
According to Davis, if the data of Foster et al. are accurate, then any male ancestor in Jefferson's line, white or black, could have fathered Eston Hemings. This is because plantations were inbred communities, and the mixing of racial types was probably common.
Diamond, Diane, and Bob Faw. "Scientists at Oxford University in England Have Confirmed Through DNA Testing that Thomas Jefferson Fathered at Least One of Sally Hemings' Children." Philadelphia Inquirer 2 November 1998.
Dixon, Richard E. The Case against Thomas Jefferson: A Trial Analysis of the Evidence on Paternity. 2001.
The issue presented for analysis in this article is whether the results of the DNA tests and any relevant historical evidence establish together that Jefferson was the father of one or more of the children of Sally Hemings. Numerous historical treatments of whether Jefferson could be the father of slave children generally manipulate the data and inferences to achieve a desired conclusion. Dixon argues that the Monticello Research Committee report is an example of an attack on historical truth. Not only is the evidence manipulated, but also unsupported claims are created to fill the gaps concerning an obviously preferred conclusion.
"Doubts about Jefferson and Hemings: The Debate Goes On." American Heritage March 2002.
Douglas, David R. "Rebuttal Muddled Scientific Fact." Richmond Times-Dispatch 10 February 2007: A10.
Third in line after Corneliussen and Gordon-Reed.
Faust, Drew G. "In Jefferson-Hemings Tie, a Family's Pride; Unhappy Echo." (Letter to the Editor) New York Times 6 November 1998.
Fehn, Bruce. "Thomas Jefferson and Slaves: Teaching an American Paradox." Magazine of History 14.2 (2000): 24-25.
"While the Hemings-Jefferson relationship [on the heels of the DNA revelations] provides an excellent venue for teachers and students to scrutinize Jefferson's legacies and reflect upon America's biracial heritage, teachers should also seize the opportunity to discuss the humanity, individuality, and agency of Hemings and Jefferson's other slaves. . . . This article provides teachers and students with eleven primary sources for thinking about how Thomas Jefferson and his slaves together produced culture and community at Monticello and Jefferson's other plantations."
Fox, Margalit. "Winifred Bennett, 71, Is Dead; Proposed Jefferson DNA Tests." New York Times 15 October 2006.
Frank, Michele S. "Rethinking Jefferson, the Man and President; What 'Affair'?" (Letter to the Editor) New York Times
Goodman, Ellen. "Not even DNA tests can reveal how Sally felt." Houston Chronicle 8 November 1998.
It may be that every generation gets the Jefferson it deserves. The Jefferson of my childhood was the face on a nickel and Mount Rushmore, the signature on the Declaration of Independence. The Jefferson of today is one of DNA tests, sex, scandal, the Jefferson between the William and the Clinton. But now DNA tests have proved that the Jefferson of my childhood -- the third president of the United States -- had an "improper relationship" with Sally Hemings -- as if the relationship of master and slave were not improper enough. This Founding Father was the father of at least one of her children.
Gordon-Reed, Annette. "Let's Not Muddle Historical Fact." Richmond Times-Dispatch 18 January 2007: E5.
Reply to Corneliussen.
Hall, Allan, "Research Suggests Jefferson Fathered Slave Girl's Child." Scotsman 2 November 1998.
Hitchens, Christopher. "Jefferson-Clinton." Nation 30 November 1998.
Hitchens, Christopher. "What do Jefferson and Clinton have in common (besides randyness)? Answer: they're both protected by a group of credulous historians." Salon 18 November 1998.
Hodges, Sam. "Scholars: No Proof Jefferson Fathered Slave's Children." Mobile Register 13 April 2001.
Isler, Donald J. "Rethinking Jefferson, the Man and President; Half a Constituency." (Letter to the Editor) New York Times 2 November 1998.
"Jefferson 'did not father slave boy'." The Independent (London) 13 April 2001.
"Jefferson and Hemings redux." Washington Times 11 July 2001.
Jones, Thomas W. "The 'Scholars Commission' Report on the Jefferson-Hemings Matter: An Evaluation by Genealogical Proof Standards." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 89.3 (2001): 208-18.
Analysis of the Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society's Scholars Commission report.
Killian, Michael. "Panel Rebuts Jefferson-Hemings Theory." Chicago Tribune 13 April 2001.
Reports on publication of the Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society study doubting Jefferson's paternity.
Kuhner, Jeffrey T. "Bush Recognizes Black Jefferson Kin: Scholars Doubt Slave Child Story." Washington Times 13 April 2001.
Lamb, Yvonne Shinhoster. "Eugene Foster; Led Jefferson Paternity Study." Washington Post 25 July 2008: B7.
Obituary: "Dr. Foster began his genetic study of the Jefferson bloodline in 1996 at the suggestion of a friend who thought scientific testing might put an end to the dispute about whether America's third president sired black offspring."
Leary, Helen F. M. "Sally Heming's Children: A Genealogical Analysis of the Evidence." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 89.3 (2001): 165-207.
Leary, Helen F.M. Thomas Jefferson & Sally Hemings Research. Video uploaded 2011.
Leary talking about her research for her National Genealogical Society study.
Lord, Lewis. "The Tom-and-Sally Miniseries (cont.): Rallying around the Founding Father." U.S. News & World Report 18 January 1999: 24.
Marshall, Eliot. "Which Jefferson Was the Father?" Science 8 January 1999: 153-55.
Reports that Foster et al. are backing off the claim that the tests show that Jefferson IS the father of Eston and that they should have paid more attention to the kinds of criticism made by Harold Barger.
McCleskey, Ed. “In Jefferson, Black View of History Gets Due.” (Letter to the Editor) New York Times 4 November 1998.
McMurry, Rebecca L., and James F. McMurry. "The 1998 DNA Study." Anatomy of a Scandal: Thomas Jefferson and the Sally Story. Shippensburg: White Mane Books, 2002. 1-10.
The Jefferson-Hemings relationship is called a hoax in the very first lines.
Mills, Elizabeth Shown. "Editor's Corner: The Past is a Foreign Country." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 89.3 (2001): 163.
Murray, Barbra. "Jefferson's Secret Life." U.S. News & World Report 9 November 1998: 58-63.
James Callender accused Thomas Jefferson of fathering illegitimate children by one of his slaves, Sally Hemings. This charge of an affair between Jefferson and his slave was not easily dismissed then and even now. The DNA evidence removes any uncertainty that Thomas Jefferson had at least one son with Sally Hemings. The results of the scientific tests show an irrefutable DNA match between a male descendant of Sally Hemings and another man who can trace his lineage to Jefferson’s paternal uncle. The affirmation of the relationship between Jefferson and Hemings could incite a new examination of the American experience of slavery and of race relations. Furthermore, it may help bring together the contrasting views of blacks and whites of their common heritage.
Patton, Venetria K. “Narrating Competing Truths in the Thomas Jefferson-Sally Hemings Paternity Debate.” Black Scholar 29.4 (1999): 8-15.
The article offers an essential study of the issues at stake in examinations of the relationship between Jefferson and Hemings. The goal of this essay is “not to debate the paternity of Sally's children, but to use this historical debate to illustrate that history should be seen as and analyzed as the negotiation of competing narratives.” This essay investigates the idea that we are seeking to deconstruct the master narrative by indicating that there are an innumerable number of truths: “by moving beyond the narrative of dominance, previously silent narratives about Jefferson's fathering of Sally Herrings' children will be empowered. By bringing this other viewpoint to light, a third narrative, which is mutually constructed, can move us beyond superficial approaches to history. When European American historians come to terms with the fact that American history should be seen from the lens of multiple human perspectives, and not one singular perspective, a pluralistic perspective of the past in the form of a narrative of social equality will improve the state of intellectual scholarship.”
Peek, Laura. "Jefferson Child Theory Disputed." Times (London) 14 April 2001.
Petit, Charles. "The History That Lies in Men's Genes." U.S. News & World Report 9 November 1998: 63.
The use of Y chromosome testing to confirm the long-debated controversy over whether or not Jefferson fathered at least one slave child is among the more dramatic consequences of a scientific discovery early in this century done by American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan. Y-chromosomes carry a unique set of genes and, except for random mutations, pass down unchanged in males through the generations. The British labs that performed the Jefferson tests compared 19 markers; all matched exactly those found in a descendant of Field Jefferson, the president’s uncle, and a descendant of Eston Hemings Jefferson, Sally Hemings’s youngest son.
Randolph, Laura B. “The Thomas Jefferson/Sally Hemings Controversy: Did Jefferson Also Father Children by Sally Hemings’ Sister?” Ebony February 1999: 189-92.
Ringle, Ken. "The Secret Life of Mr. Jefferson: Scientists Now Confirm What Gossips Long Spread." Washington Post 7 November 1998.
Rivera, Geraldo, and Bob Faw, "Oxford Researchers Say DNA Evidence Proves Thomas Jefferson Fathered a Son with His Slave Mistress Sally Hemings." CNBC News Transcripts 2 November 1998.
Rosellini, Lynn. "Cutting the Great Man Down to Size." U.S. News & World Report 9 November 1998: 66.
Rothman, Joshua D. “Can the ‘Character Defense’ Survive? Measuring Polar Positions in the Jefferson-Hemings Controversy by the Standards of History.” National Genealogical Society Quarterly 89.3 (2001): 219-33.
Review of Eyler Coates and Annette Gordon-Reed.
Sally and Tom (The American Way). Book and lyrics by Fred Newman. Music by Annie Roboff. 1995.
Play, opened in 1995 or 1996, revived in 1999 after the DNA and again in 2005. Reviewed in "Jefferson's Sallygate Gets an Off-Broadway Show," San Diego Union-Tribune 27 January 1999.
Saltus, Richard, "Modern Science Confirms Old Rumor." Boston Globe 1 November 1998.
Sandefur, Timothy. “The Real Meaning of the Jefferson-Hemings Affair.” [“Anti-Jefferson, Left and Right”] Liberty October 1999: 31-34.
Defends Jefferson from the multiculturalists, who see him as a “vicious racist.”
Santos, Carlos. "Scholars Accept DNA Tests: Jefferson-Hemings Story Echoes in Race Relations Today, They Say." Richmond Times-Dispatch 7 March 1991: C1.
Smith, Dinitia, and Nicholas Wade. “DNA Test Finds Evidence of Jefferson Child by Slave.” New York Times 1 November 1998.
"Study Finds Jefferson Unlikely Slave Father." [Cleveland] Plain Dealer 13 April 2001.
Terry, Don. “DNA Results Confirmed Old News about Jefferson, Blacks Say.” New York Times 10 November 1998.
Why did white society need DNA evidence to accept what blacks and other have recognized decades ago? A Los Angeles African American student asked this question in his history class when talking about the Jefferson-Hemings controversy. The release of the DNA evidence indicating that Jefferson did in fact father at least one of Sally’s children is described more as a confirmation than a revelation. The DNA evidence also shows how racism distorts the feelings of some of the most renowned scholars in society.
"US Founding Father Jefferson Had Child with Slave: DNA Test." Agence France Presse 1 November 1998.
Wiencek, Henry. Master of the Mountain: Thomas Jefferson and His Slaves. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2012.
Williams, Sloan. "A Case Study of Ethical Issues in Genetic Research: The Sally Hemings-Thomas Jefferson Story." Biological Anthropology and Ethics: From Repatriation to Genetic Identity. Ed. Trudy R. Turner. Albany: State U of New York P, 2005. 185-208.
Williams, Sloan. “Genetic Geneaology: The Woodson Family’s Experience.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 29 (2005): 225-52.