Papacy - Timeline (Expand All)
Alexander’s bulls resolved both legal problems raised by Columbus’s voyage—the rights of Spain in relation to the barbarous peoples of the islands discovered and the rights of Spain in relation to Portugal—firmly in favor of the Spanish Crown.
Robert A. Williams, Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest. New York: Oxford UP, 1990: 79.
May 3: Inter caetera divinai and Inter caetera I are written and reaffirm Eugene’s favoritism of Spain. The bulls recognize that Portugal has rights to some of the land in the New World but allow Spain to conquer all remaining land and peoples.Let no one, therefore, infringe. . . . Should anyone presume to do so, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and the blessed apostles Peter and Paul.
Frances Gardiner Davenport, ed. European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917: 56.
May 4: Inter caetera II is written to redefine and specify which lines of latitude and longitude are to be granted to Spain and to Portugal. While basically restating the entire Inter caetera I and divinai¸ it does not specifically name Portugal as the other nation represented in the New World. This omission of Portugal reaffirms Spain’s power to influence the papacy and is the beginning of the weakening powers of Portugal in America.
With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince.
Frances Gardiner Davenport, ed. European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917: 76.