Roanoke - Timeline (Expand All)
June 18, 1585: Sir Walter Raleigh sends out a party under the command of Sir Richard Grenville with the assistance of Ralph Lane to found a colony to be named Virginia. Thomas Hariot (chief scientist, instructed to study Indian culture) and John White (surveyor and artist) are given special instructions to study the land and people as part of this all-male venture. They land on Roanoke Island in Palmico Sound and build a fort.
July 29, 1585: Granganimo comes with Manteo (who has returned to the Americas and is acting a sort of liaison between the English and the natives) to Port Ferdinando to discuss the location of an English fort.
August 17, 1585: Sir Richard Grenville returns to England for supplies, leaving Ralph Lane in charge of the colony, and writes an account of his voyage. (Virtual Jamestown)
Late Winter / Early Spring of 1586: Granganimo dies. Wingina, who is the chief, renames himself Pemisapan (which in rough translation indicates a distrust of white men) to show his wariness of the colonists.
March 1586: Lane takes the lame King Mematonon of Chawanook hostage and forces him to act as a guide in exploring other inhabited areas ruled by other tribes. He frees the king but keeps his favorite son, Skiko, with him. This act shows Lane’s use of Indian tribes against one another.
April 20, 1586: Ensenore, father of Chief Wingina / Pemisapan dies. He is one of the few Indians to still support the colonists and was crucial in opposing hostility.
June 1, 1586: Lane kills Chief Wingina / Pemisapan after the two plot back and forth to kill one another. Part of the reason behind the tensions was Lane’s continuous demand that the Indians provide the settlers with food.
June 19, 1586: Sir Francis Drake, stopping in during pirate raids, departs from the colony, taking the colonists, many of whom are suffering from food shortages, back to England with him, leaving behind three men who are out on an excursion. Drake had simply meant to leave the colonists with supplies and a few ships, but a major storm destroyed most of what he intended to leave, thus causing the colonists to want to leave with him. In their haste to depart, most books and writings are left behind or tossed into the sea. Drake had in his possession at the time several hundred African and Indian slaves who were either drowned in the storm or were left on the island – there is no mention of their fate.
July 1586: The re-supply ship led by Sir Richard Grenville arrives. Finding the colony deserted, Grenville leaves fifteen men to hold the fort. (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
July 27, 1586: Ralph Lane writes a report to Sir Walter Raleigh, telling him what took place during his time with the colony. (Quinn, New American World) (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
Late 1586: Richard Hakluyt writes his own rendition of the colony events. It is mostly propaganda -- glossing over the hardships of the colony, making it sound as if the colonists were in better shape than they were. There is, however, one mention of the cruelties done to the natives. (Quinn and Quinn, First Colonists)