Roanoke - Timeline (Expand All)
1587: Hakluyt publishes editions of Peter Martyr's Decades and Rene de Goulaine de Laudonniere's A notable historie containing foure voyages made by certayne French captaynes vnto Florida, both dedicated to Raleigh, as support for colonization.
July 22, 1587: Between 110 and 150 settlers, led by John White (Governor) and twelve assistants, arrive on Roanoke Island. They originally depart with the intention of settling in the Chesapeake Bay area but are instead forced to settle in the area of the original abandoned fort because the captain of the ship, Simon Fernandes, ordered them ashore at the old settlement so that he could get back to hunting Spanish ships. This second colony is different in that it is family structured, containing women and children, while all other previous settlements had been in a military style. Manteo returns again with the group. John White keeps a journal of events throughout their stay in the colony. (Quinn, New American World) (Virtual Jamestown)
July 28, 1587: As recounted in White's journal, George Howe, one of the assistants to Governor White, is murdered by Indians while fishing alone in shallow water. This marks the beginning of the downward spiral of English / Indian relations. (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
July 30, 1587: Captain Stafford takes Manteo and twenty men over to Croatoan Island to investigate the murder of George Howe. The Indians reveal that Howe was killed by some of Wingina’s men, who lived in Dasamonquepeio, along with Wanchese (who was one of the original Indians taken back to America with Amadas and Barlowe – upon his return to America he became hostile towards the English). The Indians said that the fifteen colonists who had been left behind were ambushed and killed by thirty warriors from the Secota, Aquascogoc, and Damonquepeio tribes. The Croatoans agree to renew old ties with the colonists but plead with them not to take any of their grain, as they are already short of food. They also ask the settlers to give them some sort of mark to identify them from Wingina’s people, so that they may avoid mistaken hostility. (In the time that Lane’s colony was in the area there were several incidents in which Croatoan people were mistakenly attacked.) (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
August 8, 1587: White, who had proposed a meeting of all leaders in an attempt to resolve hostilities, realizes that he will not receive an answer from the Pomeiock, Aquascogoc, Secota, and Dasamonquepeio chiefs. On the next day, in an attempt to avenge the death of Howe, White leads an attack against the village of Dasamonquepeio. Mistakenly, though, the Indians who are killed are of the Croatoan tribe who had been there to take what they could from the settlement after the Roanokes deserted it. Some of those killed were women. Because of this, the Croatoans refuse to supply the colonists with food when theirs begins to spoil. (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
August 13, 1587: Manteo is christened and, by previous orders of Sir Walter Raleigh, receives the title “Lord of Roanoke.”
August 18, 1587: John White’s daughter, Eleanor Dare, wife of Ananias Dare, one of the assistants, gives birth to daughter Virginia, the first English child born in America.
August 22, 1587: The assistants and planters request that White return to England for supplies. White refuses on the basis that he will be seen as abandoning the expedition, that his possessions will all be ruined by the time he returns. On the next day, the request is made again that White should return for supplies. The colonists provide him with a signed pledge that they will not hold him accountable for abandonment and that they will care for his possessions in his absence. White returns to England for supplies on August 28. (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
1588: Thomas Hariot’s manuscript, A Briefe and True Report of the Newfound Land of Virginia, which details his findings and observations from the first voyage, is published. It is the first authentic eyewitness account of the colony. (Quinn, New American World) (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
1588: John White writes about his failed attempt to reach the colonists (they were delayed during war with Spain). (Quinn, New American World) [Display Quote]
March 20, 1590: John White departs from England in fleet of three small ships, the Hopewell, Little John, and John Evangelist. White was merely a passenger on these ships, with the mission of relieving the colony secondary to the main mission of plundering other ships.
August 18, 1590: John White returns to find the colony, forever afterwards known as the "Lost Colony," deserted, with no trace except for the word “CROATOAN” that is carved on a post. This is an ambiguous sign, as it is the name not only of a tribe but also of a nearby island. (Virtual Jamestown) [Display Quote]
September 30, 1590: After failed attempts and poor weather, the fleet White is traveling with sets course for England. White had wanted to search further for the colonists, but the crew refused to do so.
1590: Thomas Hariot’s A Briefe and True Report of the Newfound Land of Virginia is included in the first folio edition of the younger Hakluyt’s Principal Navigations, republished with some of White’s watercolors. The book also contains several documents by Ralph Lane. It is widely read and published in English, Latin, French, and German. (see Virtual Jamestown for White's paintings)
February 4, 1593: John White writes a letter to the younger Richard Hakluyt, sending him an account of what went on in the colony. Hakluyt will subsequently publish this narrative in a later edition of the compilation entitled The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffics, and Discoveries of the English Nation. (Quinn, New American World)