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This bibliography, which contains the sources for our sound bites, is not only much longer than the selected bibliography but is augmented greatly, especially with material relating to the the nature, purpose, and cultural function of history itself; to nationalism; and to the theory of representation -- and thus provides the widest context for studying the construction of history on film. Large as it is, however, this bibliography represents only a part of the ever growing critical material on the subject of film and history.

Students will find other resources in the bibliographies of the various books and articles here. The latest comprehensive update to this bibliography was done in 2007. Since then partial updates were done in 2009 and 2013. For current publications, see the book review sections of Film & History and Screening the Past. Please send your suggestions for additions to Professor Edward J. Gallagher, Department of English, Lehigh University via e-mail at

Abrash, Barbara, and Daniel J. Walkowitz. "Sub/versions of History: A Meditation on Film and Historical Narrative." History Workshop Journal 38 (1994): 203-14.

Aleiss, Angela. Making the White Man's Indian: Native Americans and Hollywood Movies. Westport: Praeger, 2005.

American Memory Collection at the Library of Congress

Anderegg, Michael A. Inventing Vietnam: The War in Film and Television. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1991.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.

Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth about History. New York: Norton, 1994.

Arnold, Gordon. The Afterlife of America's War in Vietnam: Changing Visions in Politics and on Screen. Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2006.

Auster, Albert, and Leonard Quart. How the War Was Remembered: Hollywood & Vietnam. New York: Praeger, 1988.

Authentic History Center

Bailyn, Bernard. On the Teaching and Writing of History. Hanover: UP of New England, 1994.

Baldwin, James. "A Talk to Teachers." Multicultural Literacy. Ed. Rick Simonson and Scott Walker. St. Paul: Graywolf, 1988.

Barrett, Jenny. Shooting the Civil War: Cinema, History and American National Identity. New York: Distributed by Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Basinger, Jeanine. The World War II Combat Film: Anatomy of a Genre. Middletown: Wesleyan UP, 2003.

Bataille, Gretchen, and Charles L. P. Silet. The Pretend Indians: Images of Native Americans in the Movies. Ames: Iowa State UP, 1980.

Beck, Warren, and Myles Clowers. Understanding American History through Fiction. New York: McGraw Hill, 1975.

Bennett, William J. James Madison High School: A Curriculum for American Students. Washington: U. S. Department of Education, 1987.

Bennett, William J. Our Children and Our Country: Improving America's Schools and Affirming the Common Culture. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Bergman, Andrew. We're in the Money: Depression America and Its Films. Berkeley: U of California P, 2008.

Bergman, Paul, and Michael Asimov. Reel Justice: The Courtroom Goes to the Movies. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel, 2006.

Berkhofer, Robert F., Jr. Beyond the Great Story: History as Text and Discourse. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1995.

Berlant, Lauren. The Anatomy of National Fantasy: Hawthorne, Utopia, and Everyday Life. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1991.

Bhabha, Homi K., ed. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.


Biskind, Peter. Seeing Is Believing: How Hollywood Movies Taught Us to Stop Worrying and Love the Fifties. New York: Pantheon, 1983.

Bodnar, John. Remaking America: Public Memory, Commemoration and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1992.

Bolam, Sarah, and Thomas J. Bolam. The Presidents on Film. Jefferson: MacFarland, 2007.

Boller, Paul F., Jr. Not So! Popular Myths about America from Columbus to Clinton. New York: Oxford UP, 1995.

Brennan, Timothy. "The National Longing for Form." Nation and Narration. Ed. Homi K. Bhabha. London: Routledge, 1990. 41-70.

Briley, Ron. "Reel History: U.S. History, 1932-1972, As Viewed Through the Lens of Hollywood." History Teacher 23.3 (1990): 215-36.

Brooks, Van Wyck. "On Creating a Usable Past." Dial 64 (1918): 337-41.

Browne, Ray B. "Foreword." Hollywood as Historian: American Film in a Cultural Context. Ed. Peter C. Rollins. Louisville: UP of Kentucky, 1998. ix-x.

Burgoyne, Robert. The Hollywood Historical Film. Malden: Blackwell, 2008.

Burgoyne, Robert. Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at U.S. History. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997.

Burgoyne, Robert. "Prosthetic memory/ traumatic memory: Forrest Gump (1994)." Screening the Past 6 (1999): n. pag. Online. Internet. 20 Oct. 1999.

Burke, Peter. "History as Social Memory." Memory: History, Culture and the Mind. Ed. Thomas Butler. London: Basil Blackwell, 1989. 97-113.

Burnett, Eric. History through Film: Volume 1. Raleigh: Lulu Enterprises, 2008.

Burns, E. Bradford. Latin American Cinema: Film and History. Los Angeles: U of California, 1975.

Buscombe, Edward. "Injuns!" Native Americans in the Movies. London: Reaktion, 2006.

Cagin, Seth, and Philip Dray. Hollywood Films of the Seventies. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.

Cameron, Kenneth M. America on Film: Hollywood and American History. New York: Continuum, 1997.

Canfield, J. Douglas. Mavericks on the Border: The Early Southwest in Historical Fiction and Film. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2001.

Carnes, Marc C., ed. Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies. New York: H. Holt, 1995.

Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? London: MacMillan, 1961.

Carrasco, Salvador. "The Invisible Sight." The Zapatista Reader. Ed. Tom Hayden. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2002.

Cartmell, Deborah, et. al. eds. Retrovisions: Reinventing the Past in Film and Fiction. Sterling: Pluto Press, 2001.

Chadwick, Bruce. The Reel Civil War: Mythmaking in American Film. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.

Cheyney, Lynne V. American Memory: A Report on the Humanities in the Nation's Public Schools. Washington: National Endowment for the Humanities, 1988.

Cheyney, Lynne V. "The End of History." Wall Street Journal, Oct 20, 1994, A26.

Chopra-Gant, Mike. Cinema and History: The Telling of Stories. London: Wallflower, 2008.

Christensen, Terry. "The End of History." Wall Street Journal, Oct 20, 1994, A26.

Christensen, Terry. Reel Politics: American Political Movies from Birth of a Nation to Platoon. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1987.

Churchill, Ward. Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of the American Indians. Monroe: Common Courage, 1992.

Collingwood, R. G. The Idea of History. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1946.

Commager, Henry Steele. The Nature and Study of History. Columbus: Merrill, 1965.

Controversial Films [Film & History]

Cortes, Carlos E. "Them and Us: Immigration as Social Barometer and Social Educator in American Film." Hollywood As Mirror: Changing Views of "Outsiders" and "Enemies" in American Movies. Ed. Robert Brent Toplin. Westport: Greenwood P, 1993.

Cripps, Thomas. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.

Cronon, William. "A Place for Stories: Nature, History, and Narrative." Journal of American History 78.4 (1992): 1347-76.

Croteau, Melissa, ed. Reel Histories: Studies in American Film. Hollywood: Press Americana, 2008.

Crowdus, Gary, ed. The Political Companion to American Film. Chicago: Lakeview P, 1994.

Crowther, Bruce. Hollywood Faction: Reality and Myth in the Movies. London: Columbus, 1984.

Custen, George F. Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1992.

Davis, Natalie Zemon. "'Any Resemblance to Persons Living or Dead': Film and the Challenge of Authenticity." Yale Review 76.4 (1987): 457-82

Davis, Natalie Zemon. Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2000.

DeBauche, Leslie M. Reel Patriotism: The Movies and World War I. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1997.

Devine, Jeremy M. Vietnam at 24 Frames a Second: A Critical and Thematic Analysis of over 400 Films about the Vietnam War. Jefferson: McFarland, 1995.

Di Giacomo, Richard. The History Teacher's Movie Guide: Choosing and Using the Right Films for Your Classroom. San Jose: Magnifico Publications, 2008.

Dickson, Wheeler Winston, ed. American Cinema of the 1940s: Themes and Variations. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2006.

Didinger, Ray, and Glen Macnow. The Ultimate Book of Sports Movies: Featuring the 100 Greatest Sports Films of All Time. Philadelphia: Running Press, 2009.

Dittmar, Linda, and Gene Michaud. From Hanoi to Hollywood: The Vietnam War in American Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1990.

Doherty, Thomas. Projections of War: Hollywood, American Culture, and World War II. New York: Columbia UP, 1999.


Dorris, Michael. "Why I'm Not Thankful for Thanksgiving." Council on Interracial Books for Children Bulletin 9.7 (1978).

Du Bois, W. E. B. Black Reconstruction. 1935. Cleveland: World Meridian, 1964.

Eberwein, Robert, ed. The War Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2005.

Eldridge, David. Hollywood's History Films. London: Tauris, 2006.

Eley, Geoff, and Ronald Grigor Suny. Becoming National: A Reader. New York: Oxford UP, 1996.

Elton, Geoffrey. The Practice of History. London: Fontana, 1969.

Evans, Richard J. In Defense of History. New York: Norton, 1999.

Famous Trials

Ferro, Marc. The Use and Abuse of History. Boston: Routledge, 1981.

Film & History

Fishbein, Leslie. "Hollywood's Harlots, 1900-1930: Fallen Women and the American Dream Machine." Hollywood As Mirror: Changing Views of "Outsiders" and "Enemies" in American Movies. Ed. Robert Brent Toplin. Westport: Greenwood P, 1993. 75-94.

FitzGerald, Frances. America Revisited: History Schoolbooks in the Twentieth Century. New York : Vintage Books, 1980.

FitzGerald, Frances. Fire in the Lake. Boston: Atlantic, 1972.

Foner, Eric. Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2002.

Foucault, Michel. Power/Knowedge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon, 1980.

Francaviglia, Richard V., and Jerry Rodnitzky, eds. Lights, Camera, History: Portraying the Past in Film. College Station: Published for the University of Texas at Arlington by Texas A&M UP, 2007.

Fraser, George MacDonald. The Hollywood History of the World. New York: Fawcett, 1989.

Friedman, Lester D., ed. American Cinema of the 1970s: Themes and Variations. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2007.

Fyne, Robert. Long Ago and Far Away: Hollywood and the Second World War. Lanham: Scarecrow, 2008.

Gallagher, Edward J. "Reel American History: An Archive Built by Novices." Film & History 32.2 (2002): 82-86.

Gallagher, Gary W. Causes Won, Lost, and Forgotten: How Hollywood and Popular Art Shape What We Know about the Civil War. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2008.

Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1983.

Gianos, Phillip L. Politics and Politicians in American Film. Westport: Praeger, 1998.

Grant, Barry Keith, ed. American Cinema of the 1960s: Themes and Variations. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2008.

Grindon, Leger. Shadows on the Past: Studies in the Historical Fiction Film. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1994.

Guerrero, Ed. Framing Blackness: The Africa-American Image in Film. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1993.

Guynn, William Howard. Writing History in Film. New York: Routledge, 2006.

H-Net Discussion Networks

Hall, Stuart. "The Question of Cultural Identity." Modernity and Its Futures. Ed. Stuart Hall, David Held, and Tony McGrew. Cambridge: The Open University, 1992. 273-316.

Hamerow, Theodore S. Reflections on History and Historians. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1987.

Hark, Ina Rae, ed. American Cinema of the 1930s: Themes and Variations. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2007.

Harlan, David. The Degradation of American History. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1997.

Hellmann, John. American Myth and the Legacy of Vietnam. New York: Columbia UP, 1986.

Herlihy, David. "Other Reflections on Films and History." American Historical Review 93.5 (1988): 1186-92.

Hilger, Michael. From Savage to Nobleman: Images of Native Americans in Film. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1995.

Hirsch, E. D., Jr. Cultural Literacy : What Every American Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

Historical Thinking Matters

The History Channel

History Matters

History News Network

History Now

The History Project

Hughes-Warrington, Marnie. History Goes to the Movies: Studying History on Film. London, Routledge, 2007.

Hughes-Warrington, Marnie. The History on Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Images of American Political History [Archived]

The Internet Movie Database

Jenkins, Keith. On "What is History?" London: Routledge, 1995.

Jenkins, Keith. Re-Thinking History. London: Routledge, 1991.

Kammen, Michael, ed. The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985.

Kammen, Michael. Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, 1991.

Kammen, Michael. "On Knowing the Past." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 55-57.

Karsten, Eileen. From Real Life to Reel Life: A Filmography of Biographical Films. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1993

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999.

Koppes, Clayton R., and Gregory D. Black. Hollywood Goes to War: How Politics, Profit, and Propaganda Shaped World War II Movies. New York: Free Press, 1987.

Kubal, Timothy. Cultural Movements and Collective Memory: Christopher Columbus and the Rewriting of the National Origin Myth. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.

Landsberg, Alison. "America, the Holocaust, and the Mass Culture of Memory: Toward a Radical Politics of Empathy." New German Critique 71 (1997): 63-86.

Landsberg, Alison. "Prosthetic Memory: The Logics and Politics of Memory in Modern American Culture." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Chicago, 1996.

Landy, Marcia. The Historical Film: History and Memory in Media. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2000.

Langman, Larry, and David Ebner. Hollywood's Image of the South: A Century of Southern Films. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Lerner, Gerda. "The Necessity of History and the Professional Historian." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 104-15.

Limbaugh, Rush H., III. See, I Told You So. New York: Pocket Books, 1994.

Linville, Susan E. History Films, Women, and Freud's Uncanny. Austin: U of Texas P, 2004.

Lipsitz, George. Time Passages: Collective Memory and American Popular Culture. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1990.

Loewen, James W. Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong. New York: New Press, 1999.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.

Loewen, James W. Teaching What Really Happened: How to Avoid the Tyranny of Textbooks and Get Students Excited about Doing History. New York: Teachers College Press, 2009.

Lorence, James J. Screening America: United States History through Film since 1900. New York: Pearson Longman, 2006.

Making Sense of Films

Man, Glen, ed. "The Biopic." A special issue of Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 23 (Winter 2000).

Marcus, A., R.J. Paxton, and P. Meyerson. "'The reality of it all': History Students Read the Movies." Theory and Research in Social Education 34.4 (2006): 516-52.

Marcus, Alan S., ed. Celluloid Blackboard: Teaching History with Film. Charlotte: Information Age, 2007.

Marcus, Alan S., Scott Alan Metzger, et al. Teaching History with Film: Strategies for Secondary Social Studies. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Marcus, Alan. "'It is as it was': Feature Film in the History Classroom." Social Studies 96.2 (2005): 61-67.

Marrou, Henri-Irenee. "The Usefulness of History." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 130-48.

Marshall, Brenda. Teaching the Postmodern. London: Routledge, 1992.

Marubbio, M. Elise. Killing the Indian Maiden: Images of Native American Women in Film. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2006.

Marwick, Arthur. The Nature of History. New York: Knopf, 1971.

Matz, K. A., and L. L. Pingatore. "Reel to Reel: Teaching the Twentieth Century with Classic Hollywood Films." Social Education 69.4 (2005): 189-92.

McCrisken, Trevor B. and Andrew Pepper. American History and Contemporary Hollywood Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2005.

Medved, Michael. Hollywood vs. America. New York: Harper Perennial, 1993.

Metzger, Scott Alan. "Pedagogy and the Historical Feature Film: Toward Historical Literacy." Film & History 37.2 (2008): 67-75.

Mintz, Steven, and Randy Roberts, eds. Hollywood's America: United States History through Its Films. St. James: Brandywine P, 1993.

Moore, Robert. Reconstruction: The Promise and the Betrayal of Democracy. New York: Council on Interracial Books for Children, 1983.

Muller, Herbert J. The Uses of the Past: Profiles of Former Societies. New York: Oxford UP, 1952.

Nash, Gary B. "American History Reconsidered: Asking New Questions about the Past." Learning from the Past: What History Teaches Us about School Reform. Eds. Diane Ravitch and Maris A. Vinovskis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1995. 135-63.

Nash, Gary B., Charlotte Crabtree, and Ross E. Dunn. History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past. New York: Knopf, 1997.

National Standards for United States History. Los Angeles: National Center for History in the Schools, University of California at Los Angeles, 1995.

Nevins, Allan. "A Proud Word for History." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 236-48.

Niemi, Robert. History in the Media: Film and Television. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. Beyond Good and Evil. New York: MacMillan, 1907.

Nkrumah, Kwame. Consciencism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1964.

Nye, Russel B. "Foreword." In Donald V. Gawronski. History: Meaning and Method. Glenview: Scott Foresman, 1975.

O'Connor, John E., and Martin A. Jackson, eds. American History/American Film: Interpreting the Hollywood Image. New York: Ungar, 1979.

O'Leary, Cecilia Elizabeth. To Die For: The Paradox of American Patriotism. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1999.

Osterberg, Bertil O. Colonial America on Film and Television: A Filmography. Jefferson: McFarland, 2001.

Palmer, William J. Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.

Paris, Michael. The First World War and Popular Cinema: 1914 to the Present. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2000.

Perkin, Harold. "The Uses of History." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 68-71.

Pitts, Michael R. Hollywood and American History: A Filmography of Over 250 Motion Pictures Depicting U.S. History. Jefferson: McFarland, 1984.

Pomerance, Murray, ed. American Cinema of the 1950s: Themes and Variations. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2005.

Prince, Stephen, ed. American Cinema of the Eighties: Themes and Variations. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2007.

Prince, Stephen. Visions of Empire: Political Imagery in Contemporary American Film. Westport: Praeger, 1992.

Prince, Stephen. "'Reel Histories': US History in Film." Ed. Oliver Scheiding. Special issue of Zeitschrift fur Anglstik und Amerikanistik 3.3 (2005): 199-290.

Rebhorn, Marlette. Screening America: Using Hollywood Films to Teach History. New York: Peter Lang, 1988.

Renan, Ernest. "What Is a Nation?" Nation and Narration. Ed. Homi K. Bhabha. London: Routledge, 1990. 8-22.

Robb, David L. Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon Shapes and Censors the Movies. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2004.

Rocchio, Vincent F. Reel Racism: Confronting Hollywood's Construction of Afro-American Culture. Boulder: Westview, 2000.

Rodriguez, Clara E. Heroes, Lovers and Others: The Story of Latinos in Hollywood. Washington: Smithsonian Books, 2004.

Rogers, P. J. History: Why, What, and How? London: The Historical Association, 1987.

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O'Connor, eds. Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1998.

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O'Connor. Why We Fought: America's Wars in Film and History. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2008.

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O'Connor, eds. Hollywood's White House: The American Presidency in Film and History. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2003.

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O'Connor, eds. Hollywood's World War I: Motion Picture Images. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State U Popular P, 1997.

Rollins, Peter C., ed. The Columbia Companion to American History on Film: How the Movies Have Portrayed the American Past. New York: Columbia UP, 2003.

Rollins, Peter C., ed. Hollywood as Historian: American Film in a Cultural Context. Louisville: UP of Kentucky, 1998.

Rommel-Ruiz, W. Bryan. American History Goes to the Movies: Hollywood and the American Experience. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Roquemore, Joseph. History Goes to the Movies: A Viewer's Guide to the Best (and Some of the Worst) Historical Films Ever Made. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Rosen, Philip. "Securing the Historical: Historiography and the Classical Cinema." Cinema Histories, Cinema Practices. Ed. Patricia Mellencamp and Philip Rosen. Frederick: UP of America, 1984. 17-34.

Rosenbaum, Jonathan. Movies as Politics. Berkeley: U of California P, 1997.

Rosenstone, Robert A. "The Visual Media and Historical Knowledge." A Companion to Western Historical Thought. Ed. L. Kramer and S. Maza. Malden: Blackwell, 2002.

Rosenstone, Robert A. History on Film/Film on History. New York: Longman/Pearson, 2006.

Rosenstone, Robert A. Revisioning History: Film and the Construction of a New Past. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1995.

Rosenstone, Robert A. Visions of the Past: The Challenge of Film to Our Idea of History. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1995.

Ross, Steven J. Movies and American Society. Hoboken: Wiley, 2002.

Rowe, John Carlos, and Rick Berg. The Vietnam War and American Culture. New York: Columbia UP, 1991.

Ryan, Michael, and Douglas Kellner. Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1988.

Sachsman, David B., et al., eds. Memory and Myth: The Civil War in Fiction and Film from Uncle Tom's Cabin to Cold Mountain. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 2007.

Sanello, Frank. Reel v. Real: How Hollywood Turns Fact into Fiction. Lanham: Taylor, 2003.

Schatz, Thomas. Boom and Bust: The American Cinema in the 1940s. New York: Scribners' Sons, 1997.

Scheiding, Oliver, ed. Reel Histories: US History in Film, spec. issue of ZAA: Zeitschrift fur Anglistik and Americkanistik 3. 3 (2005): 199-290.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Disuniting of America. New York: Norton, 1992.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. "Foreword." American History/American Film: Interpreting the Hollywood Image. Eds. John E. O'Connor and Martin A. Jackson. New York: Ungar, 1979. ix-xiii.

Scott, Ian. American Politics in Hollywood Film. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2000.

Screening the Past

Scruton, Roger. "Authority and Allegiance." Politics and Ideology. Eds. J. Donald and Stuart Hall. Cambridge: The Open University, 1986.

Shafer, Boyd C. "Not Art, Not Science, But History." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 149-57.

Shenkman, Richard. Legends, Lies, and Cherished Myths of American History. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Short, K. R. M., ed. Feature Films as History. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1981.

Simpson, Philip L. Psycho Paths: Tracking the Serial Killer through Contemporary American Film and Fiction. Carbondale: Southern Illinois P, 2000.

Singer, Beverly R. Wiping the War Paint Off the Lens: Native American Film and Video. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1995.

Sklar, Robert, and Charles Musser, eds. Resisting Images: Essays on Cinema and History. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1990.

Slocum, J. David, ed. Hollywood and War: The Film Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Smith, Anthony D. National Identity. Reno: U of Nevada P, 1991.

Smith, Paul, ed. The Historian and Film. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1976.

Smyth, J. E. Reconstructing American Historical Cinema: From Cimarron to Citizen Kane. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2006.

Stephens, Lester D. "The Uses of History." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 98-103.

Stevens, Donald F. Based on a True Story: Latin American History at the Movies. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1997.

Stevens, Michael G. Reel Portrayals: The Lives of 640 Historical Persons on Film, 1929 through 2001. Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2003.

Stuart Hall: Representation and Media. Prod. Sut Jhally. Videocassette. Media Education Foundation, 1996.

Suid, Lawrence H. Stars and Stripes on Screen: A Comprehensive Guide to Portrayals of American Military on Film. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2005.

Susman, Warren. "Film and History: Artifact and Experience." Film and History 15.2 (1985): 25-36.

Talking History

Taves, Brian. The Romance of Adventure: The Genre of Historical Adventure Movies. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1993.

Toplin, Robert Brent, ed. Hollywood As Mirror: Changing Views of "Outsiders" and "Enemies" in American Movies. Westport: Greenwood P, 1993.

Toplin, Robert Brent. "The Filmaker as Historian." American Historical Review 93.5 (1988): 1210-27.

Toplin, Robert Brent. History by Hollywood: The Use and Abuse of the American Past. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1996.

Toplin, Robert Brent. Reel History: In Defense of Hollywood. Lawrence: UP of Kansas, 2002.

Tracey, Grant. Filmography of American History. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Boston: Beacon P, 1995.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of History." The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Ed. Stephen Vaughn. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 177-88.

Van Deburg, William L. "A Popular Culture Prophecy: Black American Slavery in Film." Hollywood As Mirror: Changing Views of "Outsiders" and "Enemies" in American Movies. Ed. Robert Brent Toplin. Westport: Greenwood P, 1993. 19-40.

Vankin, Jonathan, and John Whalen. Based on a True Story: Fact and Fantasy in 100 Favorite Movies. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2005.

Vaughn, Stephen, ed. The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985

Vaughn, Stephen. "History: Is It Relevant?" The Vital Past: Writings on the Uses of History. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1985. 1-19.

Vonderau, Patrick, ed. Film as History, History as Film. Berlin: Humboldt, 1999.

Walkowitz, Daniel J. "Re-Screening the Past: Subversion Narratives and the Politics of History." Screening the Past: Film and the Representation of History. Westport: Praeger, 1998.

Weiner, Tim. "The Cold War Freezer Keeps Historians Out." New York Times, May 23, 1995, E5.

White, Hayden. The Content of the Form. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987.

White, Hayden. "Historiography and Historiophoty." American Historical Review 93.5 (1988): 1193-99.

White, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1973.

White, Hayden. Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1978.

Wills, Brian Steel. Gone with the Glory: The Civil War in Cinema. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield: 2007.

Wilson, Wendy S., and Gerald H. Herman. American History on the Screen: A Teacher's Resource Book on Film and Video. Portland: J. Weston Walch, 1994.

Winchell, Mark Royden. God, Man & Hollywood: Politically Incorrect Cinema from The Birth of a Nation to The Passion of the Christ. Wilmington: ISI, 2008.

Wineburg, S., and S. Mosborg, and D. Porat. "What Can Forrest Gump Tell Us about Students' Historical Understanding?" Social Education 65.1 (2000): 55-58.

Zamora, Lois Parkinson. The Usable Past: The Imagination of History in Recent Fiction of the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

Zinn, Howard. The Politics of History. Boston: Beacon P, 1970.