Reel American HistoryHistory on trial Main Page

AboutFilmsFor StudentsFor TeachersBibliographyResources

Films >> 1492: Conquest of Paradise (1992) >>

Alleva, Richard. "Good bye, Columbus: Ridley Scott's '1492.'" Commonweal 20 November 1992: 20-21.

The Arguments of Sepulveda

Axtell, James. "The Moral Dimensions of 1492." Historian 56.1 (1993): 17-28.

Axtell, James. Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America. New York: Oxford UP, 1992.

Ayala, Sergio Rivera, and Sonya Lipsett-Rivera. "Columbus Takes On the Forces of Darkness, or Film and Historical Myth in 1492: The Conquest of Paradise." Based on a True Story: Latin American History at the Movies. Ed. Donald F. Stevens. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1997.

Bahiana, Ana Maria. "1492: Conquest of Paradise." Ridley Scott: Interviews. Ed. Laurence F. Knapp and Andrea F. Kulas. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2005. 81-88.

Bartosik-Vélez, Elise. "The Three Rhetorical Strategies of Christopher Columbus." Colonial Latin American Review 11.1 (2002): 33-46.

Benjamin, Walter. "Theses On The Philosophy Of History." Illuminations. 1955. Trans. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken Books, 1968.

Bercht, Fatima. Taíno: Pre-Columbian Art and Culture from the Caribbean. New York: Monacelli Press, 1997.

Bodmer, Beatriz Pastor. The Armature of Conquest. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1992.

Bowater, Ian. "'1492' Writer's Dramatic Feast Starved By Final Editing." Los Angeles Times 2 November 1992: F3.

The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI), May 4, 1493.

Burke-Block, Candace. "Ridley Scott's Newest World." The San Francisco Chronicle 7 October 1992: E1.

Bushman, Claudia L. Review of Three Columbus Films. Public Historian 15.3 (1993): 112-15.

Bushman, Claudia L. America Discovers Columbus: How An Italian Explorer Became An American Hero. Hanover: UP of New England, 1992.

Cacciutto, Franklin C. "Columbus In Chains: The Image of Columbus in Literature." Diss. St. John's University, New York, 1991.

Campe, J. H. Columbus; or, The discovery of America: as related by a father to his children, and designed for the instruction of youth. Trans. Elizabeth Helme.

Canby, Vincent. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. The New York Times 9 October 1992: C21.

Carr, Jay. "Ridley Scott's Beautiful but Shallow '1492.'" The Boston Globe 9 October 1992: 85.

Christopher Columbus (Mel-O-Tunes)

Christopher Columbus and Early European Exploration

"Christopher Columbus, Then and Now." New York Times 12 October 1992: 18.

Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal (Medieval Sourcebook)

Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. San Francisco: City Lights, 1997.

Churchill, Ward. Indians Are Us? Culture and Genocide in Native North America. Maine: Common Courage, 1994.

Clark, Mike. "Columbus Sails Off Course in '1492.'" USA Today 9 October 1992: 8D.

Colorado, Pam. "What Every Indian Knows." Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide. San Francisco: City Lights, 1997: forward.

Columbus and the Age of Discovery [Archived]

Columbus clip from The Canary Effect

Columbus Day Parade Protest 2007

Columbus Day Sanitized

Columbus Didn't Discover Us. Video. Massachusetts: Turning Tide Productions, 1992.

The Columbus Landfall Homepage

The Columbus Letter

The Columbus Navigation Homepage

Columbus On Trial. Video. New York: Women Make Movies, 1993.

Columbus's World. Video. Princeton: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, Inc., 1991.

Columbus, Christopher. The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493: Abstracted by Bartolome de las Casas. Trans. Oliver Dunn and James E. Kelley, Jr. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1989.

Columbus, Christopher. The Four Voyages. Ed. and trans. J. M. Cohen. New York: Penguin Books, 1969.

Columbus: Continuation of a Genocidal Legacy

Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Great Disease." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue): 54-56.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport: Greenwood Pub. Co., 1972.

Davenport, Hugo. "The Arts: Heaven and Hell On The High Seas." The Daily Telegraph 22 October 1992: 14.

Davies, Tristan. "The Arts: Talent That Travels." The Daily Telegraph 20 February 1993: 17.

Deleuze, Gilles. Negotiations. Trans. Martin Jorghin. New York: Columbia UP, 1995.

Dennis, Matthew. "Reinventing America: Columbus Day and Centenary Celebrations of His Voyage." Red, White, and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2002. 119-61.

DeSirey, Jan, Chris Dodge, and John Yewell. Confronting Columbus. Jefferson: McFarland and Co., 1992.

Discoverers Web

Doll, Susan (updated by Joseph Milicia). Ridley Scott. Film Reference.

Durham, Jimmy. "Columbus Day."

Dvorak, Antonin. Symphony No. 9. 1892.

Ebel, Mark T. Five Films of Pre-Columbian Culture, The Discovery of the New World, and the Spanish Conquest. Diss. Florida State U, 1996. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1997.

Ebert, Roger. "Discovering Columbus; Romantic '1492' Reveals His Dogged Complexity." Chicago Sun-Times 9 October 1992: 42.

Elliot, David. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. The San Diego Union-Tribune 8 October 1992: 11.

Extracts from Columbus' Journal on the First Voyage

A Faithful Response to the 500th Anniversary of the Arrival of Christopher Columbus

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched Of The Earth. 1961. New York: Grove Press, 1968.

1492 Revisited. San Diego: KPBS-TV, 1992.

1492: An Ongoing Voyage

1492: Conquest of Paradise trailer

Fristone, Roger. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. The Courier-Journal 10 October 1992: 27S.

Fuentes, Carlos. "More Than a Civilizing Epic . . . the New World after Columbus." The Guardian (London) 12 October 1992: 19.

Garcia, Maria. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. Films In Review 44.5-6 (June 1993): 194-97.

Gates, David. "Who Was Columbus?" Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue): 29-31.

Gelman, David. "Columbus and His Four Fateful Voyages." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue): 39-46.

Gonzalez, Ray, ed. Without Discovery: A Native Response to Columbus. Seattle: Broken Moon, 1992.

González Camarena, Jorge. La fusión de las culturas.

Green, Tom. "'1492' Puts Wind in Depardieu's Sails." USA Today 8 October 1992: 1D.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1991.

Griffin, John. "Heaven and Hell Collide In Ridley Scott's Epic Film." The Gazette 9 October 1992: D2.

Gritten, David. "The Arts: The Man Who Dresses In The Dark: Gerard Depardieu, Star Of The New Blockbuster Columbus Movie '1492,' Talks To David Gritten About His Wildly Unconventional Career." The Sunday Telegraph 11 October 1992: 113.

Hall, Mimi. "On Columbus Day, mixed emotions." USA Today 12 October 1992: 11A.

Happy Columbus Day

Harff, Barbara. "Genocide and the Reconstruction of Social Theory: Observations on the Exclusivity of Collective Death." Genocide and The Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death. Ed. Isidor Wallimann and Michael N Dobkowski. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Hedges, William L. "Irving's Columbus: The Problem Of Romantic Biography." The Americas 13:2 (1956):127-40.

Herd, Deborah. "That Sinking Feeling." South China Morning Post 30 December 1995: 11.

Hinson, Hal. "'1492': That Sinking Feeling." The Washington Post 9 October 1992: B1.

Howe, Desson. "Paradise Lost Again." The Washington Post 9 October 1992: N42.

Irving, Washington. History of New York. New York, 1809: Book I, chapter v.

Irving, Washington. The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: G. & G. Garvill, 1828.

Jackson, Kevin. "Sailing The Ocean Blues." The Independent 23 October 1992: 16.

Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation

John Sayles reads Bartolome de Las Casas

Jorgen, Randolph, ed. Columbus and Beyond. Tuscon: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1992.

The Journal of Christopher Columbus. Ed. Clements Markham. London: Hakluyt Society, 1893.

Keegan, William F. Taíno Indian Myth and Practice: The Arrival of the Stranger King. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 2007.

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999. 130-34.

Koning, Hans. "The Second Voyage." Confronting Columbus: An Anthology. Ed. John Yewell, Chris Dodge, and Jan DeSirey. Jefferson: MacFarland, 1992.

Kubal, Timothy. Cultural Movements and Collective Memory: Christopher Columbus and the Rewriting of the National Origin Myth. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.

Las Casas, Bartolome. The Tears of the Indians: Being an Historical and True Account of the Cruel Massacres and Slaughters of above Twenty Millions of Innocent People. London, 1656.

LaSalle, Mick. "'1492' Needs a Map." The San Francisco Chronicle 9 October 1992: C1.

Le Beau, Brian F. "Of Hollywood and History: The Columbus Movies of '92." American Studies 34:1 (1993): 151-57.

Limbaugh, Rush. "Multiculturalism." The Way Things Ought to Be. New York: Pocket Books, 1992. 204-13.

Lipper, Hal. "Discovering Columbus." St. Petersburg Times 9 October 1992: 21.

Lipper, Hal. "Seeks His Destiny." St. Petersburg Times 9 October 1992: 20.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: New Press, 1995.

Loewenberg, James. American History In American Thought: Christopher Columbus To Henry Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Lyons, Scott Richard. "Rhetorical Sovereignty: What Do American Indians Want from Writing?" College Composition and Communication 51.3 (2000): 447-68.

MacInnis, Craig. "Depardieu: An Epic Columbus." The Toronto Star 9 October 1992: C5.

MacInnis, Craig. "Ridley Scott's Taking All Comers In Debate On Columbus's Ethics." The Toronto Star 7 October 1992: F1.

Major, Richard Henry. Select Letters of Christopher Columbus: With other Original Documents relating to this Four Voyages to the New World. London, 1847.

Malcolm, Derek. "Film: Black Truth, White Lies." The Guardian 22 October 1992: 6.

Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. New York: Knopf, 2005.

Mann, Charles C. 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011.

McCarthy, Todd. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. Variety 12 October 1992: 185.

Miller, Susan. "The High Price Of Sugar." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue):70-74.

Minh-ha, Trinh T. When The Moon Waxes Red. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Morganthau, Tom. "Slavery: How It Built the New World." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue):66-69.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: The Heritage Press, 1963.

Oliver, José R. Caciques and Cemí Idols: The Web Spun by Taíno Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2009.

Pagden, Anthony. European Encounters with the New World. London: Yale UP, 1993.

Pané, Ramón. An Account of the Antiquities of the Indians: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Durham: Duke UP, 1999.

Paz, Octavio. "The Labyrinth Of Solitude." The Labyrinth Of Solitude And Other Writings. 1961. New York: Grove, 1985.

Phillips, Carla Rahn, et al. "Christopher Columbus: Two Films." Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies. Ed. Mark C. Carnes. New York: Holt, 1995. 60-65.

Requerimiento (1510)

Restall, Matthew. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. New York: Oxford UP, 2003.

Rodríguez García, José María. "Exiles and Arrivals in Christopher Columbus and William Bradford." Explorations in Renaissance Culture 28.1 (2002): 75-98.

Rollins, Peter C. "Christopher Columbus." The Columbia Companion to American History on Film: How the Movies Have Portrayed the American Past. New York: Columbia UP, 2003. 148-53.

Rouse, Irving. The Tainos: Rise & Decline of the People who Greeted Columbus. New Haven: Yale UP, 1992.

Royal, Robert. 1492 And All That: Political Manipulations of History. Baltimore: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1992.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy. New York: Knopf, 1990.

Schnaubelt, Joseph C., and Frederick Van Fleteren, eds. Columbus and the New World. New York: Peter Lang, 1998.

Schwartz, Richard A. "1492: Conquest of Paradise." The Films of Ridley Scott. Westport: Praeger, 2001.

Seed, Patricia. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995.

Shannon, Jeff. "Scott's '1492': A Sage Strays Off Course." The Seattle Times 9 October 1992: 3.

Sokolov, Raymond. "Stop Knocking Columbus." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue):82.

Stam, Robert. "Cinema And The Columbus Debate." Cineaste 19:4 (1992): 66-71.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford UP, 1992.

Stavans, Ilan. Imagining Columbus: The Literary Voyage. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993.

Stevens Arroyo, Antonio M. Cave of the Jagua: The Mythological World of the Taínos. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1988.

Stone, Edward. "Columbus and Genocide." American Heritage 26 (October 1975): 4-7, 76-79.

Strauss, Bob. "Depardieu Finds '1492' Parallels His Life's Passage." Chicago Sun-Times 4 October 1992: 3.

Strick, Philip. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. Sight and Sound 2.7 (1992): 41-42.

Symcox, Geoffrey, and Blair Sullivan. Christopher Columbus and the Enterprise of the Indies: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's 2005.

The Tainos by Iroqua

Theodore de Bry images of Las Casas.

This Just In . . . Columbus Has Landed. Video. Nebraska: Creighton University, 1991.

Turan, Kenneth. "New World Disorder; Ridley Scott's '1492' Fills The Screen With Dazzling Visual Spectacle. But In Dramatic Terms, Its Paradise Lost." Los Angeles Times 9 October 1992: F1.

Wollen, Peter. "Cinema's Conquistadors." Sight and Sound 2.7 (1992): 21-23.

World's Columbian Exposition (1893)

Zamora, Margarita. "Teaching Columbus from the Margins of Las Casas." Approaches to Teaching the Writings of Bartolomé de Las Casas. Ed. Santa Arias and Eyda M. Merediz. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2008. 141-46.

Zinn, Howard. "Columbus and Western Civilization." Howard Zinn on History. New York: Seven Stories P., 2001. 97-120.