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See the extensive bibliography (divided into print, video/audio, and online resources) below the essay.

[1] Despite the monumental significance of the United States government’s abolition of slavery following the Civil War, along with attempts at Reconstruction, relations between blacks and whites were far from equal even during the early 1900’s. Post-Civil-War America was a time and a place in which Jim Crow-ism ruled, and the government took a passive role in the protection of the rights of all Americans. Furthermore, tensions between blacks and whites increased with the advent of World War I. During this era, many blacks moved to the North in their attempts to seek a better, less racially oppressive life for their families.

[2] Known as the Great Migration, the relocation of substantial numbers of African Americans changed the demographics and lifestyles of many American cities. R. Thomas Dye explains the phenomenon of contagious racism during the early Twentieth Century: “Wartime industrial development encouraged blacks to move north, but as black migration increased, so too did northern white fears, resistance, and discrimination. No longer confined to the region south of the Mason Dixon line, racial violence became a national epidemic” ("Rosewood, Florida” 606). Dye goes onto explain the reemergence of the Ku Klux Klan in 1915, to which over 4.5 million Americans belonged by 1924. Northern racism was typified by white mobs destroying entire black neighborhoods, while Southern racial violence was characterized by individual lynchings (Colburn).

[3] Although much of the mob violence and lynchings of the World War I era were directed towards African-Americans, other minority groups were also targeted. There was an overbearing justification of violence via nativism during this time – as substantial waves of immigration and black migration characterized the years surrounding World War I. Nativist opposition to immigration and black migration reasoned that “the superior Nordic race was in danger of being overwhelmed by the increasing numbers of inferior peoples” (Jones). Although they were not effectively protected or backed by the United States government, black citizens throughout the North and the South began to resist white violence and intimidation. For instance, violent incidents between blacks and whites occurred in Chicago, East St. Louis, Omaha, and Tulsa (Jones).

[4] While some of these violent skirmishes between blacks and whites have been well documented and identified as dark moments in our country’s history of supposed equality, other events have been effectively hidden and discussion of them has been avoided. For instance, the Rosewood Massacre of 1923 was a brutal demonstration of white supremacy which went untold for sixty years. Resulting in the destruction of an entire African American community, the Rosewood Massacre gained no place in American history until a Florida investigative news reporter published an article in 1982. Gary Moore of the St. Petersburg Times ran a story on Rosewood that sparked nationwide interest and memories. Ed Bradley of 60 Minutes later produced a documentary about Rosewood; and in 1997 John Singleton brought the story of the massacre to Hollywood through his production of Rosewood. Why did it take sixty years before the events at Rosewood were exposed for their true horror?

[5] Located nine miles east of Cedar Key, in Levy County, Florida, the towns of Rosewood and Sumner were the sites of the racial incidents of 1923. Originally established for its cedar mills to make pencils, Rosewood also produced turpentine and was a stop along the Seaboard Airline Railway. Rosewood was a predominantly black community, while Sumner’s population was predominantly white. In 1920, the population of the two totaled 638, with 344 blacks making up the majority. The black residents of Rosewood had established a successful and prosperous way of life, and they lived comfortably in their community, which included three churches, a train station, a one-room black masonic hall, a black school, and a variety of houses. Although predominantly a black community, Rosewood did serve as the home of a few white families, as well. Mr. Wright, a white man, owned and operated a general store in Rosewood, and was on friendly terms with his black neighbors (Jones).

[6] Though the Rosewood Massacre’s origins lie in the racism and nativism of its era, the actual events of the massacre lasted only a few short days. In A Documented History of the Incident which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida, in January 1923, a clear chronology of events is outlined. The incident at Rosewood was sparked on the morning of January 1, 1923, when a young, white woman, Fannie Taylor, reported that she had been attacked by a black man. In reality, Fannie Taylor had been beaten by her white lover, but the white community of Sumner believed her report of the incident, and news quickly spread that Fannie Taylor had been attacked as well as raped by a black man. Coincidentally, a black convict named Jesse Hunter had escaped from a chain gang days earlier, and the circulating story developed that Jesse Hunter was Fannie Taylor’s attacker. The white men of Sumner quickly formed a mob, took their bloodhounds, and set out in search of Jesse Hunter. The white mob traced a scent to a black mason, Aaron Carrier, whom they put in jail. Later, the mob tortured and lynched an innocent black man, Sam Carter (Jones).

[7] On January 2 and 3, whites from surrounding areas began to gather in Sumner. The surrounding white communities were enraged by the rumor that a black man had raped Fannie Taylor and needed little more reason than the rumor to justify their attacks. On January 4, 1923, the white mob attacked the home of the black Carrier family (Goodloe). The Carriers were a well-known and respected family in the town of Rosewood, headed by Sylvester Carrier, a music teacher. Sylvester Carrier had gathered many members of the black community at his mother’s (Sarah Carrier) house so that he could protect them (Jones).

[8] Gun fire was exchanged between Sylvester Carrier and the mob, resulting in the deaths of two white men. The white mob also killed elderly Sarah Carrier, a respected member of both the black and white community. The white mob’s ammunition began to run low around 4AM, at which point they retreated from the Carrier house. The blacks who had been hiding in the house used this opportunity on the morning of January 5 to flee to the swamps, where they would remain in hiding for the next few days. By January 5, the white mob had increased in size, as whites from surrounding areas continued to converge on Rosewood. Sylvester Carrier’s body was found in the Carrier house, and the mob burned and destroyed the black dwelling. The mob was under the direction of Sheriff Walker of Levy County, who falsely notified the Governor of Florida that things were under control. Things were not under control. The white mob continued to vandalize and terrorize Rosewood, while the residents hid in the swamps (Jones).

[9] Although the mob was comprised of white men, not all whites believed in such violence. On January 6, 1923, John and William Bryce, white train conductors, used their train to evacuate the women and children of Rosewood. Also, storeowner John Wright hid many black residents in his home and general store. By January 7, 1923, the remainder of Rosewood had been burned by more white mobs, and the entire town had been evacuated. What had been a flourishing black community just one week before was now completely deserted. Expert Maxine Jones writes, “The question of how many people died remains, however, and it may never be solved” (Jones).

[10] The entire sequence of events of the Rosewood Massacre lasted just over a month – from January 1, 1923 through February 15, 1923 – yet its effects upon the survivors and families are still felt today. Consistent with the disenfranchisement of African Americans during this time, on February 15, the Grand Jury concluded their investigation of the Rosewood Massacre, finding “insufficient evidence” to prosecute. No one was charged for any of the murders, and the case was laid to rest until Moore exposed it in 1982. This exposure prompted some of the Rosewood survivors to file against the State of Florida in 1993 – they claimed that the State had neglected to protect the African Americans of Rosewood in 1923. After a year of extensive research and interviews with many survivors, a group of historians presented the “Documented History of the Incident which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida, in January 1923” to Governor Lawton Chiles and the Florida Board of Regents. Finally, in 1994, survivors and their families were awarded monetary compensation via the Florida Legislature’s signing of The Rosewood Bill (Goodloe). This was “the first state legislation in the nation to compensate African Americans for past racial violence” (Dye, “Rosewood Massacre” 25).

Print Resources

Allen, James. Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe: Twin Palms Publishers, 2000.
This book documents American history in a disturbing, uncomfortable, and visual way. By presenting photographs of lynching and violence directed towards blacks, Allen's compilation leaves the reader uneasy and questioning. Without Sanctuary is a look into the American past that no one wishes to take. Yet, it is a very necessary look that we must take in order to understand the true effect of lynching in America. Furthermore, it helps to establish a sense of lynching mentality and culture, as it depicts happy families taking photos in front of mutilated blacks. An obvious connection between Rosewoodand Without Sanctuary is the scene in which Duke Purdy teaches his young son, Emmet, to tie a noose.
Colburn, David R. "Rosewood and America in the Early Twentieth Century." Florida Historical Quarterly 76.2 (1997): 175-93.
Colburn is a professor at the University of Florida who also served on the Investigative Team of the Rosewood Massacre in the early 1990's. He is a scholar and an expert on Rosewood, and he writes this article to give readers an historical basis for understanding the events of January 1923. Colburn places the Rosewood Massacre in the context of President Woodrow Wilson, reform, World War I, and violent racial outbursts. He references other instances of mob violence throughout the country and offers speculation as to why white citizens had turned against blacks. Colburn provides economic, social, and political background information for this violent era in American history. This source is important in one's attempts to place Rosewood within its appropriate context in American history.
Cottrol, Robert J., and Raymond T. Diamond. "Rosewood." American Historical Review 103.2 (1998): 635-36.
Cottrol and Diamond praise director John Singleton for his "valuable effort" in Rosewood, which is a film of many layers. The film is tripartite: a story of black achievement, a story of "bestial racial violence," and "the most undertold" story of back resistance. After acknowledging that it is Mr. Mann, a fictional character, who weaves these stories together, the authors suggest that Rosewood be supplemented by a viewing of The Rosewood Massacre: The Untold Story (Discovery Channel). Although Singleton effectively captures the horror of lynch fever, the authors commend him for refusing to portray all white men as racist and violent. Singleton's characters are dynamic and multidimensional as they tell "more than a simple story of racial violence in one small town." Rather, they write, [Rosewood] "represents an era when the law's failure and white envy combined to make black life precarious."
D'Orso, Michael. Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood. New York: Grosset/Putnam, 1996.
This is one of the few books dedicated entirely to the Rosewood Massacre. D'Orso focuses primarily on the son of a Rosewood survivor, Arnett Doctor, to tell the story – as Arnett became extremely active in exposing the truth of Rosewood beginning in 1982. He effectively uses anecdotes, flashback, and personal accounts to write a work of non-fiction, which often reads like a novel. Like Judgment Day is an excellent complementary source to the historical documents and articles, as it offers an interesting retrospective viewpoint. Much like Singleton's film, D'Orso's book may be one of the most effective mechanisms for the American public to understand these dark moments in our nation's history. From a research standpoint, Like Judgment Day offers a necessary break from historical documents and allows the reader to truly step back in time and connect on a more personal level with the Rosewood victims and their families.
Dunn, Marvin. The Beast in Florida: A History of Anti-Black Violence. Tallahassee: UP of Florida, 2013.
Dunn's book traces the movements of the Beast -- white violence against black bodies -- throughout Florida from Reconstruction to the pre-Civil Rights era. The main question of the book is: "Why did hundreds of African-Americans die in Florida at the hands of white mobs during the lynching era?" The majority of the violence presented is a direct result of organized, racist violence (ie. lynch mobs and the Ku Klux Klan), with the cause of the violence most commonly being accusations of inappropriate sexual behavior. The book sees the Rosewood Massacre as a major point of interest within the greater narrative of anti-black violence in Florida.
Dye, R. Thomas. "Rosewood, Florida: The Destruction of an African American Community." Historian 58 (1996): 604-22.
As a Ph.D. candidate at the Florida State University, Dye is one of the experts on the Rosewood Massacre. He has written other articles and also served on the Investigative Team during the research and composition of the document presented to the Florida Board of Regents in 1993. This article provides important and substantial background information on racial violence in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He discusses the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and notes that "racial violence became a national epidemic" (606). Dye shares some of the incidents of racial violence in Florida that preceded Rosewood, explaining to readers that events such as Rosewood were "all too common" during this time period (607). This article offers a detailed account of the Rosewood Massacre, along with an historical explanation of the incorporation of the town. Dye is an effective historical writer who makes his own views quite clear: "Rosewood, like the events that occurred throughout the South and the nation, was a tragedy, and revealed the powerful commitment to racial exception in a nation committed to democracy and freedom" (622). This article effectively couples the historical account with a more macroscopic, nationwide application and analysis of racial violence during the World War I era.
Dye, R. Thomas. "The Rosewood Massacre: History and the Making of Public Policy." Public Historian 19.3 (1997): 25-39.
Dye offers an interesting and informative article that explores the "first state legislation in the nation to compensate African Americans for past racial violence" (25). He offers a brief historical account of the events at Rosewood and then proceeds to explain the struggle between the historians and the State of Florida in 1993-94. Dye provides a detailed account of the research and policymaking processes, in which he admits that "the historians who investigated the Rosewood massacre [Dye being one, himself] were largely unprepared to enter the political and legal thicket of the Florida legislative process" (38). Dye writes this article primarily to demonstrate how the case of Rosewood can be applied to other aspects of history, writing: "The outcome of the Rosewood compensation issue demonstrates once again the power of a story" (39). This article is useful for exploring the efforts of the Investigative Team and the policymaking process of the early 1990's for the Rosewood case. It can also be useful in attempting to create connections between Rosewood and other historical events, as well as research regarding social justice and compensation.
Flores, Richard R. "Memory-Place, Meaning, and The Alamo." American Literary History 10.3 (1998): 428–45.
Flores's meditation on the Alamo as "memory-place" might resonate strangely with Rosewood, which isn't "there" any more. See Davidson and Gonzalez-Tennant in the online resources section.
Halton, Beau. " ‘No resentment,' Rosewood survivors say." Florida Times-Union 20 Oct. 1997.
Halton offers a somewhat startling view of the Rosewood Massacre. Quoted at a Rosewood survivors' reception, Mary Hall Daniels states that she holds no bitterness – "I have no resentment; God does things for a reason." This article offers the remarkably peaceful viewpoint of many Rosewood survivors, who expressed the feelings that, "if they allowed themselves to be bitter, to hate, it would have eaten them up." Halton explains the reparations in 1994 via the Florida Legislature's Rosewood Claims Bill and shares the words of the lawyers who were involved in the reparations case. This article provides a surprising retrospective view.
Johnson, Robert, Jr. "Beyond Affirmative Action: The Case for Reparations." Race, Law, and Public Policy: Cases and Materials on Law and the Public Policy of Race (Second Edition). Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1998. 267-99.
This book is committed to educating its readers about the connections among various inequalities and racist acts of American history, and Johnson uses Rosewood as a prime example. He summarizes the events of January 1923 and then presents the reparations offered by the State of Florida. The most interesting aspects of this source are Johnson's introductions at the beginning of each chapter. In an interesting and engaging manner, he questions the role that reparations have played and will play in the United States of America. "Can the Rosewood, Florida legislation be considered a model for future legislation, perhaps on the national level?" Johnson questions, "Shouldn't state governments, particularly in the South, pass similar legislation as reparations for slavery and overt and debilitating racism?" (268)
Jones, Maxine D. "The Rosewood Massacre and the Women Who Survived It." Florida Historical Quarterly (Fall 1997): 193-208.
Jones served as the Principal Investigator for the composition of the Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood in the 1993-94 case with the State of Florida. This article presents a unique view of the Rosewood Massacre – and, specifically, of its aftermath. Jones states early on that "gender offered no protection from mobs fueled by hate and anger," as she recognizes the plight of the black woman in the early twentieth century (193). Her article gains strength from first-person accounts of Rosewood survivors and a realization that Rosewood was more than purely physical destruction for these women. Jones focuses upon the experiences of Philomena Goins, Lee Ruth Bradley, and Mary Hall – how these women were held "prisoner by their memories of that week of terror" (206).
Jones, Maxine, and Kevin McCarthy. African Americans in Florida. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, 1993.
With the starting point of 1956, Jones and McCarthy work backwards to detail the four centuries that African slaves and their descendants have been in Florida. The book traces the trajectory from the slave trade and subsequent blending of slave and Native American populations to the election of black politicians in the second half of the twentieth century. The book gives good context to the Rosewood massacre, demonstrating how the shift from slavery to factories changed the dynamics of a mixed population.
Jones, Maxine. A Documented History of the Incident which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida, in January 1923. Florida Board of Regents. 22 December 1993.
Perhaps the most comprehensive and valuable source in researching the Rosewood Massacre, this report was presented by the Investigative Team to the Florida Board of Regents on December 22, 1993. This was the document that was instrumental in gaining reparations from the State of Florida, so it is a piece of history itself. The document was composed by top historians from Florida State University (Jones, Colburn, Dye, and Rogers) and the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (Rivers). Many of the authors of this document have also written other articles about Rosewood. In addition to an impressive bibliography and detailed chronology of events, this fifty-two page document contains recollections of Rosewood survivors as well as an analysis of the news coverage and editorial responses of various newspapers in 1923. Extensive research by the Investigative Team has produced this thorough document, which serves as the official account of the Rosewood Massacre. It is a must-read for anyone who seeks to understand the Rosewood Massacre of 1923.
Jones, Maxine. Appendices – A Documented History of the Incident which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida, in January 1923. Florida Board of Regents. 22 December 1993.
These appendices are valuable resources. Essentially, the appendices are a collection of interviews conducted by the Investigative Team with Rosewood survivors and their families. The transcripts of these interviews provide valuable insight into the Rosewood Massacre and offer moving, personal accounts. The appendices also include census data, genealogies of the Rosewood families, and lynching statistics. Lastly, it includes a "Synopsis of Research," which is written by Gary Moore. This document is an important source for research into the Rosewood Massacre, as it provides first-person accounts and valuable statistical information.
"Kill Six in Florida; Burn Negro Houses." New York Times 6 Jan. 1923: 1.
This is the newspaper article documenting the events at Rosewood. It presents Rosewood to the rest of the country and does so in a very documented, factual manner. Despite the chaos of the event as depicted in the film, the Times presents the names of those injured and killed in the violence. Written by the Associated Press, this article is an important document to consider in historical analysis, as it informed the rest of the country about the massacre.
Loewen, James W. Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.
Loewen provides an enlightening look into the racial divisions of America. He presents this notion of "sundown towns," which he defines as "any organized jurisdiction that for decades kept African Americans or other groups from living in it and was thus ‘all-white' on purpose" (3). Sundown towns are a reality of American History that have been systematically overlooked. Loewen exposes the horror of racial segregation in America, writing "But race isn't really the problem. Exclusion is the problem" (17). He credits white supremacy as the primary cause of violence and racial divides, and he cites Rosewood as an important example.
Markovitz, Jonathan. Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2004.
The main goal of the book is to examine "the ways in which the lynching metaphor has acquired its meaning and has resurfaced, changed, and been deployed over time." The book also focuses on the ways that collective memories of lynching reflect how racial categories are perceived in different time periods. Markovitz draws parallels between lynchings in the South in the 19th and 201th century and the "high tech lynching" that prevails in modern day, and traces the trajectory of lynching from an act to a rhetorical tool. The text examines the metaphoric meanings of lynchings, as presented by the lynch mobs and the antilynching movement, and attempts to understand the how sexual hegemony upholds racialized violence.
Newman, Richard. "Rosewood Revisited." Transition 80 (1998): 32-39.
Newman offers a personal, reflective account of a visit to deserted Rosewood, Florida, in 1998. He beautifully describes the desolation and "blandness" of the area, sharing such initial thoughts with readers as "The first thing to say is that there is no Rosewood" (32). As a white journalist entering "unreconstructed Klan country," Newman finds himself very uneasy with the situation and expresses the sense of security that he gains from his two black escorts. The article offers a quick synopsis of the events at Rosewood, but its value is really in the photos and emotional writing of Newman. This source is not especially historically beneficial but offers a personal, interpretive touch to the Rosewood story.
Streich, Gregory W. "Is There a Right to Forget? Historical Injustices, Race, Memory and Identity." New Political Science 24.4 (2002): 525–42.
Streich critically evaluates Jason Hill's concept of the "right to forget," which posits that in order for an individual to undo the constrictions of identity, one must forget the histories and memories associated with the identity. Streitch rejects this idea of forgetting, insisting that, "While identities must be de-essentialized, they cannot be de-historicized" (533), meaning that to forget the history of an identity group is to implicitly absolve any aggressors/oppressors of guilt and responsibility. Streich examines the dialogue surrounding apologies and reparations for past crimes -- most notably slavery -- and then insists that identity must be constructed free from cultural essentialism but within the frame of historical memory.
Tindall, George Brown. The Emergence of the New South, 1913-1945. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1967.
One of the few references to the massacre before 1982, summarizes the Rosewood tragedy in one line.

See Also

Brooks, Roy L. When Sorry Isn't Enough -- The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice. New York: New York UP, 1999.

Halliburton, R., Jr. "The Tulsa Race War of 1921." Journal of Black Studies 2.3 (1972): 337–57.

Hirsch, James S. Riot and Remembrance: The Tulsa Race War and Its Legacy . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

Wood, Amy L. Violence. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2011.

Video/Audio Resources

Bradley, Ed. The Rosewood Massacre. New York, NY: CBS Video, 1994.
The segment from the 60 Minutes television show that introduced the Rosewood story to the nation.
The Genocide Factor. Princeton: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2002.
Tape 2: "Genocide in the First Half of the 20th Century": The Tulsa, Oklahoma riots; The Rosewood Massacre; The Ukranian famine; The Japanese experience -- Nanking, China; The Holocaust.
Rosewood Massacre: The Untold Story. Gary Moore, Jack Smith, and David Tereshchuk. New York: ABC News Productions, 1996.
"This documentary includes interviews with survivors and eyewitnesses of the January 1923 massacre in Rosewood, Florida."
"Rosewood Reborn [1923 and after]." Listening Between the Lines.
A radio documentary with James Earl Jones and the survivors of Rosewood. The entire documentary is available for purchase through the website, but there are also sound clips of various segments of the documentary that are free to listen to. The documentary is composed of two parts: "7 Days of Ruin" and "Decades to Rebirth." It offers a comprehensive audio overview of the Rosewood Massacre through the voices of the Rosewood survivors themselves.
Rosewood: The Killing Field. Black Reflections, Inc., 2007.
Very short film: an interview with a survivor, a poem written by a victim's daughter, some commentary, and images of remaining sites in Rosewood.

Online Resources

Davidson, James, M., and Edward Gonzalez-Tennant. "A Potential Archaeology of Rosewood, Florida: The Process of Remembering a Community and a Tragedy." SAA Archaeological Record January 2008: 13-16.
Rosewood is a "memory place." "What also made Rosewood different from many past acts is that the community fought back, and the price for such audacity was the total destruction of the town." Rosewood may function like the Alamo, "but in the opposite direction; once a place of black pride, viciously and senselessly attacked and destroyed, all but forgotten for decades, now is remembered and revered as a symbol for all the Rosewoods in the past, present, and future." But is there a right to forget? "The almost exclusively white population of Levy County . . .largely does not want to remember." Rosewood may function as "the simple act of remembering in the face of overwhelming and deliberate forgetting."
Goodloe, Trevor. "Rosewood Massacre (1923)."
An encyclopedia-style article that gives a brief, yet detailed overview of the events at Rosewood, drawn from the Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida.
Hayes, Ron. "Rosewood massacre haunts memory after nearly 85 years." Palm Beach Post 14 January 2008.
Interview with 92-year-old survivor Robie Mortin.
Hixson, Richard. "Rosewood Victims Vs. State of Florida." Special Master's Final Report, 24 March 1994.
This is a document from the "Rosewood Victims Vs. State of Florida" case of 1994. It provides a detailed account of the 1994 reparations, with details regarding money and procedure. The document first presents an account of the 1923 events at Rosewood and then states the "Findings of Fact" as "This is an equitable claim seeking $7.2 million for damages resulting from the 1923 destruction of Rosewood, Florida." Especially useful in a legal analysis of the Rosewood Massacre, this document is an important piece of history and provides a researcher with specific information regarding reparations.
Jones, Daryl L. "Address to the Black Reparations & Self-Determination Conference."
"First, I would like you to know that I believe I speak for my colleagues in the Florida Conference of Black State Legislators when I say that passing the historic Rosewood bill was our proudest moment. To be successful, it is crucial that any great cause has at least one leader who is profoundly dedicated, and willing to sacrifice all for the accomplishment of the goal. It was a hard fought battle that required tremendous group discipline, and was the result of a cooperative effort of a diverse group of organizations and individuals. We could not have accomplished it alone. We have come to realize that no one ever accomplishes anything of great importance alone."
Materials on the Destruction of Rosewood, Florida.
The Florida Department of State offers a comprehensive bibliography of research material regarding the Rosewood Massacre
"Omaha Race Riot of 1919."
"The Omaha Race Riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska, on September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the brutal lynching of Will Brown, a black worker; the death of two white men; the attempted hanging of the mayor Edward Parsons Smith; and a public rampage by thousands of whites who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha. It followed more than 20 race riots that occurred in major industrial cities of the United States during the Red Summer of 1919."
The Real Rosewood
"Welcome to Rosewood, a site established to preserve history -- informing readers of the 1923 tragedy that destroyed a historic town. Rosewood's history will always live in the hearts of those who loved it most."
"Red Summer (1919)"
"The Red Summer refers to the race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities in the United States during the summer and early autumn of 1919. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans. In some cases groups of blacks fought back, notably in Chicago, where, along with Washington, D.C. and Elaine, Arkansas, the greatest number of fatalities occurred.[1] The riots followed postwar social tensions related to the demobilization of veterans of World War I, both black and white, and competition for jobs among ethnic whites and blacks."
Remembering Rosewood
This website is an indispensable source in studying Rosewood. It has a link to "A Documented History of the Massacre which occurred at Rosewood, Florida, in January 1923," which is the research presented to the State of Florida in 1994. Also, it provides a useful timeline and survivor accounts. Furthermore, this website has links to more exhibits and information regarding taking guided tours of Rosewood.
The Rosewood Massacre (1923): The Real Truth
"Fiction & Fact" in regard to the "real" massacre showing there's more fiction than fact. Seems to be by a white supremacist -- keeps referring to whites as "Americans."
Rosewood Massacre - 1923
"These are the Rosewood structures prior to their desctruction in early 1923. The placement was derived by geoferencing maps in ArcGIS. The structures themselves are slightly enlarged to help orient the viewer. Also, the buildings themselves were designed using photographs, although the exact appearence of each structure is historically unknown. I will be updating this model in the future, the railroad and southeastern most structures do not line up exactly, but will during the next update (scheduled for early 2008)."
Rosewood Victims vs State of Florida
Special Master's 1994 final report to the Florida House of Representatives regarding the claim for damages by former residents and descendants of Rosewood.
Rosewood, Florida Waymark
Photographs and the text content from the historic marker signs which explain the Rosewood Massacre. The marker signs are located along Florida's Route 24, where Rosewood once existed. Although the waymark signs may seem insignificant to some, it is important to note that the story of Rosewood was ignored for sixty years, so such seemingly small recognition along the highway is actually an important part of understanding the history.
"Tulsa race riot"
"The Tulsa Race Riot was a large-scale, racially motivated conflict on May 31 and June 1, 1921, in which whites attacked the black community of Tulsa, Oklahoma. It resulted in the Greenwood District, also known as 'the Black Wall Street'[1] and the wealthiest black community in the United States, being burned to the ground. During the 16 hours of the assault, more than 800 whites were admitted to local white hospitals with injuries (the black hospital was burned down), and police arrested and detained more than 6,000 black Greenwood residents at three local facilities, in part for their protection. An estimated 10,000 blacks were left homeless, and 35 city blocks composed of 1,256 residences were destroyed by fire. The official count of the dead by the Oklahoma Department of Vital Statistics was 39, but other estimates of black fatalities have been up to about 300."
Virtual Rosewood. James M. Davidson and Edward Gonzalez-Tennant.
An interactive, virtual tour of Rosewood, Florida, in 1923.
Without Sanctuary
Web site related to the Allen book above. A collection of postcards about lynchings -- one of the most gruesome and graphic reminders of this horrible aspect of American history that one can imagine.
Witt, Sandra Johnson. "The Rosewood Massacre Report: Rosewood and the Racial Violence of January 1923."
Summary of events.