Reel American HistoryHistory on trial Main Page

AboutFilmsFor StudentsFor TeachersBibliographyResources

Films >> 1492: Conquest of Paradise (1992) >>

Alleva, Richard. "Good bye, Columbus: Ridley Scott's '1492.'" Commonweal 20 November 1992: 20-21.

The Arguments of Sepulveda http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure2/b5.htm

Axtell, James. "The Moral Dimensions of 1492." Historian 56.1 (1993): 17-28.

Axtell, James. Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America. New York: Oxford UP, 1992.

Ayala, Sergio Rivera, and Sonya Lipsett-Rivera. "Columbus Takes On the Forces of Darkness, or Film and Historical Myth in 1492: The Conquest of Paradise." Based on a True Story: Latin American History at the Movies. Ed. Donald F. Stevens. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1997.

Bahiana, Ana Maria. "1492: Conquest of Paradise." Ridley Scott: Interviews. Ed. Laurence F. Knapp and Andrea F. Kulas. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2005. 81-88.

Bartosik-Vélez, Elise. "The Three Rhetorical Strategies of Christopher Columbus." Colonial Latin American Review 11.1 (2002): 33-46.

Benjamin, Walter. "Theses On The Philosophy Of History." Illuminations. 1955. Trans. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken Books, 1968.

Bercht, Fatima. Taíno: Pre-Columbian Art and Culture from the Caribbean. New York: Monacelli Press, 1997.

Bodmer, Beatriz Pastor. The Armature of Conquest. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1992.

Bowater, Ian. "'1492' Writer's Dramatic Feast Starved By Final Editing." Los Angeles Times 2 November 1992: F3.

The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI), May 4, 1493. http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/indig-inter-caetera.html

Burke-Block, Candace. "Ridley Scott's Newest World." The San Francisco Chronicle 7 October 1992: E1.

Bushman, Claudia L. Review of Three Columbus Films. Public Historian 15.3 (1993): 112-15.

Bushman, Claudia L. America Discovers Columbus: How An Italian Explorer Became An American Hero. Hanover: UP of New England, 1992.

Cacciutto, Franklin C. "Columbus In Chains: The Image of Columbus in Literature." Diss. St. John's University, New York, 1991.

Campe, J. H. Columbus; or, The discovery of America: as related by a father to his children, and designed for the instruction of youth. Trans. Elizabeth Helme.

Canby, Vincent. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. The New York Times 9 October 1992: C21.

Carr, Jay. "Ridley Scott's Beautiful but Shallow '1492.'" The Boston Globe 9 October 1992: 85.

Christopher Columbus (Mel-O-Tunes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kuvRFZ4Mxbo&feature=related

Christopher Columbus and Early European Exploration http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/grd/resguides/columbus.html

"Christopher Columbus, Then and Now." New York Times 12 October 1992: 18.

Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal (Medieval Sourcebook) http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/Columbus1.html

Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide. San Francisco: City Lights, 1997.

Churchill, Ward. Indians Are Us? Culture and Genocide in Native North America. Maine: Common Courage, 1994.

Clark, Mike. "Columbus Sails Off Course in '1492.'" USA Today 9 October 1992: 8D.

Colorado, Pam. "What Every Indian Knows." Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide. San Francisco: City Lights, 1997: forward. http://books.google.com/books?id=QXRyTRavzK4C&lpg=PR11&ots=s-6AyvIu46&dq=%22pam%20colorado%22&pg=PR11#v=onepage&q=%22pam%20colorado%22&f=false

Columbus and the Age of Discovery http://www.millersv.edu/~columbus/data/ [Archived]

Columbus clip from The Canary Effect http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2wm0EvTk8o4

Columbus Day Parade Protest 2007 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_tW--WdgyU&playnext_from=TL&videos=Cpk7I3VHJKY&feature=grec

Columbus Day Sanitized http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRED_7pAAaI

Columbus Didn't Discover Us. Video. Massachusetts: Turning Tide Productions, 1992.

The Columbus Landfall Homepage http://www.columbusnavigation.com/cclandfl.shtml

The Columbus Letter http://usm.maine.edu/maps/web-document/1/home

The Columbus Navigation Homepage http://www.columbusnavigation.com/

Columbus On Trial. Video. New York: Women Make Movies, 1993.

Columbus's World. Video. Princeton: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, Inc., 1991.

Columbus, Christopher. The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493: Abstracted by Bartolome de las Casas. Trans. Oliver Dunn and James E. Kelley, Jr. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1989.

Columbus, Christopher. The Four Voyages. Ed. and trans. J. M. Cohen. New York: Penguin Books, 1969.

Columbus: Continuation of a Genocidal Legacy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXomn9lUlLU&feature=related

Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Great Disease." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue): 54-56.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport: Greenwood Pub. Co., 1972.

Davenport, Hugo. "The Arts: Heaven and Hell On The High Seas." The Daily Telegraph 22 October 1992: 14.

Davies, Tristan. "The Arts: Talent That Travels." The Daily Telegraph 20 February 1993: 17.

Deleuze, Gilles. Negotiations. Trans. Martin Jorghin. New York: Columbia UP, 1995.

Dennis, Matthew. "Reinventing America: Columbus Day and Centenary Celebrations of His Voyage." Red, White, and Blue Letter Days: An American Calendar. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2002. 119-61.

DeSirey, Jan, Chris Dodge, and John Yewell. Confronting Columbus. Jefferson: McFarland and Co., 1992.

Discoverers Web http://www.win.tue.nl/~engels/discovery/

Doll, Susan (updated by Joseph Milicia). Ridley Scott. Film Reference. http://www.filmreference.com/Directors-Sc-St/Scott-Ridley.html

Durham, Jimmy. "Columbus Day." http://www.indians.org/welker/columbu1.htm

Dvorak, Antonin. Symphony No. 9. 1892.

Ebel, Mark T. Five Films of Pre-Columbian Culture, The Discovery of the New World, and the Spanish Conquest. Diss. Florida State U, 1996. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1997.

Ebert, Roger. "Discovering Columbus; Romantic '1492' Reveals His Dogged Complexity." Chicago Sun-Times 9 October 1992: 42.

Elliot, David. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. The San Diego Union-Tribune 8 October 1992: 11.

Extracts from Columbus' Journal on the First Voyage http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/columbus1.html

A Faithful Response to the 500th Anniversary of the Arrival of Christopher Columbus http://www.indians.org/welker/faithful.htm

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched Of The Earth. 1961. New York: Grove Press, 1968.

1492 Revisited. San Diego: KPBS-TV, 1992.

1492: An Ongoing Voyage http://metalab.unc.edu/expo/1492.exhibit/Intro.html

1492: Conquest of Paradise trailer http://www.trailerfan.com/movie/1492_conquest_of_paradise/trailer

Fristone, Roger. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. The Courier-Journal 10 October 1992: 27S.

Fuentes, Carlos. "More Than a Civilizing Epic . . . the New World after Columbus." The Guardian (London) 12 October 1992: 19.

Garcia, Maria. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. Films In Review 44.5-6 (June 1993): 194-97.

Gates, David. "Who Was Columbus?" Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue): 29-31.

Gelman, David. "Columbus and His Four Fateful Voyages." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue): 39-46.

Gonzalez, Ray, ed. Without Discovery: A Native Response to Columbus. Seattle: Broken Moon, 1992.

González Camarena, Jorge. La fusión de las culturas. http://ic2.pbase.com/o6/78/599778/1/51810292.izuoQF8r.51810292.IMG_8710.jpg

Green, Tom. "'1492' Puts Wind in Depardieu's Sails." USA Today 8 October 1992: 1D.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1991.

Griffin, John. "Heaven and Hell Collide In Ridley Scott's Epic Film." The Gazette 9 October 1992: D2.

Gritten, David. "The Arts: The Man Who Dresses In The Dark: Gerard Depardieu, Star Of The New Blockbuster Columbus Movie '1492,' Talks To David Gritten About His Wildly Unconventional Career." The Sunday Telegraph 11 October 1992: 113.

Hall, Mimi. "On Columbus Day, mixed emotions." USA Today 12 October 1992: 11A.

Happy Columbus Day http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbx3vYd5ddc&feature=related

Harff, Barbara. "Genocide and the Reconstruction of Social Theory: Observations on the Exclusivity of Collective Death." Genocide and The Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death. Ed. Isidor Wallimann and Michael N Dobkowski. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Hedges, William L. "Irving's Columbus: The Problem Of Romantic Biography." The Americas 13:2 (1956):127-40.

Herd, Deborah. "That Sinking Feeling." South China Morning Post 30 December 1995: 11.

Hinson, Hal. "'1492': That Sinking Feeling." The Washington Post 9 October 1992: B1.

Howe, Desson. "Paradise Lost Again." The Washington Post 9 October 1992: N42.

Irving, Washington. History of New York. New York, 1809: Book I, chapter v.

Irving, Washington. The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: G. & G. Garvill, 1828.

Jackson, Kevin. "Sailing The Ocean Blues." The Independent 23 October 1992: 16.

Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation http://www.taino-tribe.org/

John Sayles reads Bartolome de Las Casas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9qOnq4qQKAw

Jorgen, Randolph, ed. Columbus and Beyond. Tuscon: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1992.

The Journal of Christopher Columbus. Ed. Clements Markham. London: Hakluyt Society, 1893. http://books.google.com/books?id=-DMSAAAAYAAJ&dq=r.h.%20major%20columbus&as_brr=1&pg=PA15#v=onepage&q=r.h.%20major%20columbus&f=true

Keegan, William F. Taíno Indian Myth and Practice: The Arrival of the Stranger King. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 2007.

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999. 130-34.

Koning, Hans. "The Second Voyage." Confronting Columbus: An Anthology. Ed. John Yewell, Chris Dodge, and Jan DeSirey. Jefferson: MacFarland, 1992.

Kubal, Timothy. Cultural Movements and Collective Memory: Christopher Columbus and the Rewriting of the National Origin Myth. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.

Las Casas, Bartolome. The Tears of the Indians: Being an Historical and True Account of the Cruel Massacres and Slaughters of above Twenty Millions of Innocent People. London, 1656. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql17AAAAMAAJ&dq=tears%20of%20the%20indians&as_brr=1&pg=PP7#v=onepage&q=&f=false

LaSalle, Mick. "'1492' Needs a Map." The San Francisco Chronicle 9 October 1992: C1.

Le Beau, Brian F. "Of Hollywood and History: The Columbus Movies of '92." American Studies 34:1 (1993): 151-57.

Limbaugh, Rush. "Multiculturalism." The Way Things Ought to Be. New York: Pocket Books, 1992. 204-13.

Lipper, Hal. "Discovering Columbus." St. Petersburg Times 9 October 1992: 21.

Lipper, Hal. "Seeks His Destiny." St. Petersburg Times 9 October 1992: 20.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: New Press, 1995.

Loewenberg, James. American History In American Thought: Christopher Columbus To Henry Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Lyons, Scott Richard. "Rhetorical Sovereignty: What Do American Indians Want from Writing?" College Composition and Communication 51.3 (2000): 447-68.

MacInnis, Craig. "Depardieu: An Epic Columbus." The Toronto Star 9 October 1992: C5.

MacInnis, Craig. "Ridley Scott's Taking All Comers In Debate On Columbus's Ethics." The Toronto Star 7 October 1992: F1.

Major, Richard Henry. Select Letters of Christopher Columbus: With other Original Documents relating to this Four Voyages to the New World. London, 1847.

Malcolm, Derek. "Film: Black Truth, White Lies." The Guardian 22 October 1992: 6.

Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. New York: Knopf, 2005.

Mann, Charles C. 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011.

McCarthy, Todd. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. Variety 12 October 1992: 185.

Miller, Susan. "The High Price Of Sugar." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue):70-74.

Minh-ha, Trinh T. When The Moon Waxes Red. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Morganthau, Tom. "Slavery: How It Built the New World." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue):66-69.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: The Heritage Press, 1963.

Oliver, José R. Caciques and Cemí Idols: The Web Spun by Taíno Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2009.

Pagden, Anthony. European Encounters with the New World. London: Yale UP, 1993.

Pané, Ramón. An Account of the Antiquities of the Indians: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Durham: Duke UP, 1999.

Paz, Octavio. "The Labyrinth Of Solitude." The Labyrinth Of Solitude And Other Writings. 1961. New York: Grove, 1985.

Phillips, Carla Rahn, et al. "Christopher Columbus: Two Films." Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies. Ed. Mark C. Carnes. New York: Holt, 1995. 60-65.

Requerimiento (1510) http://users.dickinson.edu/%7Eborges/Resources-Requerimiento.htm

Restall, Matthew. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. New York: Oxford UP, 2003.

Rodríguez García, José María. "Exiles and Arrivals in Christopher Columbus and William Bradford." Explorations in Renaissance Culture 28.1 (2002): 75-98.

Rollins, Peter C. "Christopher Columbus." The Columbia Companion to American History on Film: How the Movies Have Portrayed the American Past. New York: Columbia UP, 2003. 148-53.

Rouse, Irving. The Tainos: Rise & Decline of the People who Greeted Columbus. New Haven: Yale UP, 1992.

Royal, Robert. 1492 And All That: Political Manipulations of History. Baltimore: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1992.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy. New York: Knopf, 1990.

Schnaubelt, Joseph C., and Frederick Van Fleteren, eds. Columbus and the New World. New York: Peter Lang, 1998.

Schwartz, Richard A. "1492: Conquest of Paradise." The Films of Ridley Scott. Westport: Praeger, 2001.

Seed, Patricia. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995.

Shannon, Jeff. "Scott's '1492': A Sage Strays Off Course." The Seattle Times 9 October 1992: 3.

Sokolov, Raymond. "Stop Knocking Columbus." Newsweek Fall/Winter 1991 (Special Issue):82.

Stam, Robert. "Cinema And The Columbus Debate." Cineaste 19:4 (1992): 66-71.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford UP, 1992.

Stavans, Ilan. Imagining Columbus: The Literary Voyage. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993.

Stevens Arroyo, Antonio M. Cave of the Jagua: The Mythological World of the Taínos. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1988.

Stone, Edward. "Columbus and Genocide." American Heritage 26 (October 1975): 4-7, 76-79.

Strauss, Bob. "Depardieu Finds '1492' Parallels His Life's Passage." Chicago Sun-Times 4 October 1992: 3.

Strick, Philip. Rev. of 1492: Conquest of Paradise. Sight and Sound 2.7 (1992): 41-42.

Symcox, Geoffrey, and Blair Sullivan. Christopher Columbus and the Enterprise of the Indies: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's 2005.

The Tainos by Iroqua http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7deJXU4ZRG0&feature=related

Theodore de Bry images of Las Casas. http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/trial/justification/newspain/image/1/

This Just In . . . Columbus Has Landed. Video. Nebraska: Creighton University, 1991.

Turan, Kenneth. "New World Disorder; Ridley Scott's '1492' Fills The Screen With Dazzling Visual Spectacle. But In Dramatic Terms, Its Paradise Lost." Los Angeles Times 9 October 1992: F1.

Wollen, Peter. "Cinema's Conquistadors." Sight and Sound 2.7 (1992): 21-23.

World's Columbian Exposition (1893) http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA96/WCE/title.html

Zamora, Margarita. "Teaching Columbus from the Margins of Las Casas." Approaches to Teaching the Writings of Bartolomé de Las Casas. Ed. Santa Arias and Eyda M. Merediz. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2008. 141-46.

Zinn, Howard. "Columbus and Western Civilization." Howard Zinn on History. New York: Seven Stories P., 2001. 97-120.