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A.K.A. Cassius Clay. Dir. Jim Jacobs. Perf. Richard Kiley. Dvd. MGM, 1970.

African Americans in the Movies: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkley Library.

Ali, Muhammad, and Karl Evanzz. I Am the Greatest: The Best Quotations from Muhammad Ali. Kansas City: Andrew McMeel Publishing, 2002.

Anderson, Dave. "Ali Regains Title, Flooring Foreman: Ali Knocks Out Foreman in 8th and Regains World Crown; Winner is Second to Recapture Heavyweight Title; Ali's Robe Forgotten." New York Times 30 October 1974: 1.

Anderson, Dave. "Chant of the Holy War: 'ali, Bomaye." New York Times 28 October 1974: 43.

Anderson, Dave. "Foreman 3-1 Over Ali in Zaire Tonight: Foreman 3-1 to Beat Ali in Africa Tonight." New York Times 29 October 1974: 45.

Ansen, David. "A Split Decision: Cool Film About a Hot Man." Newsweek 24 December 2001: 40.

The Black Film Center/Archive Selected List of Film-Related Internet Resources

Cagle, Jess. "Lord of the Ring; Muhammad Ali and Will Smith Turn the Champ's Life into a Movie as Stirring -- and Complex -- as the Man." Time 24 December 2001: 68.

"Cassius Clay Loses Status As a Muslim for a Period of Year." New York Times 6 April 1969: 44.

Curtis, Edward, IV. Islam in Black America. Albany: State U of New York P, 2002.

The Cyber Boxing Zone

Diawara, Manthia. Black American Cinema. London: Routledge, 1993.

Doyle, Kegan. "Muhammad Goes to Hollywood: Michael Mann's Ali as Biopic." Journal of Popular Culture 39.3 (2006): 383-406.

Dzenis, Anna. "Michael Mann." Sense of Cinema.

Ebert, Roger. Rev. of Ali, dir. Michael Mann. Chicago Sun-Times 25 December 2001.

Ellen, Barbara. "He Stings Like a Butterfly." The Times (London) 14 February 2002.

The Films of Michael Mann. Dir. Robert J. Emery and Milt Fensen. New York: Winstar Productions, 2001.

Gaine, Vincent M. Existentialism and Social Engagement in the Films of Michael Mann. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Goldberg, Jonah. "Ali!, Ali!" National Review 28 January 2002: 30.

Graham, Allison. "Civil Rights Films and The New Red Menance: The Legacy of the 1960s." Framing the South. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 2001. 147-93.

Graham, Bob. "'Ali' Connects; Will Smith a Knockout in Title Role." San Francisco Chronicle 25 December 2001: D1.

The Greatest. Dir. Monte Hellman and Tom Gries. Perf. Muhammad Ali and James Earl Jones. Videocassette. Columbia/Tristar Studios, 1977.

Guerrero, Edward. Framing Blackness: The African-American Image in Film. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1993.

Haley, Alex, and Malcolm X. The Autobiography of Malcolm X (as told to Alex Haley.) New York: Ballantine Books, 1964.

Handler, M.S. "Malcolm X Splits With Muhammad: Suspended Muslim Leader Plans Black Nationalist Political Movement." New York Times 9 March 1964: 1.

Harkavy, Ward. "The Greatest? Not his movie." Village Voice 8 January 2002: 145.

Haun, Harry. "From Insider to Ringsider: Michael Mann Directs Will Smith as Legendary Ali." Film Journal International 105.1 (2002): 10-12.

Honeycutt, Kirk. "Movie Review; 'Ali." BPI Entertainment News Wire 17 December 2001.

I Shook Up the World -- Clay vs. Sonny Liston 1964. Videocassette. Home Box Office Films, 2002.

International Boxing Hall of Fame "Enshrinees: Muhammad Ali."

Jahen, Frederic Cople. "White America Views Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and Muhammad Ali." Sport in America: New Historical Perspectives. Ed. Donald Spivey. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985. 145-92.

Kihss, Peter. "Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here: Three Other Negroes Wounded -- One is Held in Killing." New York Times 22 February 1965: 1.

Kimball, George. "Ali Movie Almost Picture-Perfect." Boston Herald 27 December 2001: O84.

Knight, Jim. "Letters to the Editors: Cassius Clay." Life 27 March 1964: 23.

Lanning, David. "Ali: Power and Grace." Creative Screenwriting 9.1 (2002): 42, 44, 46.

Lipsyte, Robert. "Cassius Clay, Cassius X, Muhammad Ali: Cassius Clay." New York Times 25 October 1965: SM29.

Lipsyte, Robert. "Clay Discusses His Future, Liston and Black Muslims: The Champion Speaks, but Softly." New York Times 27 February 1964: 34.

Lipsyte, Robert. "Clay: A Ring Mystery: His Mockery of Sport, and Black Muslim Role Make Future of Boxing Uncertain." New York Times 28 November 1965: S10.

Lipsyte, Robert. "Muhammad Ali Slaps at Terrell After Name-calling Exchange at Garden: Champion Labels Foe 'uncle Tom'; References to Cassius by Challenger Appear to Anger Heavyweight King." New York Times 29 December 1966: 38.

Mailer, Norman. The Fight. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.

Malcolm X: A Research Site

Malcolm X. Dvd. Dir. Spike Lee. Perf. Denzel Washington and Angela Bassett. Warner Studios, 1992.

Marsh, Clifton. The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in America. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2000.

McCarthy, Todd. "No Sweat on Mann-Made 'Ali." Variety 17 December 2001: 35-37.

McCarty, John. "Michael Mann." Film Reference.

McCrisken, Trevor, and Andrew Pepper. "From Civil Rights to Black Nationalism?" American History and Contemporary Hollywood Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2005. 160-86.

McDermott, John R. "Champ 23: A Man-Child Taken in by the Muslims." Life 6 March 1964: 38-39.

Mitchell, Elvis. "Film Review; Master of the Boast, King of the Ring, Vision of the Future." New York Times 25 December 2001: E1.

Morgenstern, Joe. "Film: Lavish, Disjointed 'Ali' Might be the Prettiest, but it isn't the Greatest -- Biopic Gets the Details Right, but Overlooks Fighter's Spark." Wall Street Journal 28 December 2001: W1.

Muhammad Ali -- The Whole Story. Videocassette. Turner Home Video, 1997.

Ostler, Scott. "Stronger than Fiction; Sticking to the Truth in 'Ali' Pays off for Filmmaker and Fans Alike." San Francisco Chronicle 31 December 2001: D1.

Plimpton, George. "Muhammad Ali: Floating, stinging, punching, prophesying, he transformed his sport and became the world's most adored athlete." Time 14 June 1999.

"Prizefighting: With Mouth and Magic." Time 6 March 1964: 66.

Rainer, Peter. Rev. of Ali, dir. Michael Mann. New York Observer 24 December 2001.

Remnick, David. King of the World. New York: Random House, 1998.

Rocchio, Vincent F. Reel Racism: Confronting Hollywood's Construction of Afro-American Culture. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000.

Rollins, Peter C. The Columbia Companion to American History on Film: How the Movies Have Portrayed the American Past. New York: Columbia UP, 2003.

Rosenbaum, David. "Ali Wins in Draft Case Appeal: Calling Up of Boxer Ruled Improper, Court Upholds Him on Religion, 8-0 Supreme Court Clears Ali, 8-0." New York Times 29 June 1971: 1.

Rumble in the Jungle -- Ali vs. Foreman 1974. Videocassette. Home Box Office Films, 2002.

Rybin, Steven. The Cinema of Michael Mann. Lanham: Lexington, 2007.

Ryfle, Steve. "Ali: Steve Ryfle Speaks with Eric Roth." Creative Screenwriting 9.1 (2002): 41-46.

Sailer, Steve. "Film Review: Will Smith in 'Ali." Los Angeles Times 24 December 2001.

Sammons, Jeffrey T. Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society. Urbana and Chicago: U of Illinois P, 1990.

Sammons, Jeffrey. Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1988.

Samuels, Gertrude. "Feud Within the Black Muslims: Elijah Muhammad, Leader of the Separatist Negro Sect. Faces a Revolt in His Ranks. His disciple, Malcolm X, Leader in New York, Has Set Up a Rival 'black Nationalist' Political Movement. The Black Muslims

Smith, Charles R. Twelve Rounds to Glory: The Story of Muhammad Ali. Cambridge: Candlewick Press, 2007.

Stanford University Thinker on the Web: "The Nation of Islam"

Trailer for the Ali film.

Travers, Peter. "Ali." Rolling Stone 17 January 2002: 56.

Waldron, Martin. "Clay Guilty in Draft Case: Gets Five Years in Prison: U.S. Judge Also Fines the Boxer $10,000 for Refusing Induction Clay is Convicted on Draft Charge." New York Times 21 June 1967: 1.

When We Were Kings. Dir. Leon Gast. Perf. Muhammad Ali and George Foreman. Dvd. Usa Films, 1999.

Wicker, Tom. "In the Nation: Muhammad Ali and Dissent." New York Times 2 May 1967: 40.

Wiggins, David K. "Great Speed but Little Stamina: The Historical Debate Over Black Athletic Superiority." The New American History: New Historical Perspectives. Ed. S. W. Pope. Urbana and Chicago: U of Illinois P, 1997. 313-38.

Will Smith and Muhammad Ali

Wootton, Adrian. "The Big Hurt." Sight and Sound 12.3 (2002): 16-18.