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See the bibliography (divided into print, video/audio, and online resources) below the essay.

The Hutu Tutsi Conflict Explained

[1] Hotel Rwanda highlights the personal story of Paul Rusesabagina, a Rwandan native who saved 1,268 Hutu and Tutsi lives in the midst of the Rwandan genocide of 1994. After 100 days of violence, over 800,000 Hutu and Tutsi perished with the genocide. In the wake of this overwhelming loss, many attribute the cause of the genocide to an oversimplified explanation of ethnic conflict between Hutu and Tutsi. However, this essay will briefly explore the history that manifested these events to create a context for Paul Rusesabagina’s story.

[2] Rwanda is a small country located in East Central Africa. It is “slightly smaller than Massachusetts or half the size of Scotland” yet has an estimated population of over ten million, which is almost twice the population of both Massachusetts and Scotland (Wikipedia). It is a land-locked country that shares borders with Uganda in the North, Tanzania to the East, Burundi to the South, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly known as Zaire) to the West. Rwanda is composed of three ethnic groups: the Hutu 85%, Tutsi 15%, and Twa 1% (Rusesabagina). However, despite “ethnic” labels that identify these groups, the Hutu and Tutsi cannot actually be considered separate ethnicities because “they both speak the same language, share the same territory, and follow the same traditions” (Destexhe 37). In modern day Rwanda, the groups cannot be distinguished by physical traits, and there is integration in Rwandan marriage practices, churches, and daily life (Bagrinka). This apparent cultural homogeneity makes it difficult to comprehend the binary division between the Hutu and Tutsi during the genocide.

The Genocide of 1994

[3] In April of 1994, a genocide broke out in the capital city of Kigali, over the power struggle and conflict between the Hutu and Tutsis. The motive was described as a Hutu attempt to cleanse the “foreign” Tutsi’s who had exploited and ruled over the “native” Hutus since Belgian colonization in 1923 (Wikipedia). The killing was stimulated by the Hutu government yet carried out by the people. Both parties were needed to fuel the murders. The term genocide is used to identify this bloodbath because the goal was to systematically eliminate the Tutsi people because of their identity.

[4] This genocide was characterized by brutal intimate killings in contrast to the technologically advanced executions of the Holocaust. The Rwandans functioned on a much smaller budget that armed its perpetrators with machetes that required the murderer to slash the victim multiple times by his or her own hand. In comparison, the killings of the Holocaust could be executed at a distance by simply dropping Zyklon B in a gas chamber and cleaning up the deceased remains. Forty-eight methods of killing were documented in the Rwandan genocide and “ranged from burying people alive in graves they had dug up themselves, to cutting and opening wombs of pregnant mothers. People were quartered, impaled or roasted to death” (Bizimungu). Rape was also a method of genocide and left many victims infected with HIV/AIDS following their assault (Bagrinka).

[5] The killing was fast and made possible in part by the propaganda used on the radio. “In much of Africa, and other parts of the developing world, a transistor radio is the only source of information” (Destexhe ix). The Hutu rebels took advantage of this tool and used radio broadcasts to recruit Hutu killers and communicate orders to wipe out their fellow “Tutsi cockroaches.” This allowed information to be disseminated rapidly and helped convince the Hutus to follow orders obediently with constant reinforcement.

[6] The catalyst of the genocide is agreed to be assassination of the Rwandan president who was shot down in an airplane in Kigali on April 6, 1994. This enraged Hutu political leaders, who, despite inconclusive evidence of the identity of the assassin, chose to act upon this event. After orders were sent by the radio, the Hutus took to the streets in search of Tutsi blood. Citizens who had previously coexisted and maintained peaceful relationships were convinced by Hutu propaganda that their Tutsi neighbors were a threat to their lives and would seize power of the country.

[7] Immediately following the onset of the killing, US President Bill Clinton along with Belgian officials called for the removal of all American and Western citizens from Rwanda. A mass exodus of whites left the Rwandans without international aid. The UN did provide a limited number of Peacekeepers, yet they were unarmed and unauthorized to instigate conflict. They could not create peace; they could only maintain it. General Romeo Dellaide, the leader of the UN peacekeeping mission, requested more support and UN soldiers, yet his request was denied, and he continued his mission without resources. This lack of aid from the international community has stimulated discussion about the responsibility and role that states have to their neighbors in the international community.

History of the Ethnic Divide

[8] The development of the genocide is explained by a historic “ethnic” conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi groups. “Before the colonizer arrived, society in Africa was comprised of identifiable categories, separate social classes or castes that differed in regard to the amount of power each could exercise” (Destexhe 37). In Rwanda, the Hutus and Tutsis were identified by their occupations. The Tutsis owned cattle, which granted them power through property rights, and the Hutus worked on the land, which dictated a somewhat less powerful role. These divisions were not based on ethnic differences, but a division in labor. These groups practiced endogamy, marrying within social unit or tribe which reinforced characteristic physical traits in each group. Still, despite the separation of marriage and occupation, the Hutus and Tutsis were indistinguishable by ethnic definition because “it would be hard to find a practice either culturally or folklorically distinctly Hutu or Tutsi” (Destexhe 36).

[9] However, when the Belgians arrived in Rwanda after WWI to colonize and expand their territory, these social identities were solidified and exaggerated to maintain Belgian power and authority. To assist in their division and organization of power, the Belgians “developed a system of categories for different ‘tribes’ that was largely a function of aesthetic impressions” (Destexhe 38). Tutsis stereotypically embodied a thin face and nose, and were slightly taller than the shorter, Hutus with a flatter nose. Based on this physical difference, which is now indistinguishable, the Belgians assigned the minority Tutsis as the ruling group over the Hutu majority. This distinction was exaggerated even more by the introduction of identity cards that classified Rwandans as Hutu or Tutsi. Thus, the separation between the Hutu and Tutsi was not entirely created by the Belgians, yet it earned a new purpose after their presence and exaggerated differences and social divisions by assigning power and installing identity cards.

[10] This cultural distinction between Hutu and Tutsi took on greater significance after the Pan-African movement in 1959 which empowered Hutus to claim rights against the ruling Tutsis and colonists (Wikipedia). Rwandans “constructed [Tutsi] as a privileged alien settler presence, first by the great nativist revolution of 1959, and then by Hutu Power propaganda after 1990” (Mamdani 14). On the other hand, the Hutus “saw themselves as sons—and daughters—of the soil,” natives of the land (Mamdani 14). The 1959 Hutu revolution marked a change in power, in which Hutus believed they had original rights to rule their own country, which led to the independence of Rwanda in 1962 (Wikipedia). Then in the 1990s, Hutu rebel leaders stimulated a movement again and proclaimed the Tutsis would never rule again. In 1962, the first Hutu president was elected into office, and he was followed by a second Hutu president who was assassinated in 1994.

[11] What was once peaceful coexistence between the Hutus and Tutsi “metamorphosed into an ethnic problem with an overwhelmingly racist dimension,” largely because of an exploitation of these differences by a power-driven colonist agenda (Destexhe 47). The systematic killing produced a catastrophic number of lost lives and has left a mark on twentieth century history. In the midst of this horror, individuals like Paul Rusesabagina attempted to change a small part of history, despite the lack of support and resources around him. This human story must be recognized yet also contextualized in the overarching history of events of the Rwandan genocide. Today [2009], the Hutus and Tutsis still share a common culture and both want a community of peace irrespective of the ruler (Bagrinka).

Addendum: Rwanda Today 2012 (by Jae Yong Shim)

Since the genocide 18 years have passed. For the last 18 years, Rwanda has put a lot of effort to end the racial conflict, raising a sense of nationhood and creating new policies to tie Hutus and Tutsis together. The militia or Interahamwe is gone from Rwanda, though some members have fled to the Congo, a neighbor nation, and have caused serious instability there. Some other members have been tried and prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal. On the other hand, a new memorial site has been built in order to commemorate victims and fallen heroes. The new memorial site, called the National Genocide Memorial, as well as a museum have become "must visit" places for tourists and young generations of Rwandans, educating them about the tragedy.

Print Resources

Dallaire, Roméo. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. New York: DaCapo, 2004.
"Dallaire is widely known for having served as Force Commander of UNAMIR, the ill-fated United Nations peacekeeping force for Rwanda between 1993 and 1994, and for trying to stop the genocide that was being waged by Hutu extremists against Tutsis and Hutu moderates."
Destexhe, Alain. Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Washington Square: New York UP, 1995.
Focuses on the political history of the Hutus and Tutsis as well as making interesting comparisons between the Rwandan genocide, the Holocaust, and the Armenian genocide, all occurring in the 20th century. Destexhe outlines the origins of the term "genocide" and focuses on Rwanda as an example of the mentality in a genocide to kill only because one is part of a group. He later articulates the aftermath of guilty conscience and political responsibility for the French, Belgians, and US.
George, Terry. "Smearing a Hero: Sad Revisionism Over 'Hotel Rwanda'." Washington Post 10 May 2006.
"When the film was released," George says, "Rusesabagina was acknowledged as a hero not just by ordinary people across the United States and Europe but also by diplomats, politicians, journalists and Rwandan officials in diplomatic posts here. Rwandan expatriates gave testimony to the veracity of the film, as did people who had been in the hotel and who tearfully acknowledged Rusesabagina's role." But on worldwide speaking tours, Rusesabagina has begun to criticise the Kagame government, as he did in the last chapter of his autobiography, so that he hears for his safety and a "smear campaign" has begun about him: "On Oct. 28 [2005] a reporter for the Rwandan daily newspaper the New Times ran a long story on the 'true nature' of Rusesabagina, which quoted a former receptionist at the hotel as saying that he had saved only his few friends, and that he had charged people to stay in the rooms (a fact we had highlighted and explained in the film). Buried at the end of the piece was probably the true fear of the Rwandan authorities: that Rusesabagina planned to form a political party." George continues: "The newspaper attacks on Rusesabagina have steadily escalated. In November he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Bush. Six days later a New Times editorial said he would 'go down in the annals of history as a man who sold the soul of the Rwandan Genocide to amass medals'." George hopes someone will "mediate this clash."
Hatzfeld, Jean. Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.
This text is an alternative approach to depicting the story of the Rwandan genocide. Hatzfeld alternates chapters between historical narrative and fictional Rwandan characters who live during the genocide.
Henninger, Daniel. "Wonder Land: 'Hotel Rwanda' Forces a Look At Mass Murder." Wall Street Journal 25 February 2005: A18.
"The world today sits at a dead end: Weeping over 'Hotel Rwanda' and clueless about what to do. Many who weep may be found among the European and American elites who oppose the Bush Doctrine, which argues for what is called 'preventive war.' Setting aside the Eurocynics and bitter-enders whose opposition to George Bush is an involuntary reflex, those who resist preventive strikes against 'rogue states' disagree with the Bush government that these rogues pose an imminent or significant threat. If so, it is little wonder that a Rwanda or Darfur don't move the needle. Rwanda or Darfur pose zero threat to anyone beyond their borders. Why don't the more thoughtful Bush opponents seize the opportunity at hand to address the mitigation of genocides and mass murder? They ought to pocket the accumulating moral and political success of the U.S. intervention in Iraq and build on that toward a military doctrine for preventing the next Rwanda or Darfur. The realists are right that you can't save everyone (a calculus made unapologetically clear by the writers of 'Hotel Rwanda'). But the attractive proposition George Bush is attempting to put before the hard-wired, all-news, 21st century world is that we can't -- literally cannot -- shut our eyes to evil anymore. Saddam is Rwanda is Darfur.
Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001.
Mamdani, a Rwandan native, grew up close to Kigali and became a scholar and also journalist documenting the Rwandan genocide. He focuses on the categorization of the Hutu Tutsi conflict as an identification of the "Settler" (Tutsi) and "Native" (Hutu) conflict as opposed to a real ethnic conflict. He also articulates the origins of the Hutu Tutsi conflict, political divides in Eastern Africa, up to the political reform needed after the genocide.
Marlowe, Jen. Darfur Diaries: Stories of Survival. New York: Nation Books, 2006.
"In November 2004 three independent filmmakers traveled to eastern Chad and crept across the border into Darfur. Improvising as they went, they spoke with dozens of Darfurians, learning about their history, hopes, fears, and the resilience and tragedy of their everyday lives."
Melvern, L. R. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2000.
This is an excellent source on the Western community's development of, defense of, and responsibility for the genocide in Rwanda. Each chapter illuminates a new contributor or actor in the West's role in the genocide and is followed by extensive footnotes of credible sources.
Melvern, Linda. "Hotel Rwanda -- Without the Hollywood Ending." theguardian.com 17 November 2011. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/nov/17/hotel-rwanda-hollywood-ending
"Rusesabagina was awarded the Lantos Human Rights prize in Washington on Wednesday, but it has sparked controversy in Rwanda, because the real story of why the people who took refuge at the hotel were spared could be somewhat different to the Hollywood version."
Omaar, Rakiya, and Alex de Waal. African Rights: Rwanda, Death, Despair and Defiance. London: African Rights, 1995.
This is a publication of African Rights, "an organization dedicated to working on issues of human rights, conflict, famine and civil reconstruction in Africa." It is a comprehensive report with extensive detail provided by academic reports as well as primary sources about Rwanda as an example of genocide. It spans from a copious report of killers and their accomplices and the political environment to the aftermath of the genocide.
Peress, Gilles. The Silence. New York: Scalo Publishers, 1995.
This is one of the most powerful and memorable resources that captures the Rwandan genocide without words. This is a photo documentary that is divided by three sub-titles: Rwanda, Tanzania, Zaire, and lacks any other captions or text. It is extremely powerful and brings an uncomfortable reality to the images of the genocide. It depicts machete wounds and emaciated children, as well as bones scattered across African terrain. Also, at the conclusion of the album, there is a pamphlet that provides a chronology of Rwanda's history, beginning with the start of colonial rule in 1897, to give context to the conflict between Hutu and Tutsi that initiated the genocide. There is also a record of excerpts from "The preliminary report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to Security Council resolution 935 (1994), dated October 1994 (excerpt)." This is a legal record documenting the evidence presented to the Security Council of the UN in 1994, to appeal to the failure of the international community to abide by international laws of Humanitarian Intervention.
Reeves, Eric. A Long Day's Dying: Critical Moments in the Darfur Genocide. Toronto: Key Pub. House, 2007.
"The present volume comprises representative 'moments' from the more than 150 analyses of Darfur I have written since Fall 2003. Each was written with an eye to what I took to be the most significant developments of the moment bearing on the Darfur crisis."
Rusesabagina, Paul, with Tom Zoellner. An Ordinary Man: An Autobiography. New York: Penguin Group, 2006.
This is a well written, first-hand narrative of Paul Rusesabagina's autobiographic background as well as account of the Rwandan genocide. He reveals the real life events that shaped Hotel Rwanda and also comments on his work with Terry George and Keir Pearson as a very positive experience.

See Also

Bashir, Halima. Tears of the Desert: A Memoir of Survival in Darfur. New York: One World Ballantine Books, 2008.

Des Forges, Alison. "Leave None to Tell the Story." New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999.

Eltringham, Nigel. Accounting for Horror: Post-Genocide Debates in Rwanda . Sterling: Pluto Press, 2004.

Fein, Helen, ed. Genocide Watch. New Haven: Yale UP, 1992.

Gourevitch, Philip. We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families -- stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998.

Jaar, Alfredo. Let There be Light: The Rwanda Project 1994-1998. Spain: Actar, 1998.

Keane, Fergal. Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.

Mann, Michael. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. New York: Cambridge UP, 2005.

Melvern, Linda. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. New York: Verso, 2004.

Nadler, Arie, Thomas E. Malloy, and Jeffrey D. Fisher. The Social Psychology of Intergroup Reconciliation. New York: Oxford UP, 2008.

Newbury, David. "Understanding Genocide." African Studies Review 41.1 (1998): 73-98.

Pottier, Johan. Re-Imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century. New York: Cambridge UP, 2002.

Power, Samantha. "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Harper, 2003.

Prunier, Gerard. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. New York: Columbia UP, 1995.

"The Rwandan Genocide: A Critical Re-Evaluation." Spec. issue of African Identities 8.4 (2010).

Scherrer, Christian P. Genocide and Crisis in Central Africa: Conflict Roots, Mass Violence and Regional War. Westport: Praeger, 2002.

Straus, Scott. The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2006.

Trotten, Samuel. "The Scourge of Genocide: Issues Facing Humanity Today and Tomorrow." Social Education 63.2 (1999): 116-18.

Video/Audio Resources

The Diary of Immaculée. Carlsbad: Hay House, Inc., 2006.
"In 1994, Immaculée Ilibagiza's idyllic world was ripped apart as Rwanda descended into a bloody genocide. The Diary of Immaculée reveals the true story of a woman's experiences in the midst of one of history's most tragic events. Includes interviews with Dr. Wayne W. Dyer and Carl Wilkens."
The Few Who Stayed - Defying Genocide in Rwanda http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/rwanda/index.html
"Listen to (or read) this American RadioWorks documentary which offers the stories of the few people who stayed during the genocide, including Adventist aid worker Carl Wilkens, featured in FRONTLINE's report. It also tells the story of a staffer with the U.N. Development Program who is alleged to have hunted down and help kill Tutsis, including his own co-workers. "Wherever Callixte went, the next day people would be found dead," says one survivor. This radio documentary was produced in cooperation with FRONTLINE and producer Greg Barker."
Forsaken Cries: The Story of Rwanda. Washington: Amnesty International USA, 1997.
"Video examines the 1994 genocide in Rwanda as a case study in the human rights challenges of the 21st century."
Gacaca, Living Together Again in Rwanda? Dir. Anne Aghion. First Run/Icarus Films, 2002.
"The first documentary film in a trilogy by Anne Aghion examining the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide. . . . Set in Rwanda, [this film]follows the proceedings of the Gacaca court, an experimental form of community justice to prosecute prisoners accused of genocide and war crimes."
Genocide: From Biblical Times through the Ages. Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 2001.
Experts in the field of international relations and humanitarian work analyze the "earliest documented examples of genocide, as in the Athenian siege of Milos in 416 BC, to explore the psychology that motivates such violence." The film articulates a comprehensive overview of the history of genocide through examining the extermination of the Tasmanians, Native Americans, Namibia's Herero tribe, and the Armenians.
Ghosts of Rwanda. Dir: Greg Barker. Frontline. PBS, 1999.
This documentary commemorating the Rwandan genocide is part of the PBS Frontline series that "investigates a broad spectrum of important events and the year's most critical issues." It includes interviews with key government officials and diplomats, as well as accounts from Tutsi survivors, and UN peacekeepers.
God sleeps in Rwanda. New York: Women Make Movies, 2004.
Examines the lives of five Rwandan women as they attempt to rebuild their lives following the 1994 genocide.
A Good Man in Hell: General Roméo Dallaire and the Rwanda Genocide. Linda Kenyon, Jerry Fowler, et al. Washington: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2003.
"In 1994, Canadian General Roméo Dallaire, commander of the UN Mission in Rwanda, warned of possible mass murder of the Tutsi minority by Hutus. Unheeded by UN officials, nearly all of his troops were withdrawn and his warning became a reality. General Dallaire shared his experience and reflected on a genocide that he could not stop and cannot forget."
In the tall grass [inside the citizen-based justice system Gacaca] Los Angeles: Choices, Inc., 2006.
"Focuses on the Hutu and Tutsi as they struggle through Rwanda's unique reconciliation process: Gacaca, a network of grassroots community courts."
Keepers of Memory. Eric Kabera, James Seligman, et al. Beverly Hills: Choices, 2005.
"Through eyewitness accounts and gripping footage, acclaimed director Eric Kabera takes a heartfelt look at the 1994 Rwandan genocide, its survivors, the memorials created in the victims' honor, and those who keep the memories alive."
Keepers of Memory. Beverly Hills: Choices, 2005.
"Through eyewitness accounts and gripping footage, acclaimed director Eric Kabera takes a heartfelt look at the 1994 Rwandan genocide, its survivors, the memorials created in the victims' honor, and those who keep the memories alive."
"Rwandan Genocide-Rwanda." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZrOtTD_iM2U
Documentary film on the development of the Rwandan genocide featuring interviews and insight from a Butare Medical Student studying during the genocide.
Shake Hands with the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire. San Francisco: California Newsreel, 2005.
"Lt. General Roméo Dallaire was the commander of the UN peacekeeping troops in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide which claimed 800,000 lives. This film follows Dallaire back to Rwanda ten years after the massacre in order for him to come to terms with the atrocities he witnessed there. Dallaire describes his experiences while in Rwanda and how they have since effected him."
The Triumph of Evil. Written by Steve Bradshaw and Ben Loeterman. PBS, 1999.
This documentary explains the Rwandan genocide as a consequence of international by-standing. It argues that evil triumphs when "when good men do nothing" and too many individuals maintain solidarity to the status quo rather than a reality that may require intervention. This film has many of the same images and interviews from Frontline's other documentary Ghosts of Rwanda, yet it does not portray the same immediacy or shocking emotional confessions from humanitarian workers and primary sources, because this film collects most of its interviews from UNAMIR officials and academics more removed from the conflict. It provides a few key definitions as well as the political history immediately preceding the genocide. The West is portrayed as immoral for not intervening because it was not in their political interest. One journalist states you would be "diluting yourself if you think [a genocide] will never happen again" because of the forces of evil that persist when individuals do not act.

Online Resources

17th anniversary of genocide coming up. http://wolfganghthome.wordpress.com/2011/03/30/rwanda-news-update-17th-anniversary-of-genocide-coming-up/
"Rwanda has since risen like the proverbial Phoenix from the ashes of the genocide and the policies of reconciliation and forging a new sense of nationhood went alongside a determined effort to bring those responsible for the massacres to justice. The International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda in Arusha has been prosecuting cases as was Rwanda at home, and while some accuse the government in Kigali of harsh measures, the effort to prevent historical lies from being told or a return of the radicals from neighbouring Congo must be supported, even if such measures are ‘robust'."
Bibliography of the Rwandan Genocide http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliography_of_the_Rwandan_Genocide
A Wikipedia bibliography "for books and articles on the personal and general accounts, and the accountabilities, of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide."
Children of Rwanda's Genocide. Photographs by Vanessa Vick. http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/africa/index-rwanda-children.html
"Pictures of children in Rwanda coping with the aftermath of the genocide."
The Commemoration of the 18th Anniversary of the Rwanda Genocide. http://www.au.int/en/content/commemoration-18th-anniversary-rwanda-genocide
"The African Union Commission (AUC) today, Saturday 7 April 2012, commemorated the 18th anniversary of the Rwanda genocide at its AUC headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in collaboration with the authorities of the Republic of Rwanda. The ceremony was attended by member states, AU organs, national human rights institutions, intergovernmental organizations and civil society organizations. The Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Dr. Jean Ping, in his opening remarks said "the commemoration today is an occasion for Africans to reiterate their commitment to ensure that no more genocide occurs on the African continent, now or in the future." Chairperson Ping noted that the commemoration is yet another opportunity for Africans to remember the killings of over one million people in Rwanda in 1994 within a period of one hundred days, in one of the fastest and systematic genocides known to history."
Ferroggiaro, William. "The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994: Information, Intelligence and the U.S. Response." http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB117/index.htm
"As horrific as the killing was in Rwanda, the U.S. did not see its interests affected enough to launch unilateral intervention."
Ferroggiaro, William. "The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994: The Assassination of the Presidents and the Beginning of the 'Apocalypse.'" http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB119/index.htm
"U.S. diplomats and intelligence identified who was perpetrating the killing in Rwanda on the second day of the genocide, according to recently declassified documents posted to the Web today by the National Security Archive to mark the 10th anniversary of the start of the genocide."
Ferroggiaro, William. "The US and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994: Evidence of Inaction." http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB53/index.html
"Despite overwhelming evidence of genocide and knowledge as to its perpetrators, United States officials decided against taking a leading role in confronting the slaughter in Rwanda. Rather, US officials confined themselves to public statements, diplomatic demarches, initiatives for a ceasefire, and attempts to contact both the interim government perpetrating the killing and the RPF. The US did use its influence, however, at the United Nations."
Genocide in Rwanda. United Human Rights Council. http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/Genocide/genocide_in_rwanda.htm
In the context of links to genocides elsewhere.
Genocide Watch: The International Campaign to End Genocide http://www.genocidewatch.org/
"Genocide Watch exists to predict, prevent, stop, and punish genocide and other forms of mass murder. We seek to raise awareness and influence public policy concerning potential and actual genocide. Our purpose is to build an international movement to prevent and stop genocide."
Ghosts of Rwanda http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ghosts/
Web site associated with the Frontline video.
"Hotel Rwanda." Wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotel_Rwanda
This Wikipedia site is a great starting point to reference other articles regarding the film and the history of the genocide, as well as Rwandan demographic information. These articles should be checked with their cited references to ensure credibility.
Human Rights Watch Report, 1999. http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1999/rwanda/
An extremely comprehensive account of the history of the genocide. This includes definitions and histories of all the parties, political groups, and contributors to the genocide. It identifies strategies as well as survival tactics of the Rwandans. Excellent historic source.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda http://69.94.11.53/
"The tribunal's site offers summaries of completed, ongoing, and upcoming cases against the genocide's top leaders, diaries of case minutes and judicial decisions and links to background on Rwanda."
International Fund for Rwanda http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/iha1031.doc.htm
Organization working in Rwanda.
Merlino, Doug. "After the Genocide." December 2003. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/rwanda1103/
"I traveled to Rwanda in July 2003 hoping to observe the courts in session and see this social experiment [trying the leaders of the genocide] up close. From the moment I arrived in the country, I discovered -- as my email dispatches over 20 days reflect -- that Rwanda's gacaca experience is far more complicated, interesting and fragile than you might expect."
The Office of the United Nations High Comissionar for Refugees in Rwanda http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,UNHCR,,RWA,456d621e2,,0.html
Organization working in Rwanda.
Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." Atlantic Monthly. September 2001.
"The author's exclusive interviews with scores of the participants in the decision-making, together with her analysis of newly declassified documents, yield a chilling narrative of self-serving caution and flaccid will—and countless missed opportunities to mitigate a colossal crime."
Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations during the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/documents/RwandaReport1.htm
Source of this report is not clear.
Rwanda Development Gateway http://www.rwandagateway.org/
Bills itself as "All You Need to Know about Rwanda."
"Rwanda's Genocide: 15 Years Later." The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum's Committee on Conscience. http://www.ushmm.org/conscience/
"This site is dedicated to raising the national conscience, influencing policy makers, and stimulating world action to halt acts of genocide or related crimes against humanity. The site includes profiles of ongoing conflicts divided into categories of urgency. The site also includes a photo archive, upcoming events, an e-mail newsletter, and related links."
"Rwanda: How the genocide happened." BBC News. 18 December 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1288230.stm
Concise yet credible source on the overview of the history of the Hutu Tutsi conflict and the development of the genocide explained in description of a timeline of a series of events.
Rwanda: The Wake of a Genocide. SciCentral. http://www.rwanda-genocide.org/index.html
"The purpose of this site is to centralize access to a collection of high-quality information resources on the Rwandan genocide that shed a thorough light on the genocide, from its design to its enduring fallout in today's Rwanda."
"Rwandan Genocide Project." Yale University, Genocide Studies Program. http://www.yale.edu/gsp/rwanda/index.html
This site provides an excellent database of reports on global genocides. The Rwandan Genocide warrants its own pages and includes satellite maps of Rwanda before and after the genocide as well as a complete victim database.
Rwandan Genocide Survivors Organizations. AVEGA-AGAHOZO: Association of Genocide Widows. http://www.avega.org.rw/English.html
"The 1994 genocide in Rwanda led to the violent death of an estimated one million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in just 100 days. Sadly the misery continues for thousands who live in untold hardship. AVEGA-AGAHOZO was formed to address the needs of these people."
Through the Eyes of Children: The Rwanda Project http://www.rwandaproject.org/
Organization working in Rwanda.
Tors, Vivian. "Camouflage and Exposure." Canadian Medical Association. 29 April 2003. http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/168/9/1164
This article describes the series of paintings of General Romeo Dallaire, the captain of the UN Peacekeeping mission in Rwanda during the genocide. This collection was created by Gertrude Kearns, a Toronto-based artist, and includes six abstract portraits and four pieces depicting the genocide. The pieces depict Dallaire's heart-wrenching struggle with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its expression as a work of art interpreted by Kearns and entitled UNdone: Dallaire/Rwanda, which was originally released in the fall of 2002 at the Propeller Visual Arts Centre in Toronto.