See the extensive bibliography (divided into print, video/audio, and online resources) below the essay. The essay was done by Cayla McNally.
1822 – The Oglala chief Red Cloud fights the whites in order to save his people’s lives and prevent the whites from seizing their lands, but his efforts prove unsuccessful.
July 5, 1825 – Crazy Horse and over two thousand of his followers surrender to agencies. They enter into a peace treaty with the U.S.
1841 – Following the killing of Bull Bear, the Oglala shift their main hunting grounds to the Republican River region.
August 8, 1864 – In the Plum Creek Massacre, the Oglala Sioux attack twelve wagons in retaliation for their mistreatment.
1868 – Pine Ridge, the headquarters of the Oglala reservation is built.
June 25 -26, 1876 – The Battle of Little Big Horn, aka “Custer’s Last Stand,” was an overwhelming victory for the Sioux because, with the help of the Northern Cheyenne, they defeated the 7th Calvary Regiment of the U.S. Army. It was a shocking defeat where the tribes killed 268 men from the U.S. army and wounded 55 others.
October 1876 – Red Cloud is murdered by Crook.
September 7 1877 – Crazy Horse, one of the most respected Sioux chiefs, was shot and killed by a guard while under custody for attempting to start a war against whites.
December 29, 1890 – Wounded Knee Massacre occurs on the Lakota Pine Ridge Reservation. U.S. troops entered the camp to disarm the Sioux, but when Black Coyote showed reluctance for giving up his rifle, a fight broke out, and the 7th Calvary opened fired on everyone, even women and children. Over 150 Lakota were killed and 51 were wounded.
1932 – Black Elk Speaks is published. This book is often seen as inaccurate and offensive, especially in academic and native circles.
June 26, 1975 – Two FBI agents were killed on the Pine Ridge Reservation and Leonard Peltier was convicted of these murders, but many believed he was innocent.
June 8, 1999 – The bodies of two Lakota men were found on the Pine Ridge Reservation. The police force of Sheridan County Nebraska failed to respond to the case, leading the tribe to believe that the cops were either acting upon their biases of American Indians or covering for their own involvement in the murders. To combat the racism surrounding the Lakota, the tribe organized a March for Justice and founded Camp Justice.
July 4, 1999 – Through the development of Camp Justice, the Oglala Lakota Nation declares its independence.
2010 – Pine Ridge Reservation is the poorest reservation in the United States.
Lead-Up to Conflict
In 1973, the American Indian Movement (AIM) occupy Wounded Knee, which is perhaps the site most associated with the brutal treatment of native populations by the United States government. The goal of the occupation is to protest the violence of Pine Ridge’s tribal chairman Dick Wilson and his GOON (Guardians of the Oglala Nation) squad.
Members of AIM arrive at the Jumping Bull Ranch, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, in March of 1975, with the intent of setting up a spiritual camp. Conflicts arise between AIM and Dick Wilson, and a violent power struggle ensues. Between 1973 and 1976, there are 200 murders because of the violent clashes between factions, with little intervention by the state or national government. Some at the time even go so far as to call the conflict a civil war. In the months leading up to the shootout at Pine Ridge, the FBI increases its presence in the surrounding area.
On June 26, 1975, FBI agents Ron Williams and Jack Coler follow a vehicle onto the Jumping Bull Ranch. They are looking for Jimmy Eagle, who is wanted for his involvement in a local robbery and is believed to be at Jumping Bull Ranch. While the details surrounding the start of the altercation are still unclear, agents Williams and Coler radio in to say that they are following a car full of probable AIM members whom they believe to be armed; the transmission is then interrupted by the sound of gunfire, though who fired first is unknown. The agents are vastly outnumbered -- it has been estimated that upwards of fifty people are present at the time of the shootout-- and the Jumping Bull residents have the higher ground.
The firefight results in the deaths of both agents and Native American Joe Stuntz. Both agents are shot in the head by high-powered rifles at close range. Most of the men involved in the shootout are able to escape before local law enforcement, as well as the FBI, occupy the reservation. The authorities begin an intense manhunt for the escaped AIM members. Leonard Peltier is included on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted list and eventually flees to Canada.
In September 1975, Dino Butler is found hiding in an AIM enclave on another reservation. Shortly thereafter, a group of AIM members, including Bob Robideau, is apprehended after its automobile catches fire on the highway. The FBI obtains a damaged AR-15 from the automobile and claims it as the murder weapon from Pine Ridge. On November 25, 1975, Jimmy Eagle, Bob Robideau, Dino Butler, and Leonard Peltier are indicted for the murder of agents Williams and Coler.
In February of 1976, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police arrest Leonard Peltier, and the extradition process begins. In February and March of 1976, Pine Ridge resident Myrtle Poor Bear signs three affidavits, two of which state she saw Peltier murder the agents. The affidavits are used to extradite Peltier from Canada. Poor Bear later testifies that the affidavits are false, that she was forced by the FBI to sign them under coercion, and that she does not actually know Leonard Peltier.
Robideau and Butler are tried and acquitted in the summer of 1976. In September of the same year, the charges against Jimmy Eagle are dropped. Peltier is successfully extradited to the United States on December 18, 1976. His trial for the murder of agents Williams and Coler begins in March 1977. On April 18, he is found guilty of two counts of murder in the first degree. At his sentencing trial on June 1, he is sentenced to two consecutive life sentences.
After the sentencing
The first appeal of the case was argued in December 1977. The following month, one of the judges involved in hearing the appeal, William Webster, is named the Director of the FBI and becomes very vocal about the government’s need to combat domestic terrorism. The Eight Circuit Court denies Peltier’s appeal in September 1978. The following March, the Supreme Court refuses to review the case.
On July 20, 1979, fearing that the national government was planning to kill him in prison, Peltier escapes from Lompoc Federal Prison. He is recaptured nine days later. His escape trial begins in November 1979; in January 1980 he is convicted and seven years are added onto his double-life sentence. A fellow prisoner who aided Peltier’s escape is later found dead in his cell; another person who aided the escape later goes missing, causing some to suspect FBI involvement.
Writer Peter Matthiessen published In the Spirit of Crazy Horse in 1983, which helps reignite interest in the murders at Pine Ridge. As a result, Peltier becomes a national cause, despite criticisms that the study distorts the facts surrounding the murders and relies on sensationalism.
Still a divisive figure, Leonard Peltier has exhausted all appeals for his double-life sentence conviction, but his supporters still actively and vehemently lobby for his exoneration and release from prison.
- Anderson, Scott. "The Martyrdom of Leonard Peltier." Outside Magazine July 1995.
- In his comprehensive article, Anderson recounts the events preceding and surrounding the shootout at the Pine Ridge reservation, as well as the doubts that still exist regarding Peltier's exact role. Anderson focuses on the mythologizing that is occurring, suggesting that Peltier the man has become secondary to Peltier the ideal. He goes so far as to say that Peltier is being manipulated by his own supporters, and that as long as the supporters keep relying on unverified, dubious evidence, Peltier will never be freed from prison.
- Bennett, Juda. "Writing into the Prison-Industrial Complex." Prose and Cons: Essays on Prison Literature in the United States. Ed. D. Quentin Miller. Jefferson: McFarland, 2005.
- Peltier connects the present prison system with slavery, concentration camps, and gulags -- outlining the variety of prisons and imprisonment Native Americans face. Life on the reservation is analogous to life in prison. The reservation is land transformed into a prison.
- Churchill, Ward, and Jim Vander Wall. Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement. Cambridge: South End Press, 1988, 2002.
- Churchill and Vander Wall -- who are an AIM member and supporter, respectively -- recast the FBI as the fabricated projection of J. Edgar Hoover's megalomania rather than as an effective and functioning mechanism of law enforcement. They also suggest that the high profile of the FBI stems from its effective marketing model partnered with popular media. The focus of the book is on the FBI's "operations conducted against a single, non-criminal organization" such as the American Indian Movement. The main takeaway from the book is that "[historical] experiences are neither necessarily isolated by group nor relegated to the past," meaning that both the FBI and AIM are part of larger narratives that have collided throughout history.
- Deloria, Vine, Jr. God is Red. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1973.
- Deloria's describes his text as "an examination of tribal traditions" and focuses on the importance of land in Native American religion, as well as the cultural importance of maintaining access to sacred sites. He argues that the "Christian idea of history" is problematic, and that, as a result, many cultures with non-Christian religions get left out of historical narrative. His text points out the problems of history, criticizing how it is constructed by the dominant worldview.
- Fortunate Eagle [Nordwall], Adam. Alcatraz! Alcatraz!. Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1992.
- Fortunate Eagle gives a firsthand account of the activism leading up to the nineteenth-month occupation of Alcatraz in 1969, comparing the occupiers of Alcatraz to the Native American warriors of the past. Writing twenty years after the occupation, Fortunate Eagle notes that time has allowed for perspective, which was not possible during the heat of the Red Power Movement. The book is highly critical of the role the US government played in removing the protesters from the island and ensuring that no subsequent protests would be possible.
- Knittel, Janna. "Sun Dance behind Bars: The Rhetoric of Leonard Peltier's Prison Writings." American Indian Rhetorics of Survivance: Word Medicine, Word Magic. Ed. Ernest Stromberg. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 2006. 110-28.
- Analyzes such rhetorical devices Peltier uses as historical parallels, metaphorical references to the Sun Dance ceremony, and features of oral storytelling.
- Lindsley, Sheryl L. "Mending the Sacred Hoop: Identity Enactment and the Occupation of Wounded Knee." Great Plains Quarterly 22.2 (2002): 115-26.
- Uses Gregg's ego-function model to show that the American Indian Movement at Wounded Knee achieved some rhetorical success.
- Matthiessen, Peter. In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. New York: Viking Penguin, 1983.
- Seen as the definitive text on Leonard Peltier, Matthiessen's investigative study gives a dramatic account of the warring factions on the Pine Ridge Reservation and the FBI's "war on the American Indian Movement." Matthiessen is highly critical of the FBI's tactics, going so far as to suggest that high-level members of AIM were being targeted by the government so that the government could obtain the valuable natural resources located on Pine Ridge. The text creates the myth of Leonard Peltier and introduces the idea of Mr. X, the real killer who tells his story but refuses to divulge his identity.
- Messerschmidt, James W. The Trial of Leonard Peltier. Boston: South End Press, 1983.
- Messerschmidt's text focuses on the mismanagement of the case by the FBI and suggests that Peltier was a victim of a conspiracy directed at AIM. The text suggests that the imprisonment of Peltier is a continuation of the transgressions that the US government has been perpetrating on its own indigenous population for centuries.
- Miller, D. Quentin. "'On the Outside Looking In': White Readers of Nonwhite Prison Narratives." Prose and Cons: Essays on Prison Literature in the United States. Jefferson: McFarland, 2005.
- Prison narratives are written for people on the outside. Miller discusses Peltier's prison writings in the context of James Baldwin and John Edgar Wideman.
- Rymhs, Deena. "Discursive Delinquency in Leonard Peltier's Prison Writings." Genre: Forms of Discourse and Culture 35.3-4 (2002): 563-74.
- The focus of the article is how prison narratives work to fight erasure and function within the Western literary tradition. Rymhs uses Peltier's prison writings as an example, noting that, "Writing by Native American inmates is doubly marginalized, fighting off presumptions of who can write, and grappling with the erasure which the law has exacted and which the literary establishment has aided and abetted." Peltier's book is described as an alternative testimony to the one from his trial; rather than assert his innocence, he seeks to undermine the oppressive systems that have influenced Native American history and which also bear the guilt of his imprisonment.
- Rymhs, Deena. From the Iron House: Imprisonment in First Nations Writing. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 2008.
- "Peltier's apology is a defense of his people's actions, and the theology he invokes overturns Judeo-Christian concepts in favour of his own Anishnabe and Lakota cosmologies."
- Smith, Paul Chaat, and Robert Allen Warrior. Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee. New York: New Press, 1996.
- Part 2 deals with the American Indian Movement.
- Velie, Alan R. "The Rise and Fall of the Red Power Movement." Native American Studies 13.1 (1999): 1-8,
- Relying heavily on a single source, Velie traces the Red Power movement of the 1960's and 1970's, focusing on the occupation of Alcatraz, the march to Washington and subsequent occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the standoff with the national government at Wounded Knee. He stresses that because of its lack of clear measurable goals, the movement fell apart, going on to state that "symbolic action came to replace the achievement of specific goals" (6). Curiously, Velie does not include the conflict at Pine Ridge or the trial of Leonard Peltier as part of the Red Power movement and does not mention either at all.
- Warrior, Robert Allen. "Past and Present at Wounded Knee." Defining Moments in Journalism. New Brunswick: Transaction, 1998.
- History and analysis of how the second Wounded Knee was covered in the press.
- Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (2007)
- HBO chronicles the harsh realities of the history of the Sioux tribes, starting with the defeat of General Custer at Little Big Horn. As the film progresses, three main characters stand out – Charles Eastman attended college in mainstream culture, putting him at odds with his Sioux community – Sitting Bull provided leadership and inspiration, and, to this day, is remembered as one of the greatest American Indian chiefs in history – Senator Dawes forced American Indians to assimilate into mainstream culture. This film functions as powerful supplemental tool to Incident at Oglala, because it provides a strong foundation of the historical events that shaped the lives of American Indians, specifically the Lakota tribes of today. And, by becoming aware of the perpetual violence, manipulation, and exploitation that the United States inflicted upon native peoples, viewers of Incident at Oglala will better understand and sympathize with the fear and reactions of the AIM members in the documentary.
- Hidalgo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SiPr40MgoMA&feature=related
- The beginning of Hidalgo portrays the massacre at Wounded Knee -- another reel depiction of the Lakota history.
- Imprisoned Native American Activist Leonard Peltier Denied Parole http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rI023Mp7lZc&feature=related
- This Democracy Now news clip examines the events surrounding the government's decision to deny Peltier parole. Peltier's attorney, Eric Seitz, recalls the events of the case and the court's decision. Despite the time that has passed since Incident at Oglala was released, Peltier manages to stay in the news, even if briefly. The video not only provides a more recent view of the events surrounding Peltier, but the images shown while Peltier's attorney talks have a distinct purpose. While watching the video ask yourself, why does the news station choose these images? What do these images say about American Indians and how mainstream culture perceives native peoples?
- John Trudell on Leonard Peltier http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0uMJkCGRUw&feature=related
- This video is an interview with John Trudell, the man who composed the music for The Incident at Oglala and acted in Thunderheart. He discusses his opinions on why the government will not release Peltier, the firefight in Oglala, and the murder of Annie Mae Aguash. Trudell also claims that people are approaching the situation in the wrong way – they need to direct their energy elsewhere if they hope to make any progress on any of these Oglala issues. Instead of trying to go through the government, he believes people need to be searching for a paper trail, starting with the Custer defendants. This particular interview offers insight into how other incidents on the Pine Ridge Reservation correlate to one another. Trudell's ideas on the government's concealment and callousness of Peltier's imprisonment can spurn possible topics for further research. And, as always, his passionate, cutting language provides any writer with perfect quotes for a paper.
- Johnny Cash's Big Foot
- A song about the first Wounded Knee:
The link above shows a music video of "Big Foot."
The link above provides the lyrics of "Big Foot."
- Leonard Peltier Up for Parole after 33 Years in Prison http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDSdOG9dzmE&NR=1
- This news clip video mentions the American Indian Movement, contains part of phone conversation with Wanbli (National Spokesman LP DOC), and raises awareness about Peltier's possible parole after 33 years in prison. Although this video is outdated (posted in August of 2009), because we know that Peltier was denied parole, it still contains a wealth of information and powerful images. News clips also prove helpful in indicating how people view Peltier in the public -- unfortunately, the clips do not receive much air time or many hits online.
- Marty Stuart's Album Badlands devoted to the Lakota
The above clip shows Marty Stuart perform "Trip to Little Bighorn" from his album Badlands, written as a tribute to the Lakota.
This concert review describes Marty Stuart's performance outside of Rymann Auditorium in 2009.
- Murder on a Reservation. New York: A&E Home Video. Distributed in the U.S. by New Video, 2000.
- "AMERICAN JUSTICE draws on legal documents, extensive analysis of the evidence by experts, and the testimony of many of the pivotal players in the case to create an authoritative look at the notorious 'incident at Oglala.' What really happened on the night when agents Jack Coler and Ron Williams were killed? Why was the press banned from the scene of the shooting for two days, and what can account for the discrepancies between the FBI's initial statement and later reports? In a candid jailhouse interview, Leonard Peltier, the Native American activist convicted of the killings--and since nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize--tells his side of the story. But a decidedly different version of the events is presented by others."
- Radio Free L.A. #7 -- Leonard Peltier http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6TbMXBnPzOY&feature=related
- Tom Morello hosts this radio interview with Leonard Peltier. Although the phone cuts out a couple times, at the end of the interview, Morello explains that the prison staff ended the phone call, because Peltier was not allowed to make such calls. While Morello has him on the line, they discuss why the government keeps Peltier in jail, why the FBI viewed AIM as a threat to the government, and the biggest holes in the prosecution's case. Not only does the interview provide Peltier's point of view, but the cutting in and out makes for an interesting twist and shows the government's suppression of Peltier's voice.
- Trudell (2007)
- "While not as charismatic as leaders like Russel Means and Dennis Banks, John Trudell has become 'the voice' of Native American resistance."
- Will Obama Free Leonard Peltier? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fgn4bYLhRNg
- This video shows a clip of a news report that briefly reviews the story of Peltier's imprisonment. Peltier's sister makes an appearance, giving her rationale behind why he was convicted and why the government keeps him imprisoned to this day. Despite the painful past, she remains hopeful that the change in presidency will mean freedom for her brother. Most sources fail to include the thoughts of Peltier's family, so this brief interview with his sister makes this video distinct.
- Wounded Heart: Pine Ridge and the Sioux (2006)
- Government officials and American Indians discuss issues on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. Specifically, they refer to the exceedingly alarming rates of poverty, racism, alcoholism, child abuse, and domestic violence. Despite these setbacks, the Lakota language and culture inspires the people with hope for a better future.
- American Indian Movement http://www.aimovement.org/
- The official A.I.M. web site.
- Famous Trials: The Leonard Peltier Trial http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/peltier/peltieraccount.html
- While this site contains a concise overview of the trial, some of the other Peltier sites plunge deeper into the specifics. But this site proves valuable in its images of people and evidence from the case. For instance, by clicking on the hyperlinked words you can see images of the agents' car, the Jumping Bull compound, and a Peltier wanted sign among other pertinent pictures.
- Fitrakis, Bob, and Harvey Wasserman. "It's Time to Free Leonard Peltier." Counterpunch 23 January 2009. http://www.counterpunch.org/wasserman01232009.html
- "The welcome news that President Obama is taking steps to shut Guantanamo and right other Bush-era human rights abuses must quickly be joined by a proclamation of freedom for Leonard Peltier. Peltier is the nation's best-known native activist and has become a global symbol of abject injustice and prison abuse. Imprisoned in the late 1970s for allegedly murdering two FBI agents, Peltier has never been given a fair trial. Federal authorities have quashed or destroyed thousands of pages of evidence that might have freed Peltier decades ago."
- Free Peltier Now -- Friends of Peltier http://www.freepeltiernow.org
- "'You are the message,' Leonard Peltier says. And each of us is an 'Army of One.' This concept, as it touches one's conscience, effectively motivates persons to act as individuals on Leonard Peltier's behalf. Now, however, a legion is required. Maybe two. We must be 'Leonard's Legions,' hundreds of thousands of supporters in solidarity worldwide. We must unite in purpose, speak with one voice: Free Leonard Peltier NOW!"
- Friends of Peltier http://www.freepeltiernow.org/welcome.htm
- While perusing this site, keep in mind that it was created by a group with the intent of rallying support to free Peltier. Despite its clear bias, this site bases most of its information and facts off of Peter Matthiessen's book, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. It includes the full-length documentary, Peltier's contact information, images of court documents, background information on the relevant events in American Indian history, Peltier's societal contributions as an activist, writer, artist, and humanitarian, and suggestions on how you can help petition for his release and freedom. Out of all of the Peltier sites, this one in particular contains the most thorough and detailed information on Peltier's life, contributions, and case.
- Leonard Peltier Case http://www.freeleonard.org/case/index.html
- Created to draw attention and gain support for Peltier's release. The site's best features include a list of quick facts of the case, information on the latest developments, news articles, radio interviews, and a pdf of the FOIA documents.
- Leonard Peltier Defense Committee http://www.leonardpeltier.net/
- "Silence, they say, is the voice of complicity. But silence is impossible. Silence screams. Silence is a message, just as doing nothing is an act. Let who you are ring out & resonate in every word & every deed."
- Leonard Peltier Defense Offense Committee (LPDOC) http://www.whoisleonardpeltier.info/
- The Leonard Peltier Defense Offense Committee (LPDOC) is the center of communication between Leonard Peltier and his program coordinators, the general public, government officials, political and tribal leaders, the media, and his supporters worldwide.
- The Myth of Leonard Peltier http://www.noparolepeltier.com/myth.html
- In-depth rebuttal of Peltier's position by those dedicated to keeping him in jail: "Leonard Peltier is no longer the same person he was on June 26, 1975. That American Indian does not exist; just the Myth of Leonard Peltier remains. Only the Myth can now say that he never regretted he stood up and protected his people, and that the murder of the agents that day was not a crime."
- No Parole Peltier Association (NPPA) http://www.noparolepeltier.com/
- Due to the publicity surrounding Peltier's case, the NPPA created a site to combat the numerous free Peltier sites. While the free Peltier sites displays a count of the days, hours, minutes, and seconds that Peltier has been imprisoned, this site shows the exact time since agents Coler and Williams were murdered on Pine Ridge. Among the wealth of information located within its pages, it continually emphasizes why Peltier deserves imprisonment and why he should remain there. The group explains its rationale for questioning the existence of Mr. X as well as confronting the other debated topics of the incident. Definitely check out this site in conjunction with the others to get a well-rounded and more accurate view of the Peltier case.: "The stated purpose of the NPPA is to: 1) Honor the sacrifice of Special Agents Jack Coler and Ron Williams who were brutally murdered in the line of duty, and 2) Respond to the erroneous statements and allegations made by the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee (LPDOC)*. The NPPA will forego political rhetoric and name-calling and concentrate on the record of the events. Its central focus will be to review and analyze public statements made by Leonard Peltier, which further indicate his guilt, and to provide interested readers and researchers with another view, long missing from the public debate, of this very serious matter. The NPPA opposes parole or clemency for Leonard Peltier."
- Peltier, Leonard. "When Truth Doesn't Matter. Thirty Years of FBI Harassment and Misconduct." Counterpunch 9 January 2007. http://www.counterpunch.org/peltier01092007.html
- "My case demonstrates the illegal means which our Government will utilize to ensure that I, a native American, am punished for the death of two FBI agents, without regard to whether I did it, which I did not, and without regard to the deprivation of my rights. All the Government cared about was that someone was punished for an incident provoked by the FBI, the corrupt tribal government, and its private police, known as the GOON squad. And yet, I remain in prison."
- Plazm Magazine: An Interview with Peltier http://plazm.com/magazine/features/all-articles/leonard-peltier?p=1
- The interview with Peltier covers topics such as AIM, alcoholism, Sundance, Mr. X, and the termination policy. Peltier also reveals more personal accounts like his experience growing up as American Indian, his first encounter with racism, his inspiration for becoming an activist, plans if he gets released, and his methods for staying hopeful. This interview shows Peltier in a different light by focusing on his personal experiences and thoughts more than just retelling facts about the case.
- RESMURS -- Reservation Murder Scene: Documents from Leonard Peltier's FBI File http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/peltier.htm
- "Evidence leading to the conviction of Leonard Peltier for the murder of SA's Jack Coler and Ronald Williams on the Pine Ridge reservation on June 26, 1975. My conclusions are that (1) there is no forensic evidence that SA's Coler and Williams were shot at close range; (2) the ballistics evidence does not show that Leonard Peltier shot either agent; (3) government witness testimony used to convict Leonard Peltier is not to be believed."
- Statement of Leonard Peltier (2009). American Indian Movement web site. http://www.aimovement.org/peltier/index.html
- Letters about recent personal and legal activities.
- US vs Leonard Peltier: Case Number CR77-3003 http://nativenewsonline.org/~ishgooda/peltier/trial.htm
- Created by an American Indian organization, this site contains a list of links pertaining to trial transcript excerpts of the entire court proceedings. The scripts act as a nice supplement to the documentary, making it easy to research the actual testimony of witnesses or look into the evidence about the casings. When looking for specific quotations involving Peltier's case or comparing the documentary to the actual case proceedings, check out this site.