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Till we receive some contributions to the following scene analysis section, we recommend Caren Mulford Slagel's "Representation of Native Americans in Documentary: The Case of Incident at Oglala" for discussion of how cutting, juxtaposition, and so forth work in several scenes.

Print Resources

Appleford, Robert. "Coming Out from behind the Rocks: Constructs of the Indian in Recent U.S. and Canadian Cinema." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 19.1 (1995).
"Recent US and Canadian films such as 'Dances With Wolves,' 'Black Robe,' 'Thunderheart' and 'Clearcut' promote public awareness and understanding of North American Indian views and culture. Unlike previous Western films which negatively stereotyped Indians as villains and savages, these films provide provocative insights on Indian life. Romanticized fictional films on Indians also direct public attention to critical issues concerning Indian communities."
Kolomitz, Nancy. "Apted's documentary pursuits continue with 'Oglala'." Film Journal 95 Feb/Mar (1992): 8-11.
Interview with director Apted who talks about his admiration for Oliver Stone and his hopes that his "even-handedness" doesn't mean that the film doesn't have impact: after all, "I've got a man in a maximum security prison at Leavenworth who none of us think should be there."
Kolomitz, Nancy. "Redford, immersed in projects, steps up drive to free Peltier." Film Journal 95 Feb/Mar (1992): 8-10.
Interview with producer/narrator Redford. The facts are all there, there's no editorializing, and the goals are a new trial and/or executive clemency for Peltier.
Pack, Sam. "The Best of Both Worlds: Otherness, Appropriation, and Identity in Thunderheart." Wicazo Sa Review 16.2 (2001): 97--114.
While Pack gives the film Thunderheart credit for depicting contemporary Native Americans in a positive way, he concludes that the film ultimately relies on the cinematic tropes of Native Americans as an exotic "Other" and as subordinate to white characters. As a result, the "imperialist relationship" between white and Native American characters that has been so prevalent in film is continued in Thunderheart, thus perpetuating the imbalance of power that occurs between white characters and "Othered" characters.
Slagel, Caren Mulford. "Representation of Native Americans in Documentary: The Case of Incident at Oglala." The Image of the American West in Literature, the Media, and Society. Ed. Will Wright and Steven Kaplan. Pueblo: Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Social Imagery, University of Southern Colorado, 1996. 209-14.
This film "strives to provide a specific 'social service' in attempting to both prove the unjust imprisonment of Leonard Peltier and make its audience aware of the 'incident' as one of many in the pattern of oppression that is the history of the American Indian. At the same time it acts politically as it appears to allow the Indians, the under-represented minority, to speak for themselves, telling what seems to be their own story. The interviews serve as 'pseudo-monologues'." The film takes on the FBI and even suggests that it knows more about the case than the FBI. Ultimately, though, the Indians are portrayed as "powerless victims" and the lawyers and filmmakers as "saviors." The film is "another example of non-Indians creating an image for the Indian."

See Also

Aleiss, Angela. Making the White Man's Indian: Native Americans and Hollywood Movies. Westport: Praeger, 2005.

Arnold, Ellen L. "Reframing the Hollywood Indian: A Feminist Re-Reading of Powwow Highway and Thunderheart. American Indian Studies: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Contemporary Issues. Ed. Dane Anthony Morrison. New York: Peter Lang, 1997.

Barnouw, Eric. Documentary: A History of the Non-fiction Film. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993.

Bataille, Gretchen, and Charles L. P. Silet. The Pretend Indians: Images of Native Americans in the Movies. Ames: Iowa State UP, 1980.

Boyle, T. C. A Friend of the Earth. New York: Penguin Group, 2000.

Brown, Jeremy K. "Apted, Michael." Current Biography 61.2 (2000): 3-8.

Burgoyne, Robert. "Native America, Thunderheart, and the National Imaginary." Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at U.S. History. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2010.

Buscombe, Edward. "Injuns!" Native Americans in the Movies. London: Reaktion, 2006.

Churchill, Ward. "In The Spirit Of Crazy Horse." Index On Censorship 19.1 (1990): 15-16.

Cobbs, John L. "Peter Matthiessen." American Novelists since World War II. Detroit: Gale, 1980. 218-24.

DeLillo, Don. Underworld. New York: Scribner, 2003.

Gentry, Ric. "Michael Apted." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities 29.2 (2010): 101-4.

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999.

Kramm, Maggi. "In The Spirit of Crazy Horse: Censorship and the FBI-AIM Wars Of The 1970S." Censored Books, II: Critical Viewpoints, 1985-2000. Lanham: Scarecrow, 2002. 250-58.

Nichols, Bill. Representing Reality. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1991.

Ozeki, Ruth. All Over Creation. New York: Penguin Group, 2004.

Robinson, Helen Taylor. "Narratives And Documentaries: An Encounter with Michael Apted and His Films." The Couch and the Silver Screen: Psychoanalytic Reflections on European Cinema. New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2003. 159-80.

Rollins, Peter C. The Columbia Companion to American History on Film: How the Movies Have Portrayed the American Past. New York: Columbia UP, 2003.

Rollins, Peter C., and John E. O'Connor, eds. Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1998.

Video/Audio Resources

"Freedom." Rage Against the Machine (1992).
The Rock band Rage Against the Machine released "Freedom", a song about Peltier's case and conviction, on their 1992 debut album Rage Against the Machine.
Robbie Robertson's "Sacrifice"
Song that Features the Spoken Words of Peltier

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-FIEYksM9I
The link above plays the song "Sacrifice" and shows several images of Peltier.

http://www.metrolyrics.com/sacrifice-lyrics-robbie-robertson.html
The link above provides the lyrics to the song "Sacrifice."
Toad the Wet Sprocket's "Crazy Life"
Song about Peltier:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4SgItFH7Tx8
The link above plays the song "Crazy Life."

http://www.stlyrics.com/lyrics/empirerecords/crazylife.htm
The link above provides the lyrics to "Crazy Life."
U2's "Native Son" – The Song about Peltier
The original song, "Native Son" was changed into "Vertigo," but U2 never explicitly stated why. Use the lyric links to follow along with the music videos. While you are watching them, ask yourself: What was the purpose of writing and singing "Native Son?" Why did they change the song after they already recorded it?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5k2k58ceW1g
The link above shows the music video of "Native Son."

http://www.leoslyrics.com/listlyrics.php?hid=f9G7ytTNmmw%3D
The link above provides the lyrics to the song "Native Son."

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98W9QuMq-2k&feature=related
The link above shows the music video of "Veritgo."

http://www.elyrics.net/read/u/u2-lyrics/vertigo-lyrics.html
The link above provides the lyrics to the song "Vertigo."

Online Resources

Palmer, Barton R. "Michael Apted." Film Reference. http://www.filmreference.com/Directors-A-Ba/Apted-Michael.html
Factual information and brief essay on the director.
'Scalped' -- Not an everyday crime story http://www.indiancountrytoday.com/living/97302829.html
Despite its clichéd and somewhat offensive title, the tribal newspaper Indian Country Today recommends giving "Scalped" a chance. The article includes quotations from the author who explains his motivation behind writing a series on rez life. He even commented on how he used Peltier's book Prison Writings: My Life is My Sundance as research and inspiration.
Scalped: Another Comic Book Gets Indians Wrong http://www.bluecorncomics.com/scalped.htm
Based on the events of Peltier's life, the ongoing comic book series Scalped receives mixed reviews. This site gives a brief description of the plot while including comments from various critics on the accuracy and offensiveness of the writer's portray of natives. After doing some preliminary research into the life and culture of Peltier, Pine Ridge, and modern day American Indians, you be the judge.
Webquest: Redefining the American Indian (Faith Roncoroni) http://www.lehigh.edu/~far205/redefining/home.html
Webquest: "Although you have learned about American Indians in your classes, textbooks often manipulate the truth about the history of native peoples. Texts often depict interactions between settlers and American Indians as pleasant. And, if the books mention the suffering of these peoples, they skim over the details. Most of this literature is written from perspective of the settlers or people from mainstream culture, ignoring the point of views, experiences, and feelings of the very people who were marginalized. This Webquest, in conjunction with Sherman Alexie's novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian will help you redefine your conception of the native peoples of the United States. You will also be challenged to express yourself from different mediums to help others understand the issues plaguing past and modern American Indians while drawing correlations between mainstream culture and American Indians.
Wigu -- Day 3 (A Man, A Plan, A Van) http://www.wigucomics.com/adventures/index.php?comic=147
Jeffery Rowland's webcomic refers to Peltier's imprisonment. See how the issue of Peltier's case gets raised in other modern forms of expression.