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1608

Smith, John. A True Relation of Such Occurrences of Noate as Hath Happened in Virginia. London, 1608. B3-C3, E3-E4. (Ed. Charles Deane. Boston, 1866. 24-40, 72-73. See esp. footnote 3, pp. 38-40, for comments on the discrepancy in Smith's accounts of his captivity.) (Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Edward Arber, with Biographical and Critical Introduction by A. G. Bradley. Vol. 1. Edinburgh, 1910. 14-21, 38-39.) (Philip L. Barbour, The Jamestown Voyages under the First Charter, 1606-1609. 2 vols. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1969.) (The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Vol. 1. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986. 43-59, 93-95.) Written by Smith in Virginia, this document contains the first appearance of Pocahontas in the historical record but no mention of the rescue. Powhatan treats the captive Smith with "kindness," and he is sent back to Jamestown without incident. Pocahontas, "a child of tenne yeares old . . . the only Nonpareil of [Powhatan's] Country," is introduced later as part of a diplomatic mission regarding Indian prisoners.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Wingfield, Edward Maria. "A Discourse of Virginia." 1608. Ed. Charles Deane. Archaeologica Americana: Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society 4 (1860): 67-103. Esp. 92 (entry for December 10, 1607) and footnote 8, 92-95, on the omission of the rescue account. (Philip L. Barbour, The Jamestown Voyages under the First Charter, 1606-1609. 2 vols. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1969. 213-34.) This account by the first president of the Virginia council mentions Smith's captivity and freedom but not the Pocahontas rescue episode -- another piece of evidence for those who question Smith's veracity. Editor Deane, for instance, determines the rescue an "embellishment" that never happened.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

1609

A Gentleman of Elvas. Chapter 9: "How this Christian came to the land of Florida, and who he was: and what conference he had with the Governor." Virginia Richly Valued by a Portuguese gentleman, translated out of Portuguese. Trans. Richard Hakluyt. London, 1609. (The Indians and Their Captives. Ed. James Levernier and Hennig Cohen. Westport: Greenwood, 1977. 3-11.) The story of John Ortiz, of the Narvaez expedition, rescued by the daughter of the chief, an Indian princess, who argued "that one only Christian could do him neither hurt nor good, telling [her father] that it was more for his honour to keepe him as a captive" -- cited by some skeptics as a possible source for Smith's Pocahontas episode. [Thanks to Kathryn Sampeck for pointing out one of the original Portuguese versions at http://archive.org/details/relaamverdadei00fida (1557)]
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

1612

Smith, John. A map of Virginia VVith a description of the countrey, the commodities, people, government and religion. Oxford, 1612. 4r: beginning section on language. (Richmond, 1819.) (Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Edward Arber, with Biographical and Critical Introduction by A. G. Bradley. Edinburgh, 1910. 46.) (New York: Da Capo, 1968.) (The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Vol. 1. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986. 139.) This is not a history of the colony; for that see Symonds' companion Proceedings. Pocahontas appears here only in one sentence exemplifying Indian language that translates as: "Bid Pokahontas bring hither two little Baskets, and I will giue her white beads to make a chaine."
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Strachey, William. The Historie of Travaile Into Virginia Britannia. 1612. Ed. R. H. Major. London, 1849. 54, 65, 111. (Ed. Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund. London: Hakluyt Society, 1953. 62, 72, 113.) Strachey's A true reportory, his account of the shipwreck he survived on the way to Virginia in 1609 (Strachey was in the colony from 1610-1611 and became Secretary), is thought to be a source for Shakespeare's The Tempest. Here in his history of Virginia (not published until Major's edition) he memorably describes Pocahontas as an 11-12 year-old cartwheeling "little wanton," now married to Kocoum, whose right name was Amonute -- but there is no mention of connection with Smith, who had left Virginia by this time.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Symonds, William. The Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia. Oxford, 1612. 13-14, 24, 99-103. (Richmond, 1819.) (Narratives of Early Virginia. Ed. Lyon Gardiner Tyler. New York, 1907. 119-204.) (Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Edward Arber, with Biographical and Critical Introduction by A. G. Bradley. Edinburgh, 1910. 98, 107, 165-69.) (New York: Da Capo, 1968.) (The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Vol. 1. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986. 212-13, 220-21, 274.) This is a companion to Smith's A Map of Virginia (it's often called Part II or an appendix), and they may have been published together (though they have separate title pages). Proceedings is a collection of narratives by colonists compiled by Symonds, an English minister who wrote an important justification document for the Virginia Company, and describes Smith's captivity for a third time without the rescue by Pocahontas: instead, Smith "procured his owne liberty." But this work does mention that Powhatan sends Pocahontas to seek freedom for Indian prisoners (which Smith grants for her "sake only"), and there is refutation of the claim that Smith would make himself king by marrying Pocahontas. Smith drew heavily on the Proceedings for his 1624 Generall Historie, where he connects Pocahontas with several of the episodes mentioned in this earlier work.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

1613

Chamberlain, John. Letter 180. To Sir Dudley Carleton. 1613. The Letters of John Chamberlain. Ed. Norman Egbert McClure. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1939. 470-71. Letter of August 1, 1613, by Virginia Company shareholder Chamberlain in England to eminent diplomat Carleton advising of news of Pocahontas's capture and the promise of gold among the terms of ransom. First of five letters by Chamberlain mentioning Pocahontas.

Purchas, Samuel. Purchas his pilgrimage. Or Relations of the vvorld and the religions obserued in all ages and places discouered, from the Creation vnto this present In foure parts. 1st. ed. London, 1613. Book 8, chapters 5-6, pp. 634, 638-39. (2nd. ed. London, 1614.) (3rd. ed. London, 1617.) (also see Purchas his pilgrimes. London, 1625.) Purchas, a friend of Smith's and successor to the great Richard Hakluyt as England's premier collector and editor of travel narratives, apparently uses a manuscript of Symonds' 1612 Proceedings here as his source. His account of Virginia and the pertinent Pocahontas episodes grows over the subsequent editions of his work. In this first version there is only mention that "They carryed [Smith] prisoner to Powhatan, and there beganne the English acquaintance with the savage Emperour" -- the fourth published account without mention of a rescue by Pocahontas. The "womens entertainment" or "Virginia Maske" episode is also mentioned, but without reference to Pocahontas.
[Virginia history]

1614

Dale, Thomas. "To the R. and most esteemed friend Mr. D. M. at his house at F. Ch. in London." Ralph Hamor, A True Discourse of the Present State of Virginia. London, 1615. 51-59. (Richmond: Virginia State Library Press, 1957, with introduction by A. L. Rowse.) (New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.) Letter of June 18, 1614, by the governor of Virginia, who recounts an unsuccessful voyage to Powhatan to negotiate the ransom of Pocahontas and also his role in her conversion to Christianity, a conversion that preceded her marriage to Rolfe, which, in turn, precipitated a period of peace.
[Electronic Version]

Purchas, Samuel. Purchas his pilgrimage. Or Relations of the vvorld and the religions obserued in all ages and places discouered, from the Creation vnto this present In foure parts. 2nd. ed. London, 1614. Book 8, chapters 5-6, pp. 757, 759, 764-65. (1st ed. London, 1613.) (3rd. ed. London, 1617.) (also see Purchas his pilgrimes. London, 1625.) Enhanced account of Virginia in this second edition probably using the published Symonds' 1612 Proceedings as his source. There's more detail about Smith's captivity but still without reference to Pocahontas, for he procures his own liberty: "Smith, with two others, were beset by 200 savages his men slain, & himselfe in a quagmire taken prisoner; but after a moneth he procured himselfe not onely libertie, but great admiration amongst them, and returning, once more stayed the Pinace from flight." Pocahontas's abduction -- just lately happened -- is noted: "they took Pocahuntis (Powhatans deerest daughter) prisoner, and for her ransome had Corne, and redeliverie of their prisoners and weapons."
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Rolfe, John. Letter to Sir Thomas Dale. 1614. Ralph Hamor, A True Discourse of the Present State of Virginia. London, 1615. 61-69. (Richmond: Virginia State Library Press, 1957, with introduction by A. L. Rowse.) (New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.) In a 1614 letter to the governor, Rolfe details his crisis of conscience over his attraction to Pocahontas and asks if he should "desist" or "persist" in his desire to marry her.
[Electronic Version]

Whitaker, Alexander. "To my verie deere and loving Cosen M. G. Minister of the B. F. in London." 1614. Ralph Hamor, A True Discourse of the Present State of Virginia. London, 1615. 59-61. (Richmond: Virginia State Library Press, 1957, with introduction by A. L. Rowse.) (New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.) In a letter of June 18, 1614, Jamestown minister Whitaker, the "Apostle of Virginia," claims that Governor Dale's "best" work has been his "labor" to convert Pocahontas.
[Electronic Version]

1615

Hamor, Ralph. A True Discourse of the Present State of Virginia. London, 1615. 3-11, 51-59, 59-61, 61-69. (Richmond: Virginia State Library Press, 1957, with introduction by A. L. Rowse.) (New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.) Hamor, Secretary of the Virginia colony, recounts in detail Captain Argall's capture of Pocahontas, her marriage to Rolfe, and includes the three 1614 letters of Dale, Rolfe, and Whitaker, cited above, as appendices.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

1616

Chamberlain, John. Letter 244. To Sir Dudley Carleton. 1616. The Letters of John Chamberlain. Ed. Norman Egbert McClure. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1939. 12. The second Chamberlain letter, this one June 22, 1616, mentioning Governor Dale's arrival in London with the "most remarquable" Pocahontas.

Maclean, John. Letters from George Lord Carew to Sir Thomas Rowe. 1616. Publications of the Camden Society, vol. 76. Westminster, 1860. 36. Letter of June 20, 1616: "Sir Thomas Dale retourned frome Virginia; he hathe brought divers men and women of thatt countrye to be educated here, and one Rollfe, who maried a daughter of Pohetan, (the barbarous prince,) called Pocahuntas, hathe brought his wife withe him into England. The worst of thatt plantation is past, for our men are well victualled by there owne industrie, but yet no profit is retourned."

Smith, John. Letter to Queen Anne. 1616. John Smith, The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. London, 1624. Book 4, pp. 121-23. In his 1624 history Smith claims (there seems to be no other corroboration) to have sent this "little booke" to the Queen on Pocahontas's 1616 arrival in England. In it, we learn that Pocahontas (now described as "a child of twelve or thirteen years of age" when he knew her) not only rescued Smith more than once but was instrumental in saving the entire colony from starvation. If this letter is genuine, it contains the first description of "the" rescue, though there is no indication it was publicly known in 1616.
[Electronic Version]

Van de Passe, Simon. "Matoaka als Rebecca." 1616. (John Smith, The generall historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. London, 1624.) (In the Delabrere and Fife copies of the 1618 Baziliologia: A Booke of Kings according to H. C. Levis in his 1913 Grolier Club edition. 158, 170.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 11.) According to the Smithsonian (see link), "This engraved portrait of Pocahontas [was] created from life during her time in England." Rasmussen and Tilton point out that the portrayal may be "unrepresentative" because it pictures her as the Virginia Company wanted her to be seen.
[painting; engraving]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 11]

1617

Chamberlain, John. Letters 257, 259, 262. To Sir Dudley Carleton. 1617. The Letters of John Chamberlain. Ed. Norman Egbert McClure. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1939. 50, 56-57, 66. The third, fourth, and fifth Chamberlain letters mentioning Pocahontas. January 18, 1617: Pocahontas was "graciously used" by the king, "well placed at the masque," and returning to Virginia ("though sore against her will"). February 22, 1617: "Here is a fine picture of no fayre Lady" . . . "with her tricking up and high stile and titles you might thincke her and her worshipfull husband to be somebody," if you did not know they were supported by the poverty-stricken Virginia Company. March 29, 1617: "The Virginian woman (whose picture I sent you) died last weeke at Gravesend."

Jonson, Ben. "The Vision of Delight." 1617. Ben Jonson: Selected Masques. Ed. Stephen Orgel. New Haven: Yale UP, 1970. 149-60. The Christmas masque Pocahontas attended in London.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Purchas, Samuel. Purchas his pilgrimage. Or Relations of the vvorld and the religions obserued in all ages and places discouered, from the Creation vnto this present In foure parts. 3rd. ed. London, 1617. Book 8, chapters 5-6, pp. 943, 950-51. (1st. ed. London, 1613.) (2nd. ed. London, 1614.) (also see Purchas his pilgrimes, London, 1625.) The Pocahontas story is further updated here in the 3rd. edition to note her baptism and marriage, as well as the Indian reason for concealing her real name. "They tooke Pocahuntis (Powhatans dearest daughter) prisoner, a matter of good consequence to them, of best to her, by this meanes being come a Christian, & married to Master Rolfe, an English Gentleman." The Indians concealed her real name of Matokes "in a superstitious feare of hurt by the English if her name were knowne."
[Virginia history]

Rolfe, John. "Letter of John Rolfe [to Sir Edwin Sandys], 1617." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 10 (1902): 134-38. Rolfe explains to a patron why he left their son in England after Pocahontas died and hopes he will not be criticized for doing so: "I know not how I may be censued [sic] for leaving my childe behinde me, nor what hazard I may incurr of yo'r noble love and other of my best frends." Records Pocahontas's last words: "All must die. 'Tis enough that the child liveth."

Rolfe, John. A True Relation of the State of Virginia. 1617. Ed. Henry C. Taylor. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1971. Rolfe's rosy picture of Virginia in 1616 was obviously meant to re-energize the flagging fortunes of the Virginia Company in London on the trip that brought Pocahontas to London as well. Though conversion of a "poore, wretched and mysbeleiving people" was the climactic thrust of his justification of the colony, there is no mention of Pocahontas.

1618

Virginia Company letter to Captain Argall. In his 1869 History of the Virginia Company of London, Edward Neill quotes a letter of August 23, 1618, suggesting that Argall has some ulterior motive in advising them that the Indians "have given the country to Mr. Rolfe's child" (98-100).
[Electronic Version]

1621

"Att a Great and Generall Quarter Courte Held for Virginia the 13th of June 1621." Records of the Virginia Company. Ed. Susan Myra Kingsbury. Volume I: Court Book Part A, 1622-1624. 496. "Two Indian maydes" are sent to the Summer Islands -- the Virginia Company finally gets the women who came over with Pocahontas off the payroll. See also entries for 11/15/20 and 6/11/21.
[Electronic Version]

1622

"An Extraordinary Court Holden for Virginia on Monday the 7th of October 1622." Records of the Virginia Company. Ed. Susan Myra Kingsbury. Volume II: Court Book Part B, 1622-1624. 105-6. John Rolfe having died, his brother Henry asks that he be compensated out of the estate for bringing up Thomas, his child with Pocahontas.
[Electronic Version]

Smith, John. New Englands trials Declaring the successe of 80 ships employed thither within these eight yeares. 2nd edition. London, 1622. C2. "Abstract of Letters . . . July 16, 1622." (Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Edward Arber, with Biographical and Critical Introduction by A. G. Bradley. Vol. 1. Edinburgh, 1910. 263.) (The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Vol. 1. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986. 432.) Perhaps to establish his credentials for command, Smith responds to the 1622 massacre of colonists in Jamestown with a vigorous assertion of his proven ability to handle the Indians, and he affirms Pocahontas as "the meanes to deliuer me [and who] thereby taught me to know their trecheries to preserue the rest." This slim sentence (in the 1622 edition but not in the 1620) seems to be the first verifiably public reference by Smith to the fabled rescue from captivity.
[Electronic Version]

1623

Captain John Smith's circular or prospectus of his Generall historie of Virginia, New-England, and the summer Isles. 1623. Ed. Luther Samuel Livingston. Cambridge: privately printed, 1914. The document designed to announce and to raise money for the printing of the Generall Historie informs potential readers that Powhatan's "daughter saved his life, sent him to James towne and releeved him and all the English" -- the second verifiably public reference by Smith to the fabled rescue from captivity.
[Virginia history]

Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. 1623. Act 3, scene 2, line 98-113. Possible allusion to Smith's famous 1608 description of Pocahontas in A True Relation as a "Nonpareil": "And that most deeply to consider is / The beauty of his daughter. He himself / Calls her a non pareil."
[play; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

1624

Alexander, William, Earl of Stirling [Stirling, William Alexander]. An Encouragement to Colonies. London, 1624. 28. (Same as The Mapp and Description of New England. London, 1630.) In a survey of New World colonization associated with his grant in Newfoundland, Alexander cites the marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas as evidence of the value of intermarriage, "for it is the onely course that vniting minds, free from jealousies, can first make strangers confide in a new friendship."

Smith, John. The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. London, 1624. "The Epistle Dedicatory" to the Duchess of Richmond and Lenox, 40, 49 [2], 50 [2], 54 [2], 67, 77, 80, 105, 112, 113, 119, 121-23. Illustrations by Simon Van de Passe (see 1616) and Robert Vaughan (see below). (Richmond, 1819.) (Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Edward Arber, with Biographical and Critical Introduction by A. G. Bradley. Vol. 2. Edinburgh, 1910. 276, 382, 400, 401, 402, 403, 410 [2], 436, 455, 460, 498, 511-12, 514, 525, 529-35.) (The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Vol. 2. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986. 42, 130, 151, 152, 154, 160, 182, 198, 203, 232, 243, 245, 251, 255, 258-62.) This, of course, is the source of the widest range of information about Pocahontas, and the source of the full description of Smith's captivity and subsequent rescue by her. In addition, references to Pocahontas include: her name in an Indian language example (the one listed above from Smith's Map), supplying food to stave off starvation, reviving spirits with her love, making amends for injuries, negotiating for prisoners, entertaining Smith with the "maske," traveling through the "irksome woods" to save Smith from a murder plot, saving Richard Wyffin and Henry Spilman, falling captive herself, marrying Rolfe, visiting England, reunion with Smith, and death.
[illustrated; Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Vaughan, Robert. "King Powhatan Comands C. Smith to be Slayne." John Smith, The generall historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. London, 1624. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 13.) The first image of the rescue here in the book that, as we have seen, contains the first full description of it, if not the first public mention. This first depiction of the rescue, say Rasmussen and Tilton, with elements based on earlier representations of Virginia Indians, is not itself totally original, and, in turn, it stands at the head of a long line of such images, as the image gallery in the archive attests.
[engraving]
[View Images: page 13]

1625

Jonson, Ben. The Staple of News. 1625. Act 2, scene 5, lines 118-26. Mention of Pocahontas in the famous playwright's dialogue between Picklock and Pennyboy Canter. PIC.: "A tauern's as vunfit too, for a Princesse." P.CA.: "No, I haue knowne a Princesse, and a great one, Come forth of a tauerne." PIC.: "Not goe in, Sir, though." P.CA.: "She goe in, if she came forth: the blessed Pocahontas (as the Historian calls her And great Kings daughter of Virginia) Hath bin in womb of a tavern."
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Purchas, Samuel. [Hakluytus Posthumus; or] Purchas his pilgrimes In fiue bookes. The Fourth Part. London, 1625. 1709, 1712, 1731, 1732, 1768, 1771, 1774, 1841. In his fourth and final work on Virginia (see 1613, 1614, 1617), Purchas now uses Smith's Generall Historie to describe the rescue by Pocahontas (p. 1709). Though he includes the 1614 letters by Dale and Whitaker, he only cites three other mentions of Pocahontas from Smith: her diplomatic mission, her "darke night" rescue of Smith, and her rescue of Henry Spilman. Most importantly, Purchas also reports from personal experience that in London Pocahontas "carried her selfe as the Daughter of a King" and, in his presence, was accorded respect by the Bishop of London (p. 1774). Smith's verbatim reference to Pocahontas from the 1622 New Englands trials (p. 1841) is here as well.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

1630

Alexander, William, Earl of Stirling [Stirling, William Alexander]. The Mapp and Description of New England. London, 1630. 28. (Same as An Encouragement to Colonies, London, 1624.)

Brathwait, R. "To my Worthy Friend, Captain John Smith." John Smith, The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captaine John Smith. London, 1630. A3. Complimentary Verses. (Richmond, 1819.) (Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Edward Arber, with Biographical and Critical Introduction by A. G. Bradley. Edinburgh, 1910. 814.) (New York: Da Capo, 1968.) (The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Vol. 3. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986.) In this brief laudatory poem, Pocahontas is mentioned with other women who did service for Smith.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Smith, John. The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captaine John Smith. London, 1630. A3 (complimentary verse by Brathwait), 58 [chap. 27]. (Richmond, 1819.) (Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Edward Arber, with Biographical and Critical Introduction by A. G. Bradley. Edinburgh, 1910. 814, 911-12.) (New York: Da Capo, 1968.) (The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Vol. 3. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986.) In addition to the mention of Pocahontas in the poem in the above entry, her rescue of Smith is listed in a summary of his Virginia "exploits": "How [Powhatan's] daughter Pocahontas saved his life, returned him to James towne, releeved him and his famished company, which was but eight and thirty to possesse those large dominions."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1634

[Pocahontas rescues Smith] America. Ed. Theodor de Bry et al. Vol. 13. Frankfurt, 1634. (Discovering the New World. Ed. Michael Alexander. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 13.) America was a premier, richly illustrated multi-volume collection on voyages and travel and contains three images from the Pocahontas story. This 3-part image follows Smith's capture, the Indian ritual to explore Smith's threat, and the rescue.
[engraving]
[View Images: engraving]

[Pocahontas visited by her brothers in captivity] America. Ed. Theodor de Bry et al. Vol. 10. Frankfurt, 1634. (Discovering the New World. Ed. Michael Alexander. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 23.) America was a premier, richly illustrated multi-volume collection on voyages and travel and contains three images from the Pocahontas story. This image records an incident in the attempt by Governor Dale to force Powhatan to deal for hostage Pocahontas or else.
[engraving]
[View Images: engraving]

[The capture of Pocahontas] America. Ed. Theodor de Bry et al. Vol. 10. Frankfurt, 1634. (Ed. Gereon Sievernich. Madrid: Ediciones Siruela, 1992. 338.) (Discovering the New World. Ed. Michael Alexander. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 21.) America was a premier, richly illustrated multi-volume collection on voyages and travel and contains three images from the Pocahontas story. Captain Argall conspired with the Indians to trick Pocahontas into captivity. Rasmussen and Tilton point out the burning in the background as rationale for the abduction pictured in the foreground and middle image.
[engraving]
[View Images: engraving]

1641

Thomas Rolfe, Pocahontas's son, comes to Virginia. This according to Neill 1869, p. 105, who says the application to Virginia authorities is in the Library of Congress. The reason is to visit Cleopatra, his mother's sister -- the first we hear of this name.
[Electronic Version]

1650

"Pocahontas." Unknown artist. c. 1650. (Frances Mossiker, Pocahontas: The Life and the Legend. New York: Knopf, 1976. Following p. 143.) Mossiker calls this a model for a tavern sign (source is a Smithsonian Anthropology collection).
[painting]
[View Images: page 143]

1662

Fuller, Thomas. The History of the Worthies of England. London, 1662. 179-80. In the Cheshire section. (Ed. John Freeman. London, 1952.) A entry on Smith in what has been called the first attempt at a dictionary of national biography. There is no mention of Pocahontas, and there is a skeptical view of Smith's credibility: "From the Turks in Europe, he passed to the Pagans in America, where towards the latter end of the Raign of Queen Elizabeth, such his Perils, Preservations, Dangers, Deliverances, they seem to most men above belief, to some beyond Truth. Yet have we two witnesses to attest them, the Prose and the Pictures both in his own book, and it soundeth much to the diminution of his deeds, that he alone is the Herauld to publish and proclaime them." Often referenced as the first slur on Smith's credibility as historian, an attack that surfaces big time in the 19th century with Charles Deane and Henry Adams.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

1671

Ogilby, John. "The Relation of Captain Smith's being taken Prisoner by Powhatan, and of his being deliverd from Death by his Daughter Pocahonta." America: being the latest, and most accurate description of the new vvorld. London, 1671. 200-5. Ogilby was a pioneer British atlas maker. He introduces a virtually exact copy of a goodly chunk of Smith's account of his capture and rescue by Pocahontas from the Generall Historie thus: "Many other Quarrels and Encounters there were in the Infancy of the Plantation . . . some of which had prov'd very pernicious to the Planters, had they not ben betray'd to Captain Smith by Pocahonta, King Powhatan's Daughter, who upon all occasions shew'd her self a great Friend to the English, having sav'd the Captain's Life, when, being her Father's prisoner, he was just brought to execution. This Lady was afterwards brought into England, Christened by the Name of Rebekah, and Married to one Mr. Rolf, and died at Gravesend in an intended Voyage back to her own Countrey."
[illustrated; colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1682

Vries, S. de. Curieuse aenmerckingen der bysonderste Oost en West-Indische verwonderens-waerdige dingen. Vol. 2. Utrecht: J. Ribbius, 1682. 833-39. Can anyone translate the Dutch? The "Die Barbarische Liebe" image of the rescue in Happel 1685 is a version of the one in this text.
[foreign language; illustrated; engraving]

1685

Crouch, Nathaniel [pseud. Robert Burton]. The English Empire in America. London, 1685. Crouch, author of perhaps a dozen successful histories, used the 1617 3rd. edition of Purchas for his chapter on "A Prospect of Virginia" and mentions Pocahontas not at all, making, in fact, only passing reference to Smith.
[colonial history]

"Die Barbarische Liebe." Eberhard Werner Happel, Groste Denckwurdigkeiten der Welt Oder so genandte Relationes Curiosae. Hamburg, 1685. 200. (Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 26.)
[engraving]
[View Images: engraving]

Happel, Eberhard Werner. Groste Denckwurdigkeiten der Welt Oder so genandte Relationes Curiosae. Hamburg, 1685. 195-205. See above "Die Barbarische Liebe" also in 1685 for the image in this work.
[foreign language; illustrated]

Wharton, Henry. The Life of John Smith, English Soldier. 1685. Ed. Laura Polanyi Striker. U of North Carolina P, 1957. 72, 82, 89. Striker feels that the purpose of this unlikely, unpublished account of Smith's life in Latin by a prolific indefatigable theologian was meant to restore heroic status to a man "thwarted from the start by his being a commoner in an aristocratic venture." Striker feels that Wharton's work on the Virginia part of Smith's life (the account ends with his return to England in 1609) is drawn from the Generall Historie. Be that as it may, there are significant variations (there is no confrontation between Smith and Indians over the murder plot that Pocahontas saves them from in her dark night journey), Wharton embellished significantly at times (calling Pocahontas a "mad woman" at the rescue, describing Pocahontas's dark night journey as inspiring "even those who sleep with terror"), and the charge that Smith wanted to marry Pocahontas is only in Symonds (1612) and Purchas (1625), not the Generall Historie. So in Wharton we first see some tentative free-lancing with the historical record. He plays loose with the story for dramatic purposes, and the result is a very good read, indeed. (In 1834 George Hillard used Wharton in his biography of Smith, so that this unpublished work did have influence in the 19th century.)
[Smith biography]

1705

Beverley, Robert. The History and Present State of Virginia. London, 1705. 25-33. (Rev. ed. London, 1722.) (Ed. Charles Campbell. Richmond, 1855.) (Ed. Louis B. Wright. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1947. 37-44.) Beverley's influential book is the first history by a native Virginian. Beverley mentions the rescue without fanfare but focuses on Pocahontas's marriage with Rolfe and reunion with Smith. For instance, he gives a long litany of reasons why the English would have been better off accepting Indian proposals for intermarriages, and he prints the entire Smith letter to Queen Anne. Beverley's drawing mostly on Smith (the letter is not in Purchas) but he also adds material not found elsewhere: King James's snit over Rolfe marrying royalty, the dialogue with Uttamaccomack (Uttamatamakin/Tomocomo), that Pocahontas would have brought "the Indians to have a kinder Disposition towards the English." Tilton 1994 says this book "contains the first important colonial attempt to reconstruct the Pocahontas narrative," and he finds the topic of intermarriage (cf. Alexander, Oldmixon, Fontaine, Russell, Chastellux, etc.) central to the first phase of Pocahontas representation.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

1707

Aa, Pieter van der. Naaukeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en land-reysen na Oost en West-Indiën. Volume 21. Leyden, 1707. 81. Translators should apply.
[foreign language]

1708

Oldmixon, John. The British Empire in America. London, 1708. 225-33. (2nd. ed. London, 1741. Vol. 1. 360-67.) (New York: Kelley, 1969.) Oldmixon is aware of Smith's Generall Historie, referring readers there for a description of the rescue, saying only that Pocahontas's "wonderful Humanity" in saving Smith is a "remarkable Instance, how vain we are to our selves, in thinking that all who do not resemble us in our Customs are barbarous." Instead, he draws from and adds to Beverley (though in the preface to the 1741 edition he mentions a manuscript by William Byrd I), calling the king's snit a "very notable piece of King-Craft" and suggesting that "the Reader may judge" how likely intermarriage would have brought peace, "but the English were not fond of taking the Indian Women to their Beds as their Wives. Whether it was on account of their being Pagan or Barbarians we cannot decide; or whether that Nicety was not very unseasonable in the Infancy of the Settlement." See also 1741.
[colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1711

Addison, Joseph. Spectator No. 28, 2 April 1711. Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 (p. 52) indicate that Addison changed the name of Bell Inn, where Pocahontas stayed in London, to "La Belle Sauvage," but the article does not seem to back that up.
[Electronic Version]

Steele, Richard. [The Story of Inkle and Yarico] The Spectator No. 11, 13 March 1711. One of many versions of the Pocahontas-like story of a shipwrecked Englishman who is aided by a native girl; they become lovers; he is rescued; he sells her into slavery. For discussion of the significance of the story, see Hulme 1986.
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

1730

Woodbury, Mary. "Pocahontas." c.1730. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 35.) According to Rasmussen and Tilton, this 1730s painting by a Boston schoolgirl is "a colonial girl's conception of an ideal woman," with "elements of formal English portrait painting of the Georgian period as it was exported to the American colonies." Tilton 1994 says this painting "is certainly the first original depiction of Pocahontas produced in the New World, and almost surely the first done by a woman" (111). Lubbers 1994 says "she looks like a graduate from a young ladies' finishing school(174).
[painting]
[View Images: page 35]

1732

Churchill, John [Awnsham]. A collection of voyages and travels, some now first printed from original manuscripts, others now first published in English. Vol. 2. London, 1732. 365. A full edition of Smith's 1630 True Travels. As in the original, the rescue is listed in a summary of Smith's Virginia "exploits."
[illustrated; colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1734

Letter ["Accidentally hearing read a Paragraph"]. Boston Gazette 17-24 June 1734. (Lawrence W. Towner, "Ars Poetica et Sculptura: Pocahontas on the Boston Common." Journal of Southern History 28.4 [1962]: 482-85.) Likely the first proposal, says Towner, "urging the elevation of Pocahontas to the status of American folk heroine" via a poem, a painting, or a statue. The anonymous English correspondent writes: "For my own part I don't recollect any of the celebrated Heroines of Antiquity of half so just a behaviour or that any way exceed her in virtue or true greatness of Mind. How many Statues and Medals would have been made by the Romans in memory of such a Lady?" The letter is followed by an account of the Smith-Pocahontas story from Beverley.

1738

Keith, Sir William. The History of the British Plantations in America. London, 1738. 63-71, 98-99, 125-29. (New York: Arno Press, 1972.) Keith, governor of Pennsylvania from 1717-1726 before returning to England, paraphrases Smith's account in the Generall Historie (except for a last paragraph drawn from Beverley), recounting Pocahontas's two rescues of Smith, her abduction and marriage, the trip to England and the meeting with Smith.
[colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1739

Nolin, Jean Baptiste, Jr. "Etablissement des Anglois a la Virginie [Settlement of the English in Virginia]." c. 1739. (Stuart E. Brown, Jr., Pocahontas. Berryville: Pocahontas Foundation, 1989. 21.) (Also in Brown 1995, 21.) Appears in Brown 1989 and Brown 1995. Brown 1995 contains notation that it was done by Jean Baptiste Nolin, Jr. c. 1739 and that it was provided by the Library of Congress.
[engraving]
[View Images: page 21]

1741

Oldmixon, John. The British Empire in America. 1708. 2nd. ed. London, 1741. Vol. 1. 360-67. (New York: Kelley, 1969.) This revised edition acknowledges use of Beverley and an account by William Bird I in the first edition (see 1708), as well as awareness of Keith's work (see the preface). And this edition contains the curious comments about the rescue and Smith's self-aggrandizement, here marked in italics, a century before the skepticism of Charles Deane, Henry Adams, and others: "The manner of his Treatment among the Indians, and his Escape, his Friendship to Nautaquaus the King's Son, and the surprizing Tenderness of Pocahonta, his Daughter, for him, when he was about to be executed, are Incidents equally agreeable and surprizing, but pretty romantick and suspicious, Capt. Smith having never dropt his main Design to make himself the Hero of his History. . . . Capt. Smith's Relation of his Adventures in this Country relates not so much to the Country, Settlement and Trade, as to himself."
[debunking; colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1747

Stith, William. The History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia. Williamsburg, 1747. 54-61, 89-93, 127-30, 142-46. (New York: Sabin, 1865.) (Spartanburg: The Reprint Co., 1965.) Stith, well-regarded influential historian of Virginia after Beverley and president of the College of William and Mary, claims dissatisfaction with previous histories and access to original sources. His work on Pocahontas appears mainly, though, a long, long comprehensive paraphrase solely of Smith's Generall Historie (the rescue, Pocahontas as gift-bringer, her second rescue on the dark night, saving Wyffin, abduction) till the trip to England, which is a blend of material from Smith, Beverley (King James's snit), and Purchas (Tomocomo's failed arithmetic). However, what Stith adds to the Pocahontas story comes at the end, information about her son Thomas, who was first left in England with Sir Lewis Stukley, but then transferred to Henry Rolfe, "and afterwards became a Person of Distinction and Fortune in this Country," where the "Imperial Family of Virginia . . . is now encreased and branched out into a very numerous Progeny."
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

1749

Goadby, Robert. An Apology for the Life of Mr. Bampfylde-Moore Carew. London, 1749. Chapter 11: 137-41. (9th ed. London, 1775. 145-48.) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931.) Englishman Bampfylde-Moore Carew was a real, nationally known character -- swindler, imposter, jokester -- whose life was a best seller in numerous and various editions for a hundred years. In this biography he joins the Gypsies, becomes King of the Beggars, is transported to Maryland, escapes, and sojourns with the Indians, at which point, we get the Smith-Pocahontas story (rescue, abduction, marriage, trip to England, meeting Smith) as an example of noble action by an Indian. Goadby has been described as a key figure in the book trade of the west of England, and his Pocahontas account is copied from Oldmixon.
[Electronic Version]

1750

"Pocahontas and Thomas Rolfe." (The Sedgeford Hall portrait) c. 1750-1800. (Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994. 110.) May not be Pocahontas and Thomas. See Tilton 1994 (108, 110). Thomas would not have been this old when Pocahontas died. Someone has suggested that the woman might be one of the Indian women who came to London with Pocahontas and stayed on (see 1621). Sedgeford Hall is a property of the Rolfe family in England.
[painting]
[View Images: page 110]

"Pocahontas." (The Booton Hall portrait) c. 1700-1800. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 33.) Derived from van de Passe, what Rasmussen and Tilton call a "loose copy" (note that Rolfe's name is given as Thomas). Booton Hall is the English ancestral home of the Rolfes.
[painting]
[View Images: page 33]

1755

"A clear and succinct Account of North America." [London] The General Magazine of Arts and Sciences, Philosophical, Philological, Mathematical, and Mechanical 9 (June 1755): 89-95. Smith "is preserved by the affection of a young Indian damsel . . . and by her conducted back to the colony." Also mentions Pocahontas saving Henry Spilman, her abduction, her marriage, and her baptism. Pocahontas "was the first christian Indian of these parts, and, as my author says, perhaps the most worthy that has ever been since, her affection to her husband extremely constant, and on his part to her in every respect reciprocal." "My author" is apparently Stith.
[colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

[Kimber, Edward]. "A Short Account of the British Plantations in America." London Magazine 24 (July 1755): 307-12; 24 (August 1755): 355-58; 24 (September 1755): 431-35. Seems to be chiefly copied from Stith, except for embellishments like this, which may be the first expression of love of Pocahontas for Smith: "By this means he [Smith] got them all to resolve to maintain their fort, and to provide for themselves in the best manner they could; and this resolution was in a few days confirmed by Pocahontas's coming with a great number of attendants, and bringing them plenty of all kinds of provisions, which she continued to do every four or five days for some years afterwards; for Capt. Smith had impressed such an idea upon the Indians of the English courage and knowledge, and such a terror of their instruments of war, that Pocahontas easily prevailed with her father and her countrymen to allow her to indulge her passion for the captain, by often visiting the fort, and always accompanying her visits with a fresh supply of provisions; therefore it may justly be said, that the success of our first settlement in America, was chiefly owing to the love that this young girl had conceived for Capt. Smith, and consequently in this instance, as well as many others, that love does all that's great below" (355). Closing the circle, this account describes the reunion of Smith and Pocahontas in this manner: "She at first shewed great resentment against him, which is a plain sign of her having expected that he would have married her, and indeed it was what he ought in gratitude to have done. However, such is the native modesty of the sex in all countries, that she did not even then insinuate any such expectation" (435). Another first here is the charge of ingratitude to Smith for not marrying Pocahontas.
[colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1757

Fontaine, Peter. Letter to Moses Fontaine. March 30, 1757. James Fontaine, et al., Memoirs of a Huguenot Family. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1967. 348-53. Virginian Fontaine sees value in intermarriage with the Indians (land inheritance, peace, conversion), "but this our wise politicians at home put an effective stop to at the beginning of our settlement here, for when they heard that Rolfe had married Pocahontas, it was deliberated in Council, whether he had not committed high treason by doing so, that is, marrying an Indian Princess; and had not some troubles intervened which put a stop to the inquiry, the poor man might have ben hanged up for doing the most just, the most natural, the most generous and polite action that ever was done this side of the water." For others on the idea of intermarriage, see Beverley, Alexander, Oldmixon, Russell, Chastellux, etc., during this first phase of Pocahontas representation.
[Electronic Version]

Prévost, abbé. Histoire générale des voyages, ou Nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre, qui ont été publiées jusqu’à .... Volume 14. Paris, 1757. 468-72. Translators should apply.
[foreign language]

Salmon, Thomas. A new geographical and historical grammar. 5th ed. London, 1757. 615. In what might be the first mention of it since the Generall Historie, the erotic "Virginia Maske" episode that Smith recounts is the subject of a section entitled "Diversions" of the Indians. See Douglass 1758.

1758

Douglass, William. A Summary, Historical and Political, Of the First Planting. Vol. 2. Boston, 1758 [re-issue of 1753 ed.]. 422-23. Reprints from Salmon (1757) the section based on the erotic "Virginia Maske" episode that Smith recounts.

1759

"History of North America." ["The History of the Northern Continent of America"] [Woodbridge, New Jersey] New American Magazine 2.14-20 (February-August 1759): 173-224. Specifically 178-81, 194, 213-24. The introduction to this long series of articles (Jan. 1758) is a justification document, laying out the contending claims of European powers and seemingly anti-French due to the recent war. Copies accounts by Stith of Pocahontas's two rescues of Smith, her abduction, marriage, trip to England, and reunion with Smith, even including Smith's letter to Queen Anne (these last two points do not seem directly drawn from Stith and may go back to Beverley).
[colonial history]

1767

Winkfield, Unca Eliza. [pseud.] The Female American, or, The Adventures of Unca Eliza Winkfield. London, 1767. (Rpt. sometimes as The Female American, or, The Extraordinary Adventures of Unca Eliza Winkfield or The Female American in 1800, 1814, 1970, 1974, 2001.) This early novel, which Burnham (editor of the 2001 edition) says "adds a great deal to our understanding of the cross-articulation of gender, empire, and race," begins with a version of the Pocahontas story in which rescuer and rescued marry. Captured in the 1622 massacre, the narrator's father is about to be executed when the king's daughter "stroked my father with a wand, the signal for deliverance." The Indian declares her love: "Though a complexion so different, as that of the princess from an European, cannot but at first disgust, yet by degrees my father grew insensible to the difference, and in other respects her person was not inferior to that of the greatest beauty; but what was more, her understanding was uncommonly great, pleasantly lively, and wonderfully comprehensive, even of subjects unknown to her, till informed of them by my father, who took extraordinary pains to instruct her; for now he loved in his turn." Marriage to a "Pagan" is out of the question, however, but she "became convinced of her errors" and converts. So "happy was my father . . . that he began to look upon the country he was in as his own." (Interestingly, though we just saw the introduction of Pocahontas's love for Smith in 1755, Smith will not be a romantic partner for a long time.)
[novel; Pocahontas-like]

1771

Rose, Johann Wilhelm. Pocahontas, Schauspiel mit Gesang. 1771. Ansbach, 1784. Reprinted: Hannover: Wehrhahn, 2008. Not yet seen. Can anyone locate, translate, and provide an annotation?
[play; foreign language; music]

1778

Alvarez, Francisco, Asturian. Noticia del establecimiento y poblacion de las colonias inglesas en la America Septentrional. Madrid, 1778. 29-37. The Rolfe part of Pocahontas's life.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Russell, William. The History of America, from its Discovery by Columbus to the Conclusion of the Late War. Volume 2. London, 1778. 166-70. Russell, a successful historian who also published major works on modern and ancient Europe, wrote this history during the Revolutionary War, which he calls in his sub-title "the present unhappy contest." Russell footnotes the Generall Historie several times but covers only and briefly Pocahontas's rescuing actions (suggesting her love for Smith) and her marriage with Rolfe (without, amazingly, any indication at all that she was a hostage at the time). For instance, he says, the "kindness of this fair Indian" did not stop with the rescue of Smith, but "Pocahontas supplied her favourite so plentifully with provisions, that he was enabled to save the lives of many, who must otherwise have perished for want." And also "but what contributed more especially to the safety as well as advancement of the colony, was the marriage of John Rolfe, a young gentleman of great merit, to the princess Pocahontas, who had formerly shown such a predilection for captain Smith." This latter point, followed up with a rosy picture of Powhatan's resulting "cordial amity" with the English, generates a footnote about the value of intermarriage similar to Beverley, Oldmixon, Fontaine.
[colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1779

Granger, James. A Biographical History of England. Vol. 1. London, 1779. 399-400. This enormously successful work is a catalogue of engraved historical portraits, and Granger is important for devising a system, a taxonomy for collectors. But he has nothing to say about Pocahontas in his Smith entry: "He afterwards went to America, where he was taken prisoner by the savage Indians, from whom he found means to escape."
[Electronic Version]

1780

Chalmers, George. Political Annals of the Present United Colonies, from Their Settlement to the Peace of 1763. Vol. 1. London, 1780. 12-51. Chalmers, a loyalist forced to leave America in 1775, wrote to arouse opinions against the Americans. While the notes show he was aware of Smith, Purchas, and Stith, Chalmers (like Crouch a century before) doesn't mention Pocahontas at all, and, in fact, finds little exciting at all in his chapter on Virginia: "In vain shall we search their history for the fate of battles, the sack of cities, the conquest of provinces, for those objects that fix the attention or melt the heart." Apparently, the Smith-Pocahontas narrative did not enliven "the uninteresting turmoils of a few men, stationed in a desert, whose principal pursuit was for some time only in quest of food." What became national mythology for us is not even on his radar screen -- an interesting point relating to the construction of history.
[colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1781

Scheibler, Carl Friedrich. Leben und Schicksale der Pokahuntas, einer edelmuthigen Americanischen Prinzessin; eine wahre und lehrreiche Geschichte. Berlin, 1781. Not yet seen. Can anyone locate, translate, and provide an annotation?
[novel; foreign language]

1782

Scheibler, Carl Friedrich. Reisen, Entdeckungen und Unternehmungen des Schifs-Capitain Johann Schmidt oder John Smith. Berlin, 1782. Not yet seen. Can anyone locate, translate, and provide an annotation?
[foreign language]

1784

Rose, Johann Wilhelm. Pocahontas, Schauspiel mit Gesang. 1771. Ansbach, 1784. Reprinted: Hannover: Wehrhahn, 2008. Not yet seen. Can anyone locate, translate, and provide an annotation?
[play; foreign language; music]

1785

Kent, John. Biographia Nautica: or, Memoirs of those Illustrious Seamen, to whose ... Conduct the English are Indebted. Vol. 3. Dublin, 1785. 385, 433-34, 456-57. Standard mentions of the rescue and the abduction, but the section on Pocahontas in England has this claim, which, though the notes only mention Smith, smells of Beverley: "When preparing for her departure, she expressed a grateful sense of the honours which she had received, and asserted that it was her firm intention to avail herself of every measure that could effect the establishment of an uninterrupted harmony betwixt the English and the Indians. . . . and died rejoicing at having been instructed in the principles of the christian faith."
[Electronic Version]

1786

Chastellux, Marquis de. Travels in North America in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782. Paris, 1786. (Translated by George Grieve. Vol. 2, chap IV. London, 1787. 135-49.) (New York, 1827. 266-74.) (Translated and notes by Howard C. Rice, Jr. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1963. 419-26.) The Marquis de Chastellux was one of the French Generals who aided the Revolutionary cause. He recounts a visit to the Bollings where he was surprised to find the descendant of Pocahontas -- whom he calls "the protectress of the English" and an "angel of peace" -- quite European looking. His version of Pocahontas's life -- very influential, quite colorful, much copied (even as late as Blake 1825) -- has some interesting touches: savages "more affected by the tears of infancy, than the voice of humanity," begging Smith to "spare her family" and "to terminate all their differences by a new treaty," bitterly deploring her fate as a captive, throwing herself into Smith's arms in England, living "several years" as model wife there. Chastellux also, like Beverley, raises the issue of intermarriage, nailing James I for being "so infatuated with the prerogatives of royalty" to be upset that one of his subjects married a princess (for other discussion of intermarriage in this early period, see Alexander, Oldmixon, Fontaine, Russell, etc.). Tilton 1994 believes Chastellux to be the "most important purveyor" of the Pocahontas narrative before John Davis.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

1787

"Anecdote of Pocahunta, a Savage Princess, and Captain Smith, an Englishman." [London] Daily Universal Register 16 April 1787: 3. A bit loosely but clearly drawn from Chastellux. Perhaps for the first time, Pocahontas is given a voice in direct discourse at the rescue scene: at the "fatal moment" Pocahontas cries out, "if you kill him the first blow must fall on me." And Powhatan's "heart melted with sympathy." And thus another small step away from simple reporting of the event.

"Anecdotes of Pocahunta, an Indian Princess, from whom several respectable families in Virginia are descended." [Philadelphia] Columbian Magazine 1 (July 1787): 548-51. Directly from Chastellux. The last clause in the title is interesting, no? Indicative of the emphasis on the intermarriage and its positive value in this early period. See Beverley, Oldmixon, Fontaine, Russell, and even implied in Chastellux.
[genealogy]

Smith, Samuel Stanhope. An Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species. Philadelphia, 1787. Appendix on Lord Kaims's Discourse, 19-20. (New York, 1810. 332-33.) (Ed. Winthrop D. Jordan. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1965. 201-2.) Relevant to the topic of intermarriage that we've seen raised several times so far in the archive (for instance, Beverley, Oldmixon, Fontaine, Russell, Chastellux). Smith argues, against Kaims, that in four or five generations, the "dark tinge" in mixing of races "may be entirely effaced." As evidence, he points to two male descendants of Pocahontas, in which Indian characteristics "appear to be entirely obliterated." One in particular is "perfectly Anglo-American." Thus, like Chastellux, there is evidence that what we might call the bad part of the interracial marriage, Indian color, fades while the good characteristics remain.
[Electronic Version]

1788

"A Letter from Capt. John Smith to the Queen, concerning Pocahontas." ["To the Most High and Virtuous Princess QUEEN ANN (wife of James I.) of Great-Britain."] [New York] American Magazine, Containing a Miscellaneous Collection of Original and Other Valuable Essays in Prose and Verse, and Calculated Both for Instruction and Amusement 1.11 (October 1788): 776-78. Reprints exactly and without editorial comment the 1616 "little booke" relating to Pocahontas's London visit, as well as his description of their meeting, that Smith published in the Generall Historie. But the excerpt is noteworthy for its footnotes critical of whites (Noah Webster is editor of the magazine): Pocahontas's charge that Englishmen lie much is "just"; "civilized men lie more than savages"; "How ought christians to blush to be charged with lying and ingratitude by savages!"

[Belknap, Jeremy.] "Memoirs of Captain John Smith." [Philadelphia] Columbian Magazine 2 (August 1788): 418-21; 2 (October 1788): 549-54; 2 (November 1788): 637-41; 2 (December 1788): 699-703; 2 (Supplement 1788): 721-27. (The key pages are 638-40, 702, 722, 725-26.) The American Plutarch series title tells us that this anonymous piece was by Belknap, who published this again in his very influential 1794 American Biography: contains accounts of the rescues, the "Virginia Maske" (though see Salmon and Douglass, perhaps the first time in an historical account since Smith), the reunion in England, and the death. Belknap notes his sources as Smith and Purchas.
[Smith biography]

1789

Morse, Jedidiah. The American geography; or, A view of the present situation of the United States of America. Elizabeth Town, 1789. 398. (2nd. ed. London, 1792.) Morse was the most eminent geographer of his day, author of the first textbook on American geography published in the United States. Brief mention of Pocahontas's marriage, her trip to England (where she was treated by merited "attention and respect"), and her death, leaving a son who eventually returned to Virginia "where he lived and died in affluence and honour." (Same account as Winterbotham 1795)
[Electronic Version]

1790

"Cornstalk," "To Pocahunta," New York Journal and Patriotic Register 12 Oct. 1790. Thanks to Colin Wells for the citation, who says, "It's fascinating as an attempt to use the Pocahontas myth to justify the war against the Miami (Ohio) tribes in the early 1790s." According to Cornstalk: "Her little cabin still is neat and clean, / When she has work to mind she is not seen; / A thousand little cupids round her wait, / She keeps her house in order air and late:-- / Strives to domesticate her roving race / To cultivate the soil, and quite the chace. / Happy, young Princess, if thy labours prove / The source of so much health, and so much love."
[poetry; Indian problem]

Castiglioni, Luigi. Viaggio: Travels in the United States of North America, 1785-87. 1790. Ed. Antonio Pace. Syracuse: Syracuse UP: 1983. 190-92. Interesting script by the Italian Naturalist. Smith is condemned to be burned alive. Pocahontas pleads for him, and he was "united with his liberator, and was respected by the Indians, who regard as one of their nation the prisoners that they allow to live." Both go to England, where, when Smith "no longer showed her the affection that he manifested in America, she became disgusted with him and the ingratitude with which she was treated," whereupon she left him, returned to Virginia, and married Rolfe.
[foreign language]

1791

Morse, Jedidiah. Geography made easy: being an abridgement of the American geography. 3rd edition. Boston, 1791. 192-93. The account is the same as 1789.
[Electronic Version]

Webster, Noah. "Story of Capt. John Smith, Who First Settled Virginia." The Little Reader's Assistant. 2nd ed. Northampton, 1791. 6-12. Webster, of course, is the premier early American educator and dictionary maker. This story, likely adapted from Belknap, of Smith as a model hero ("Such a man affords a noble example for all to follow when they resolve to be good and brave") describes Pocahontas saving him from death, warning him about another plot ("Thus this kind and friendly young Indian saved the English from her father's snares"), and their meeting in England ("an agreeable interview with the amiable Pocahontas"). In what is perhaps her first appearance in a schoolbook, Pocahontas is climactically represented as an "excellent woman, who would have done honor to christianity itself."
[illustrated; school book]

1793

"Pocahontas." 1793. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 32.) According to Rasmussen and Tilton, in this re-issue of the van de Passe engraving, Pocahontas's "features have become more those of an Englishwoman": "To eighteenth-century European eyes, this less 'native' Pocahontas perhaps comes closer to achieving the beauty that would have been expected of the 'Indian princess' of legend."
[engraving]

1794

Belknap, Jeremy. "John Smith." American Biography. Vol. 1. Boston, 1794. 240-319. Specifically 269-71, 284-85, 293, 307-9. Published in magazine form 1788. Belknap's collection of biographies was very influential and much copied. The Smith life contains accounts of the rescues, the "Virginia Maske," the reunion in England, and the death. In the magazine publication, Belknap notes his sources as Smith and Purchas. The book version is the same as the magazine version except for the deletion of a transition into the Virginia section and the addition of several paragraphs at the end -- the Pocahontas sections are the same in both versions.
[Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

1795

Hardie, James. The American Remembrancer, and Universal Tablet of Memory: containing a List of the Most Eminent Men. Philadelphia, 1795. 32. A list of not only eminent men but memorable events. Entry for Rolfe, "married to Pocahontas" -- no entry for Smith.
[Electronic Version]

Latrobe, Benjamin. "The Pocahontas-Rolfe-Bolling Pedigree." The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Latrobe, 1795-1798. Ed. Edward C. Carter, et al. Vol. 1. New Haven: Yale UP for the Maryland Historical Society, 1977. 111-22. Latrobe, thought of as the father of the American architectural profession and the most important engineer of his day, covers eight generations of genealogy here. Rather fascinating: this edition contains images of Latrobe's handwritten chart. "Should Monarchy and its concomitant, Nobility of blood, ever come again into fashion in this Country, an event which at this moment is most seriously apprehended by, and disturbs the sleep of many of our good citizens, I hope the blood of Powhatan will not be neglected, unless the great good sense, and merit of many of his descendants whom I know, should be thought less necessary to a man of title, than to a plain commoner. It is somewhat singular that, though the family are rather proud of their royal Indian blood, not one of them should have preferred the names of their Ancestors in their own family excepting Robert Bolling, son of Colonel John Bolling who named a son and a daughter Powhatan and Pocahontas. He was a man of great wit and learning."
[genealogy]

Lendrum, John. A Concise and Impartial History of the American Revolution. Boston, 1795. 126-27. (Trenton, 1811. 110-11.) The marriage with Rolfe -- "an opening for friendly intercourse with the natives" -- is given primacy in this brief two-paragraph account.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Winterbotham, William. An historical, geographical, commercial and philosophical view of the American United States, and of the European settlements in America. Volume 3. London, 1795. 5. Same account as Morse.
[Electronic Version]

1796

Robertson, William. The History of America. Books IX and X. Edinburgh, 1796. 72-73, 92-95. One of the foremost historians of his day, Robertson, head of the University of Edinburgh, moved in intellectual circles with such men as David Hume, Adam Smith, and Thomas Carlyle. His section on Virginia draws on Smith, Stith, Beverley, and Purchas -- with some interesting variations. Pocahontas's motivation in saving Smith is "that fond attachment of the American women to their European invaders," and her marriage to Rolfe is the consequence of frequent visits to Jamestown, "where her admiration of their arts and manners continued to increase," not to being a prisoner (which is not mentioned at all), as well as the impression her superior beauty made on Rolfe. She seems to have been baptized in England, that is, after her marriage, and Robertson follows Beverley and others regarding intermarriage in criticizing the English for failure to intermarry (the result of cultural shyness and lack of flexibility), which the Indians "naturally imputed . . . to pride and to their contempt of them as an inferior order of beings."
[U.S. history; colonial history]
[Electronic Version]

1797

Bingham, Caleb. "History of Pocahuntas." The American Preceptor; being a New Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speaking. Designed for the Use of Schools. 4th edition. Boston, 1797. 148-51. Same as Webster this year. From Chastellux. Perhaps her first appearance in a school book under her own heading.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

Walker, John. Elements of Geography, and of Natural and Civil History. 3rd edition. Dublin, 1797. 534. In a succinct listing for historical events arranged chronologically, there is no mention of Smith's captivity, but the listing for 1613 reads: "John Rolfe was married to Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan, the famous Indian chief. This connection, which was very agreeable, both to the English and Indians, was the foundation of a friendly and advantageous commerce between them."

Webster, Noah. "History of Pocahontas." An American Selection of Lessons in Reading and Speaking. 12th edition. Hartford, 1797. 95-97. A collection of essays designed to "form the morals as well as improve the knowledge of youth." Same as Bingham this year. From Chastellux. Perhaps Pocahontas's first appearance in a school book under her own heading.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

1798

Foster, Hannah Webster. The Boarding School; or, Lessons of a Preceptress to her Pupils. Boston, 1798. 207. (Boston, 1829. 184.) Letter to Maria Williams from Sophia Manchester. In what is basically a treatise, Webster, author of the noted early novel The Coquette, presents through an extended correspondence between schoolgirls her ideas on female education. Reacting to the section in Belknap on Smith: "While we tremble and recoil at his dreadful situation, when bending his neck to receive the murderous stroke of death, the native virtues of our sex suddenly reanimate our frame; and, with sensations of rapture, we behold compassion, benevolence, and humanity triumphant even in a savage breast; and conspicuously displayed in the conduct of the amiable, though uncivilized Pocahontas!" An early example of a woman treating Pocahontas as a model woman.
[novel; gender]
[Electronic Version]

1800

Davis, John. The Farmer of New-Jersey, or, A Picture of Domestic Life. New York, 1800. 10-12. This is the beginning of the Davis cottage industry on Pocahontas that would include eight or so works and extend into the 1820s. Here in a chapter seemingly unrelated to the rest of the plot, the narrator's son tells the family a "once upon a time" story of Pocahuntas, an "Indian Queen," not a "squaw," who saves Captain Smith from death by burning at the stake. This tale, drawn from Chastellux and modified only by fire as the death tool, is tame compared to Davis's following works, which are credited with blowing Pocahontas representations wide open. Tilton 1994 says that Davis removes the Pocahontas story from the "exclusive preserve of historians and biographers."
[novel]

Winkfield, Unca Eliza. The Female American, or, The Adventures of Unca Eliza Winkfield. Newburyport, 1800. First American edition: see 1767.
[novel; Pocahontas-like]

1801

Chateaubriand, François-René de. Atala. Paris, 1801. (Atala, or, The Love and Constancy of Two Savages in the Desert. Boston, 1802.) (Ed. Irving Putter. Berkeley: U of California P, 1952.) Chactas, a Natchez Indian, is saved from death by the half-Spanish and Christian Atala, but she cannot marry him because she has taken a vow of virginity -- and she commits suicide. See Lombard 1981 and Tilton 1994 for discussion of the effect of Chateaubriand's depiction of Indians on the Pocahontas story, though Tilton says it is "far more likely" that the Pocahontas story influenced Chateaubriand. But Tilton makes the point that "the catastrophic power of the mixing of the races" was an important factor in the fear of miscegenation that characterized the early 19th century.
[foreign language; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Heaton, Nathaniel. "History of Pocahontas." The Columbian Preceptor Containing a Variety of New Pieces in Prose, Poetry, and Dialogues, with Rules for Reading . . . for the Use of Schools in the United States. Wrentham, 1801. 127-30. From Chastellux.
[school book]

1802

Chateaubriand, François-René de. Rene: ou, Les Effets des Passions. Paris, 1802. (Rene: A Tale. Boston, 1815.) (Ed. Irving Putter. Berkeley: U of California P, 1952.) Companion story to Chateaubriand's Atala (1801). See Lombard 1981 and Tilton 1994 for discussion of the effect of Chateaubriand's depiction of Indians on the Pocahontas story, though Tilton says it is "far more likely" that the Pocahontas story influenced Chateaubriand. But Tilton makes the point that "the catastrophic power of the mixing of the races" was an important factor in the fear of miscegenation that characterized the early 19th century.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Croswell, Joseph. A New World Planted; or, The Adventures of the Forefathers of New-England. Boston, 1802. Pocahonte plays a bit part as an Indian princess (daughter of Massasoit) in love with a white man in this story of the Pilgrim forefathers overcoming dissension in the early days of Plymouth. She's "whiter far, than other natives are," but her lover has to worry "How will it sound, that you are close ally'd / In marriage vows, with a young tawny savage?" The play concludes with a treaty of peace and a vision of the "future destiny" of the colony that is representative of the nationalistic thrust of the time.
[play; Pocahontas-like]

1803

Bolling, Robert. Memoirs of the Bolling Family. 1803. A Memoir of a Portion of the Bolling Family in England and Virginia. Ed. T. H. W. Richmond, 1868. Written in French by Bolling, translated by family member John Robertson, with notes added by John Randolph. Bolling is the husband of Jane Rolf, the grand-daughter of Pocahontas. It is this Mrs. Robert Bolling whom Chastellux visits in 1786. "The memoir relates only to that branch of the family . . . descended from Pocahontas." In the notes we find this in regard to her marriage to Rolfe: "She must have been very beautiful to have won the heart of an Oxford scholar of independent circumstances at a time when the Indian race were regarded as savages and beyond the pale of the affections of a native of Europe."
[illustrated; genealogy]
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. "Within Powhatans calm retreat." Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America during 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, and 1802. London, New York, 1803. (Ed. Alfred J. Morrison. New York: Holt, 1909. 317.) With Pocahontas within Powhatan's calm retreat, Rolfe envies "not the gaudy great."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America during 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, and 1802. London, New York, 1803. Contains four poems within the section on Pocahontas. (Ed. Alfred J. Morrison. New York: Holt, 1909. 285-322. Poems: 309, 310, 311, 317.) (Rpt. as Personal Adventures and Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America. London, 1817.) The second of Davis's book work on Pocahontas, containing perhaps the first poems written about her, and containing the wildest representation of her yet -- initiating future directions. Drawing on Smith and Beverley for his basic "facts" and motivated to best Chastellux as a memorialist ("No Traveller before me has erected a monument to her memory, by a display of her virtues"), Davis completely romanticizes Pocahontas for the first time. Davis's main contribution to the developing representation of Pocahontas is to make love her primary motivation (see Kimber 1755). Pocahontas falls deeply in love with Smith at first sight; he recognizes her love, cultivates it, but doesn't reciprocate it. When Smith leaves, Rolfe capitalizes on her emotional devastation, catches her on the rebound, and eventually marries her, taking her to England, where there is reunion with Smith. For the first time, Pocahontas is "hot."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. "Sonnet to Pocahontas." ["WHERE from the shore, I oft have view'd the sail"] Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America during 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, and 1802. London, New York, 1803. (Ed. Alfred J. Morrison. New York: Holt, 1909. 311.) (Also in John Davis, Captain Smith and Princess Pocahontas, An Indian Tale. Philadelphia, 1805. 92.) (Also in John Davis, The First Settlers of Virginia, An Historical Novel. New York, 1805. 172.) Lovesick Rolfe: "Here as I pensive wander through the glade, / I sigh and call upon my Indian Maid."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. "To Pocahontas." ["HE who thy lovely face beholds"] Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America during 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, and 1802. London, New York, 1803. (Ed. Alfred J. Morrison. New York: Holt, 1909. 310.) Rolfe listing the sensuous joys of loving Pocahontas: "But more than mortal is the bliss / Of him who ravishes a kiss."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. "To Pocahontas." ["WHY, sweet Nymph, that heart-fetchd sigh"] Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America during 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, and 1802. London, New York, 1803. (Ed. Alfred J. Morrison. New York: Holt, 1909. 309.) Rolfe turning Pocahontas away from Smith: should your thoughts recall "a faithless lover," then "disclaim his fickle love."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Hays, Mary. "Matoaks." Female Biography, or, Memoirs of Illustrious and Celebrated Women, of all Ages and Countries. Volume 5. London, 1803. 498. (Philadelphia, 1807. Vol. 2, 501.) A one-paragraph biography in an enormous collection of women's lives from all over the world (the volume begins with Mary, Queen of Scots) by this English radical, a member of the Godwin-Wollstonecraft circle, who fought for the freedom and equality of women. "The infant colony of Virginia owed its preservation" to Matoaks (so interesting that Hays uses Pocahontas's "real" name!), "who may be considered as a national benefactress." "Her good sense raised her above the prejudices of her education, and the barbarous customs of her country." Perhaps the first of several books in the mid- to late 19th century in which Pocahontas is enshrined in a pantheon of model women -- see, for instance, Knapp, Child, Sarah Hale, Clarke, Frank Goodrich, S. W. Williams. Intimations of this movement in Foster 1798.
[gender]
[Electronic Version]

Latrobe, Benjamin. "Account of the descendants of Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, king or chief of the tribe of Powhatan, who inhabited the country about the falls of the James River, Virginia." 1803. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 23 (1885): 33. Simply notes that Latrobe gave a talk with this title on February 18. See Latrobe 1795.
[genealogy]

Review of John Davis, Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States. Edinburgh Review 2.4 (July 1803): 443-53, esp. 451-52. In a quite tepid review overall, the Pocahontas part gets the booby prize: "We never met with any thing more abominably stupid than this story, and must be excused for passing it over with very little notice."
[Electronic Version]

Wirt, William. The Letters of the British Spy. Richmond, 1803. 37-42 (Letter IV). (New York, 1875. 161-70) (Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1970. 161-70. Introduction by Richard Beale Davis.) A visit to Pocahontas’s birthplace spurs a melancholy meditation on the plight of the Indians on the part of this prominent lawyer who, in the 1830s, would defend the Cherokee before the Supreme Court. Virginians have “no right to this country,” and it is “no wonder” that the “poor wretches” are so “implacably vindictive against the white people." Wirt’s “soul melts with pity and shame," and he states that if he were president he would “bury the tomahawk” by asking for forgiveness and permission to remain in their homeland. But Pocahontas, “the patron deity of the enterprise” worthy of “a better fate,” undoubtedly sought in her marriage "the abolition of all distinction between Indians and white men," and deserves a festival “in honour of her memory." Without this “sensible and amiable woman,” “the anniversary cannon of the Fourth of July would never have resounded throughout the United States." And thus this essay is one of the earliest indications of what would be called the "Indian problem" and one of the earliest calls for public canonization of the “unfortunate princess.” (See Ruricola 1831 for testimony to the lasting influence of this essay.)
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

1804

Burk, John. The History of Virginia from its First Settlement to the Present Day. Vol. 1. Petersburg, 1804. 111-15, 168-70, 181-90. This lively, almost literary, historical account of early Virginia, has two very prophetic insights. First, Burk heralds the pictorial potential that would flower in the 19th century: “The spectacle of Pocahontas in an attitude of entreaty, with her hair loose, and her eyes streaming with tears . . . is a situation equal to the genius of Raphael [and in which] the painter will discover a new occasion for exercising his talents.” And, secondly, Burk foresees the emergence of a Smith-Pocahontas romance: “It is not even improbable, that, considering everything relating to captain Smith and Pocahontas as a mere fiction, [posterity] may vent their spleen against the historian, for impairing the interest of his plot, by marrying the princess of Powhatan to a Mr. Rolfe, of whom nothing had previously been said, in defiance of all the expectations raised by the foregoing parts of the fable.”
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Marshall, John. The Life of George Washington. Vol. 1. London, 1804. 35-36, 52-53. (New York: AMS Press, 1969. 30-31, 43-44.) The influential Supreme Court Justice includes accounts of the rescue, abduction, and marriage as part of a "narrative of principal events" before the Revolution in his biography of Washington, making him, says Tilton 1994, a "figurative descendant of the Jamestown planters."
[Electronic Version]

Review of John Davis, Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States. The Annual Review, and History of Literature; for 1803. Ed. Arthur Aiken. Vol. 2. London, 1804. 54-59, esp. 57. "The poetry with which the volume is interspersed is very inferior to the prose. It is introduced with peculiar impropriety, in the history of captain Smith and the female Indian Pocahontas. This history, Mr. Davis assures us, has been related with an inviolable adherence to truth, every circumstance being rejected that had not evidence to support it: but by attributing his own verses to one of the personages, he has given a character of fiction to the story which was in itself too romantic to be believed without a solemn affirmation of its authenticity." But the description of the young Indian girl who reminds Smith of Pocahontas is quoted liberally.
[Electronic Version]

"A Sketch of the Life of Pocahontas." [Boston] Monthly Anthology 1.4 (February 1804): 170-74. Not clear if this is by Davis or drawn from his 1803 Travels. Begins right at Smith's capture rather than developing his previous history as in Travels, but the basic plot is the same and some phrases are exact or similar. Most obvious difference is the classical reference: Pocahontas is Dido, Hortensia, the Goddess of Plenty. And ends with: "When we reflect that so much virtue, heroism, intellect and piety adorned so young a native of our country, we cannot but regard America as the natural clime of greatness, and consider Pocahontas, as exhibiting proof of the powers and capacity of savage nature, rather than an exception to common degeneracy." Could well be Davis because a comparison of the 1805 Captain Smith and Pocahontas with Travels shows that Davis recycles his basic plot with variation, and Tilton 1994 (p. 51) shows Davis quoting the Aeneid about Dido. Striking article; reprinted several times -- see below -- through 1814.
[Electronic Version]

"A Sketch of the Life of Pocahontas." [Hanover, N. H.] The Literary Tablet 1.24 (July 12, 1804): 94-95. Reprinted from the Monthly Anthology this year, same title.

1805

Arrowsmith, Aaron. A New and Elegant General Atlas. Comprising All the New Discoveries, to the Present Time. Boston, 1805. 645-46. Brief notice of the marriage of Pocahontas and Rolfe and their honorable descendants, as well as the anecdote about Tomocomo counting the inhabitants of England.
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. Captain Smith and Princess Pocahontas, An Indian Tale. Philadelphia, 1805. Also contains the 1803 poem "Sonnet to Pocahontas" ["Where from the shore, I oft have view'd the sail"]: 92. Davis's third work on this topic, this one boasting Thomas Jefferson as subscriber. Tilton 1994 calls this the first admittedly fictional representation of Pocahontas's life. Same basic story of Pocahontas smitten with Smith who transfers her passion immediately to Rolfe when he is presumed dead as in the 1803 Travels, but there is considerable exotic and erotic elaboration in descriptions of Pocahontas (cherub lips, luxuriant tresses, filling bosom) and events (the happy couple's "first intercourse" and "conjugal endearments"). Pocahontas is even "hotter" than she was in 1803. (Appendices include accounts of Smith and Jamestown, a memoir of the author, as well as Smith's letter to the Queen introducing Pocahontas. A final note mentions the possibility of a sequel called Massacre of the Virginia Planters.) (Kribbs 1975 quotes a subscription appeal to "the Philadelphia ladies of tender sensibilities," who "will all come forward with alacrity as Patronesses to a volume that records the virtues, and develops the conscious flame of Pocahontas the lovely, the susceptible and artless!"
[illustrated; novel; poetry]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece]

Davis, John. The First Settlers of Virginia, An Historical Novel. New York, 1805. Also contains the 1803 poem "Sonnet to Pocahontas" ["Where from the shore, I oft have view'd the sail"]: 172. In this fourth work on Pocahontas, by far the longest, Davis continues to flesh in the whole Pocahontas story from Travels to Captain with more details, like, for instance, adding in the abduction portion of her story. (Kribbs 1975 references a flap over Davis's plagiarism in this book that was started by a reviewer in the Monthly Anthology and Boston Review March 1806.)
[novel; poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Holmes, Abiel. American Annals, or, A Chronological History of America from Its Discovery in MCCCCXCII to MDCCCV. Vol. 1. Cambridge, 1805. 158-91. (2nd. ed. 1829.)
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

"Memoirs of Pocahontas, from first vol. of Burke's history of Virginia." [Philadelphia] Aurora General Advertiser 7 November 1805: 2; 8 November 1805: 2. See Burk 1804. The excerpt hits the Pocahontas high points: the rescue, the abduction, meeting with Smith in London, her death. Also reprints the prophetic insight about a Smith-Pocahontas romance.

"New History of Virginia." [Bridgeport, Connecticut] Republican Farmer 27 November 1805: 4. Selection from Burk 1804, on the rescue and the abduction.

Pinkerton, John. Pinkerton's Geography Epitomised for the Use of Schools by David Doyle. Philadelphia, 1805. 174-75. Brief note on Pocahontas and Rolfe as in Arrowsmith above, prefaced by the fact that "the first settlement of Virginia" dates from the permanency brought by the 1610 arrival of Lord Delaware. No mention of Smith.
[school book]

"A Sketch of the Life of Pocahontas." The Philadelphia Repository 5.1 (January 5, 1805): 5-6. Reprint of the anonymous 1804 Monthly Anthology selection that might be by Davis.

Wilmer, James Jones. The American Nepos: A Collection of the Lives of the Most Remarkable and the Most Eminent Men, Who Have Contributed to the Discovery, the Settlement, and the Independence of America. Baltimore, 1805. 69-86. Life of Smith from Belknap 1794.
[school book; Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

1807

Barlow, Joel. The Columbiad: A Poem. Philadelphia, 1807. Book IV. Lines 285-98. (London, 1809. 120-23.) In a major revision of his earlier "Vision of Columbus," in this epic poem (think Aeneid) fueled by nationalistic need the imprisoned Columbus is granted a vision of the future glory of America in which Smith, the "wise chief" of the "queen of colonies," leads "the best of men to wake to fruitful life" the "slumbering soil" of America and "rear an empire with the hand of toil." Pocahontas, a New World Medea, is urged to "Let virtue's voice o'er filial fears prevail" and lead Smith to safety, "For thine shall be his friends, his heart, his name; His camp shall shout, his nation boast thy fame."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Caritat, Hocquet. "Memories des Pocahontas." Bibliotheque américaine, contenant des mémoires sur l’agriculture, le commerce, les manufactures, les moeurs et les usages de l’Amériques. Volume 1. Paris, 1807. 179-86. Selections from Burk.
[foreign language]

"Jubilee Ode for 13th May, 1807." [Philadelphia] Port-Folio 4.3 (July 18, 1807): 47-48. A Bicentennial poem delivered in Jamestown. Defeat of the Indians. A preface notes that the author "has not found place to mention the celebrated Pocahontas," even though the poem is long.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"An Ode delivered by Master C. K. Blanchard, at the Jubilee of Jamestown." [Richmond] American Gleaner and Virginia Magazine 1.10 (1807): 157-60. Same as the Jubilee ode just above, with a similar afterword: "The Verse writers for the next 'Virginiad,' are requested to pay their respects to Princess Pocahontas, unavoidably neglected in this first essay."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Report of the Proceedings of the Late Jubilee at James-Town. Petersburg, 1807. 5, 8, 18, 19, 20, 42, 43. A collection of "orations, odes, and toasts" (including the one in the entries above) delivered at the Bicentennial celebration (the first) on May 13th. The amiable, tender, compassionate Pocahontas is remembered several times, especially in regard to the rescue, and toasted thus: "The benignant spirit, whose humanity and courage so often snatched our ancestors from famine and the sword . . . Her ashes lie neglected in a strange land, without monument or device; without Barrow, or string of Wampum, but her gentle spirit is in the midst of us, and we hail her with reverence and admiration, as the guardian genius of our fathers, or our infancy, of our cradles."
[Electronic Version]

"Sketch of the Life of Pocahontas, The celebrated American Indian Princess." [New York] Lady's Weekly Miscellany 5.31 (May 30, 1807): 244-45. Reprint of the anonymous 1804 Monthly Anthology selection that might be by Davis.

1808

Barker, James Nelson. The Indian Princess; or, La Belle Sauvage. Philadelphia, 1808. Music by John Bray. (Representative Plays by American Dramatists. Ed. Montrose J. Moses. New York: Dutton, 1918.) (The Romantic Indian. Ed. Charles M. Lombard. Vol. 2. Delmar: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1981.) (Early American Drama. Ed. Jeffrey H. Richards. New York: Penguin, 1997.) (John Bray, The Indian Princess. New World Records NW-232.) (New York: Da Capo Press, 1972.) The first play in English about Pocahontas and based, says Barker, on Smith's Generall Historie and "as close an adherence to historic truth has been preserved as dramatic rules would allow of." Which is not much. The English come to the New World for altruistic purposes, to bring civilization to the Indians. Their presence creates a division among the Indians, and the English actually fight with the "good" against the "bad" (led by Pocahontas's Indian lover). Twice Pocahontas saves Smith, whom she treats as a "brother" (asserting the first time, "White man, thou shalt not die; or I will die with thee!"), for it is Rolfe she loves ("I lived not till I saw thee"), though they do not marry within the play. The play ends with a thumpingly patriotic speech by Smith envisioning "a great, yet virtuous empire in the west" disjoined "from old licentious Europe" that underscores Barker's nationalistic purpose.
[play; music]
[Electronic Version]

Bray, John. The Indian Princess, or La Belle Sauvage. 1808. New York: Da Capo Press, 1972. The complete musical score for James Nelson Barker's play.
[music]
[View Images: cover]

Davis, John. Reise durch die Vereinigten Staaten in Amerika. Nuremberg, 1808. According to Kribbs 1975, this is a "greatly abridged 127-page translation of Davis's Travels that contains an "Einige Bruchstucke aus der Geschicte des Kapitan Schmith's und der Indianerin Pocahonta."

Hubbard, John. "Observations on the Indians of Virginia." The American Reader Containing a Selection of Narration, Harangues, Addresses, Orations, Dialogues, Odes, Hymns, Poems . . . Designed for the Use of Schools. Troy, 1808. 212-15. This is a selection of the first seven paragraphs from the 1803 Wirt essay, the part with the very tough comments about the dire state of the Indians. The trip to Pocahontas's birthplace is simply the occasion for this excerpt; the parts of the original Wirt essay relating to her are not included.
[school book; Indian problem]

"Retrospective Notice of American Literature." [Boston] Monthly Analog [Boston Review] 5 (August 1808): 455-60. This was a series of essays on valuable older books begun in March 1808 and here dealing with a London 1627 edition of Smith's Generall Historie. The author finds Smith's letter to Queen Anne a "curious morsel," and he quotes at length the reunion with Pocahontas in England, comparing it to Beverley's account.

"Song, in the Indian Princess by J. N. Barker." The National Songster. Containing a Collection of the Most Modern and Admired Patriotic, Sentimental, Anacreontic, Comic and Masonic Songs, Original and Selected to Which is Added a Number of Selected Toasts and Sentiments. Philadelphia, 1808. 28-36. About a dozen John Bray songs from Barker's play about Pocahontas this same year. Also see Bray 1996.
[music]

1809

Allen, William. An American Biographical and Historical Dictionary. Boston, 1809. 480-81, 516, 564. (2nd. ed. Boston, 1832. 654-55, 694-95.) Standard encyclopedia entries in what is the first work of general biography published in the United States.
[Electronic Version]

Kingston, John. "Speeches for and against Captain Smith, (while a captive) husband of Pocahontas, addressed to Powhatan, the King, in the presence of the High Priest and the Chief War Captains." The Reader's Cabinet: Consisting of More Than a Hundred Papers, Original and Extract, in Prose and Verse Calculated to Instruct the Mind, Reform the Morals, and Amend the Heart. Baltimore, 1809. 153-55. Smith as the husband of Pocahontas?? That's an interesting slippage given the history of Pocahontas representations. But included here are the fictional speeches from Davis's 1805 First Settlers of Virginia by Opitchapan, Kahoky, and Nantaquas before Powhatan, arguing for and against killing the captive Smith (pp.47-50).
[Electronic Version]

Marcy, William. An Oration on the Three Hundred and Eighteenth Anniversary of the Discovery of America Delivered before the Tammany Society or Columbian Order. Troy, 1809. 47. The Tammany Society, best known for being a powerful and corrupt political force in New York in the mid-19th century, was named after a Lenape Indian and promoted a positive view of Indian culture. This speech by William L. Marcy (later Governor of New York and U.S. Secretary of State and not to be confused with William Marcy Tweed -- the infamous Boss Tweed) reminds hearers that "our social felicity and national importance spring from the misfortunes" of the Indians. What should we do? "Let us recollect they are the same race, and believe they are capable of the same friendship and generosity -- the same independence of soul and love of liberty, which distinguished a Pocahontas or a Logan. Justice and humanity demand that we should cast off our illiberal and barbarous notions concerning the Indians, and no longer amuse ourselves with the unreal picture of their unmerciful cruelty, savage ferocity, and barbarous inhumanity."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Picket, Albert. "History of Pocahontas." The Juvenile Mentor, Being the Second Part of the Juvenile Spelling-Book, Containing Progressive Reading Lessons in Prose and Verse. New York, 1809. 104-7. (Third Part New York, 1818. 109-12) Same as Bingham and Webster 1797 and based on Chastellux.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

Randolph, Edmund. History of Virginia. 1809-1813. Ed. Arthur H. Shaffer. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1970. 24, 61-64. Randolph, a powerful political figure (governor of Virginia and first U.S. Attorney General) was a descendant of Pocahontas, and his basic facts come from Stith. In regard to Pocahontas, he says some "sudden impulse of love or compassion" saved Smith, "the soul of the Virginian enterprise," and "With whatever justice soever the character of an uncivilized Indian may have been drawn as cool, cruel, sullen, suspicious, and designing, a better class ought to be assigned to hers." Pocahontas was "beautiful, engaging, and innocent," with a "compassionate and susceptible heart," who looked "up to Smith as a second father, not as a companion for love."
[Virginia history]

Review of "Tears and Smiles, a Comedy, by J. N. Barker / The Indian Princess or La Belle Sauvage, an Operatich Melo-Drama, in three acts, by J. N. Barker." The Ordeal; a Critical Journal of Politicks and Literature 1.21 (May 27, 1809): 322-26. The reviewer notes the difficulty American dramatists have in garnering respect, and he holds the two Barker plays up for worthy attention. The "principal interest" in the latter play is the Rolfe-Pocahontas romance, and a love scene "is well wrought, replete with tenderness, and superiour to the composition of most of the modern European play-compilers."
[Electronic Version]

"A Sketch of the Life of Pocahontas." [Philadelphia] The Tickler 2.227 (1809): 22. Reprint of the anonymous 1804 Monthly Anthology selection that might be by Davis.

"A Sketch of the Life of the Princess Pocahontas." [Richmond] The Visitor 1.12 (July 15, 1809): 89-90. Reprint of the anonymous 1804 Monthly Anthology selection that might be by Davis.

1810

"Life of John Smith." Philadelphia Repertory 1.13 (July 28, 1810): 97-98; 1.14 (August 4, 1810): 105-6; 1.15 (August 11, 1810): 113-14; 1.16 (August 18, 1810): 121-22; 1.17 (August 25, 1810): 129-30; 1.18 (September 1, 1810): 137-38; 1.19 (September 8, 1810): 145-46. Drawn from Belknap 1794.
[Smith biography]

Trumbull, Benjamin. A General History of the United States of America; From the Discovery in 1492, to 1792: or, Sketches of the Divine Agency. Vol. 1. Boston, 1810. 56-64. Trumbull, a minister who also published a history of Connecticut, keyed on the element of "divine agency," not so much in Pocahontas's baptism and marriage but surely in her rescue of Smith: "In this critical moment providence wrought wonderfully, both for his own and the colony's preservation."
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Watterston, George. Glencarn; or, The Disappointments of Youth. Alexandria, 1810. 160. "Old Pocahontas" has brief mention as an African American servant in this novel by Watterston, who was later Librarian of Congress under President Madison.
[novel; slavery]

1811

Bozman, John Leeds. A Sketch of the History of Maryland during the Three First Years after its Settlement. Baltimore, 1811. 144. Bozman's section on Virginia contains only a brief account of Smith "miraculously saved" by Pocahontas.
[Electronic Version]

1812

C. "Notice of Captain John Smith, The Father of American Colonization." [Philadelphia] Port-Folio 8.3 (Sept. 1812): 218-33. The unknown "C" does not seem to be slavishly following past accounts. He covers only one episode in the Virginia period of Smith's life: the capture/rescue/conspiracy events. At the "critical moment," a "protecting Providence" snatched Smith from destruction. Pocahontas was "deeply interested in the fate of Smith." Her rescue, "which, in point of benevolence and romantickness of character, has scarcely a parallel in the records of fable, was crowned with success." The "thirst for blood" in the crowd "was converted, as by magic, into a sentiment of humanity," and Powhatan was "softened and subdued by this more than human daring of his daughter."
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. "Jamestown, An Elegy." [Philadelphia] Port Folio new series, 8.2 (August 1812): 213-15. Davis has four poems entirely relating to Pocahontas in his prose works, but she receives just a brief mention in this individually published ubi sunt elegy occasioned, he says in the headnote, by a visit to the cemetery next to the "dilapidated and forlorn" Jamestown church: "And here oft roam'd the tawny maid / Whose bosom heav'd at passion's call; / For in the town, or savage glade, / Resistless love is lord of all." Davis banging the love drum again.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Maxwell, William. "To William Wirt, Esq." Poems. Philadelphia, 1812. 57-60. The poet, who also edited the Virginia Historical Register, and Literary Companion, asks lawyer Wirt (see 1803) for help courting a reluctant lover and uses the Pocahontas of the "dark night" rescue (not the first rescue when Smith was captive) as a point of reference for strong love by a woman: "Yes! worthy of the nuptial knot, / False to her sire, she came, / And true to Love, betray'd his plot, / And won immortal fame."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Melish, John. Travels in the United States of America, in the years 1806 & 1807, and 1809, 1810, & 1811. Volume 1. Philadelphia, 1812. 235. (London, 1813, 171.) Melish, a prominent mapmaker and geographer, briefly mentions only the Rolfe-Pocahontas connection in his chapter on Virginia, dating the first permanent settlement as 1610, not 1607.
[Electronic Version]

Pinkerton, John. A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World. Volume 13. London, 1812. 54-60, 74, 85-88, 111-13, 119-23. Known as the "English Strabo," Pinkerton includes Smith's Generall Historie in this huge collection of documents.
[Electronic Version]

Sanders, Daniel. A History of the Indian Wars with the First Settlers of the United States, Particularly in New-England. Montpelier, 1812. 32-33. (Rochester, 1828. 22.) In a book that's been called unusual for its criticism of colonial bigotry and cruelty to the Indians, Sanders, president of the University of Vermont, finds "one of the most memorable instances of friendly dispositions towards the English is that of the amiable Pocahontas."
[Electronic Version]

"Sketch of the Life of Pocahontas." [Hudson] The Casket 1.19 (April 11, 1812): 217-19; 1.20 (April 18, 1812): 229-31. Reprint of the anonymous 1804 Monthly Anthology selection that might be by Davis.

Williamson, Hugh. The History of North Carolina. Volume 1. Philadelphia, 1812. 71-72, 77-78. Williamson, who represented North Carolina at the Constitutional Convention, blasts Emperor Powhatan in his only mention of Pocahontas: "As the destruction of the colony was certainly prevented by the exertions of Captain Smith, and his life was saved by the signal humanity of a young savage; we learn with pleasure that the posterity of Pocahontas, now called by different names, are numerous and respectable in Virginia, though every other branch of the imperial family, without fruit or leaf, has long since mouldered in the dust."
[Electronic Version]

1813

Campbell, J. W. A History of Virginia from Its Discovery Till the Year 1781. Philadelphia, 1813. 39-40, 45, 50-52. It is not clear whether the rescue of Smith "be imputed to generous sorrow, or the softer sympathies of the mind," but it is clear that Pocahontas's "sylvan virtues were untarnished by the manners of the courts and the false delicacy of civilized life." In regard to her descendants, "Thus while the government of Powhatan has crumbled into dust under the arms of the European invaders, the imperial blood has flowed into new channels, and infused its virtues into the veins of those who tread on the ruins of his empire" (an echo of Williamson 1812 and even Stith 1747?).
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

[Davis, John.] Life and Surprising Adventures of the Celebrated John Smith, First Settler of Virginia; Interspersed with Interesting Anecdotes of Pocahontas, an Indian Princess. Pittsburgh, 1813. 26-33, 41-42, 52-55. Though attributed without question to Davis in Shaw & Shoemaker, this anonymously published work, which also contains a biography of John Robinson, is clearly from Belknap 1794. Both biographies are shortened a bit, the Smith one by 15-20 paragraphs. The only Pocahontas episode cut is the Virginia Maske.
[Smith biography]

Hening, Elizabeth. "Savage Magnanimity." 1813. Blair Bolling, "Commonplace Book." Mss. Virginia Historical Society, Richmond. 6-10. The Bollings are descendants of Pocahontas. Not sure what Hening's 84-line poem about Pocahontas's "dark night" journey to warn Smith of Powhatan's murder plot is doing in Blair's commonplace book: "Heroic maid thine is that hallowed love, / That flows unmingled from a source above, / From earthly dross refined by angels art, / The pure emotion of a spotless heart, / Let those who bend at Mammon's golden shrine, / And take with falsehoods lips the vow divine / Who wed the gold that fills the misers chest, / And swear to love while hatred fills the breast, / Blush if they can that in a savage mind, / A love should dwell so noble so refined."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Life and Adventures of Capt. John Smith, Founder of the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia, 1813. 30-38, 58-59, 73-75. Similar in title to the other anonymous work this year that has been attributed mistakenly to Davis and at quick glance they seem the same work, but this edition is clearly copied directly from Belknap 1794.
[Smith biography]

1814

"A Sketch of the Life of Pocahontas." [Annapolis] Maryland Gazette and Political Intelligencer 1 December 1814. Reprint of the anonymous 1804 Monthly Anthology selection that might be by Davis.

"The Beauties of York. Inscribed to Thomas S. Pleasants." [Philadelphia] Port-Folio 3rd series, 3.6 (June 1814): 594-97. The headnote by the editor (presumably Charles Caldwell) seeks to canonize Pocahontas: "But our strongest motive for printing [the poem] is, the elegant tribute it pays to the amiable, the heroic, the neglected Pocahontas -- a princess who, in other countries, if not actually deified, would have been worshipped, at least, as a tutelary saint; but who, in this, where virtue, talents, and worth constitute the only legitimate title to distinction, has been suffered to be almost lost to fame. . . . Under Providence, she was more instrumental than any other being in the original colonization of these United States. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, and the statuary should vie with each other in doing justice to her achievements and in perpetuating her renown." The poem itself continues the theme of her unrequited love for Smith started by Davis: love for Smith "usurped the empire of her soul" but turned "to torment, to despair," and she was "left at last to nurse consuming cares, / And weep thy woes in unavailing tears."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Bromley, Walter. Mr. Bromley’s Second Address, on the Deplorable State of the Indians. Halifax, 1814. 9-11. Bromley, who one commentator has called an "enigmatic reformer," gave this address at his Royal Acadian School in Halifax, a school founded, in his own words, on the most liberal principles. His project was to produce a "sensation of comiseration in the minds of the public" for the Indians and to develop plans for the benefit of "these poor neglected fellow-creatures." In this speech he strove "to prove the great capability of the Indians to become a civilized people, the idea of which the white inhabitants of this colony generally consider chimerical and problematical." He includes, without attribution, the section from Chastellux on Pocahontas.
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Davis, John. "The Angel of the Wild." [Philadelphia] Port Folio 3rd series, 3.4 (April 1814): 374-75. In this second poem on "Mercy's meekest child" published outside his prose works, Davis focuses squarely on the rescue moment. Pocahontas's appeal is so powerful that Powhatan immediately stays the execution and gathers her in his arms: "When lo! with scream of anguish loud, / A tender child, in gorgeous vest, / Runs to the stranger, through the crowd, / And, kneeling, clasps him to her breast. / See, see her arms around him twined, / And hear her pour her piteous wail, / As if for hopeless love she pined, / Her tresses loose, her dear cheek pale." The footnote indicating Pocahontas was eleven seems to qualify what might be meant by "hopeless love."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1815

Carey, Mathew. The olive branch; or, Faults on both sides, federal and democratic. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, 1815. 326. First published shortly after the sack of Washington by the British, this book argued for our two political parties to come together and avoid civil war. Defending the Irish against charges of treason, when Americans with Indian blood or claiming descent from the Pilgrims were the problem: "I said there is no country that owes more to foreigners than the United States. . . . But now, like the squeezed orange, they are to be thrown aside, and trodden under foot. The illustrious La Fayette, Gen. Lee, Gen. Gates . . . and hundreds of others, eminent during the revolution, were foreigners, and many of them were not excelled for services, and merits by any native American, whether the dingy blood of a Pocahontas crawled through his veins, or whether he descended in a right line from any of 'the Pilgrims' that waged war against the potent Massasoit."
[Electronic Version]

1816

Ramsay, David. History of the United States, from Their First Settlement as English Colonies. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1816. 15-25. The rescue is the only Pocahontas event included: Smith "was the father of Virginia, and one of the first links of the chain of causes, which has filled a great part of North America, with civilized inhabitants." He, the "life and soul of the settlement," was "providentially preserved" by Pocahontas.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

[Tucker, St. George.] "Letter XVII: To Mr. Henry D---." Letters from Virginia. Baltimore, 1816. 149-59, esp. 150-51. Tucker was an eminent lawyer (the "American Blackstone") and man of letters. This letter, an ubi sunt meditation at Jamestown like Davis 1812 or like Wirt 1803, stirs images of Pocahontas: "I naturally look upon the scenes of [Virginia's] history with the eyes of a patriotic lover. A thousand ideas and emotions . . . rushed thro' my mind in an instant. I thought upon Smith, that gallant and romantic spirit, who deserves to be honoured as the founder of the state. I thought upon Pocahontas, that incomparable Indian, who is now perhaps its tutelary angel. . . . I discovered the Indians moving over the little isthmus, dressed off in their finest feathers, with Pocahontas before them, like another fabulous Ceres, bearing presents of corn and fruit to the poor perishing strangers -- they meet together -- they embrace -- they smoke the pipe of peace -- they lead off the dance of simple innocence and joy. Who would not gaze forever on such a vision of delight?" (Attributed also to William Maxwell and to James Kirke Paulding, who uses the phrase "tutelary angel" in his 1817 Letters, but see Strobia 1817 as well.)

1817

Paulding, James Kirke. Letters from the South. New York, 1817. 16, 18-19. (New York, 1835. 23, 25.) Letter 2, 1816. Prolific Paulding was once thought of as one of the premier American writers. His remarks here are triggered more by reading Smith's Generall Historie than by a Southern landmark: "Neither Neptune, nor Jupiter, nor Minerva, took [the colonists] under their protection; nor did Medea assist them in overcoming the obstacles in their way by any of the arts of magic. Fortitude, valour, perseverance, industry, and little Pocahontas, were their tutelary deities, and their golden fleece, fields of corn, and plantations of tobacco."
[Electronic Version]

Review of William Wirt, Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry. [Philadelphia] Analectic Magazine 10 (1817): 463. See Wirt 1823. ""Mr. Henry's scheme of 1784, for rearing a red and white progeny to Pocahontas, and other Indian ladies, we have not time to describe; but think it ingenious enough."
[Electronic Version]

Strobia, John Henry. “Journal of an Excursion to the North and East in the Summer of 1817.” Manuscript in the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond. Abrams' quotes from this ms. seem exactly as in Tucker 1816. Not sure what to make of that. (See Abrams 1999, 47.)

Virginian, A. The Lives of Sir Walter Raleigh and Capt. John Smith. Shepherd's-Town, 1817. Copy of Belknap 1794,
[Smith biography]

Wirt, William. Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry. Philadelphia, 1817. 238-42. (Philadelphia, 1836, 1841. 255-60.) Henry introduced legislation providing a financial reward for intermarriage, which he considered a way of mitigating the "unremitting war" on the borders "which eclipse the wildest fictions of the legendary tale." To which Wirt footnotes, "The adventure of Captain Smith and Pocahontas, if you put aside the dignity of their characters, is cold and tame, when compared with some which are related among the western inhabitants of this state."
[Electronic Version]

1818

"Indian Philanthropy." [Annapolis] Maryland Gazette and Political Intelligencer 10 December 1818. Same as "Traits of Indian Character" below this year.

"Modern Pocahontas." Trenton Federalist 26 October 1818: 2. A Pocahontas-like act: a Seminole woman saves the life of a Georgia militia man. See other entries this year: we begin to find Pocahontas as the model for Indian women actively aiding whites.
[Pocahontas-like]

"Pocahontas." [New York] Weekly Visitor and Ladies' Museum 1.23 (April 4, 1818): 364-65. Dramatization of the rescue: "But ne'er shall it fall, for one bosom is nigh, / That grieves for his fate, and laments he should die, / Oh! maiden! thy name from our minds should efface, / The crimes of thy sire, and the guilt of thy race." Affection and hatred strive for mastery in Powhatan, but affection prevails.
[poetry]

Reflector. [Chillicothe] "A Second Pocahontas!" The Supporter 16 December 1818. A Pocahontas-like rescue. Full story of the Seminole woman mentioned above and below this year who saves a Georgia militia man who now seeks to marry her.
[Pocahontas-like]

"Traits of Indian Character." [New York] American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review 4.2 (December 1818): 157-58. Three episodes trigger the comment that "we occasionally meet with traits of Indian character, so disinterested and noble, so humane and generous, as to produce in the civilized mind, mingled emotion of astonishment and delight." One is Pocahontas, a second is Cherokee Attakullakulla ("always the friend of peace of white men") who guides an Army officer nine days through a wilderness to safety, and the third is the Seminole mentioned above in the Reflector piece, now courted by the man she saved. "It thus appears, that rude and uncultivated minds are susceptible of the finest sensibility, of the warmest attachments, of the most inviolable friendship -- and that they sometimes practice virtues, which would do credit to a people the most refined and enlightened."
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

1819

"Historical Fact." [London] La Belle Assemblee October, 1819. 154-55. (Rpt. "An Araucanian Pocahontas." The Researcher 1.4 [July 1927]: 235-36.) La Belle Assemblee was a fashionable woman's magazine. The story of Smith's rescue is told in the traditional way till the end, when Pocahontes tells Smith, while resting "at her father's palace," that her mother was the only child of the South American Indian hero Lautaro, who led resistance against the Spanish in Chile in the mid-16th century, and that "she gloried in her Araucanian ancestors." The story of Lautaro -- as "matchless in courage, in warlike resources, and presence of mind, as in lofty stature and perfect beauty . . . and performing prodigies of valour" but who died fighting for his country -- is then told without apparent connection to Pocahontas's act except, perhaps, by implication, to the source of her heroic qualities. However, this may be the first representation of Pocahontas's mother. Webster 1840 will make the mother of Norse descent.
[Electronic Version]

Sanford, Ezekiel. A History of the United States before the Revolution. Philadelphia, 1819. 14-20. Standard mentions of the rescue, the abduction, and her marriage as a foundation for peace. Nothing about the trip to England.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Scott, Moses Y. "Pocahontas." Fatal Jest, A Tale: and Other Poems. New York, 1819. 45-46. (Specimens of American Poetry. Ed. Samuel Kettell. Vol. 3. Boston, 1829. 117-18.) (Songs, Odes, and Other Poems on National Subjects. Ed. William McCarty. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1842. 370-71.) Pocahontas's dark night journey through what Smith calls "the irksome woods" to save Smith from Powhatan's plot to murder him and his men: wind whipping her hair away from her bare bosom, Pocahontas warns of Powhatan who would drink your blood and devour your children, asking, when it's all over, if she'll ever be betrayed or forgotten.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Smith, John. The True Travels, Adventures and Observations of Captaine Iohn Smith, in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America beginning about the Yeere 1593, and Continued to this Present 1629. Vol. 2 is The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. Ed. John Holt Rice and Francis Walker Gilmer. Richmond, 1819. This is the first American edition of Smith's Generall Historie, which is, of course, the main source of information about and later representations of Pocahontas. For information about this edition: Richard Beale Davis, "The First American Edition of Capt. John Smith's True Travels and General Historie." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 47 (1939): 97-108.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Woodward, Thomas. "Smith." The Columbian Plutarch, or, An Exemplification of Several Distinguished American Characters. Philadelphia, 1819. 34-37. One of the post-revolutionary attempts to foster American identity by collecting biographies. Description of the rescue in this brief biography of Smith.
[Electronic Version]

1820

Belknap, Jeremy. The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Captain John Smith. London, 1820. See Belknap 1794.
[Smith biography]

Eastburn, James Wallis, and Robert Sands. Yamoyden, A Tale of the Wars of King Philip. New York, 1820. No specific mention of Pocahontas in this early poem, but Tilton 1994 (64-65) suggests a connection because of the way the intermarriage of Indian and White is handled, specifically its failure.
[poetry; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Grimshaw, William. History of the United States, from Their First Settlement as Colonies, to the Peace of Ghent. Philadelphia, 1820. 26-36, esp. 29, 32-34. Grimshaw, author of several history books, was not quite true to the "facts" here: the Pocahontas rescue happens the second time Smith is captured, Pocahontas frequently visited the English after Smith left and was captured there, her marriage was celebrated "with extraordinary pomp," and she was "publicly baptized" in England.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Hillhouse, William. Pocahontas; A Proclamation: With Plates. New Haven, 1820. In this satirical pamphlet, "Pocahontas" addresses the non-slave holding states, proclaiming that "the welfare and happiness of the body politic, depends on the subordination of the inferior members to the head" and initiating "a crusade for unlimited slavery." Tilton 1994 says that Hillhouse used "Pocahontas" because "she was the the literal and/or figurative progenetrix of the Virginia gentry," and he was able "to express the foolishness of having a mixed-blood aristocracy in a society where racial separation is mandatory," thus questioning "the essential distinctions upon which the southern planter ideology was based." Written just after the Missouri Compromise, this pamphlet is, perhaps, the first use of Pocahontas in North/South hostilities.
[slavery]

Prentiss, Charles. History of the United States of America. Keene, 1820. 23-24. Relatively standard account of Smith and Pocahontas matters until a final comment about her descendants, "who, instead of mortification, ought to glory in the virtues of their illustrious ancestor." Now where does that come from!
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Sabine, James. An Ecclesiastical History, from the Commencement of the Christian Era to the Present Time. Boston, 1820. 531-32. Brief mention. The Southern colonies "furnish but a very brief ecclesiastical history. . . . The only object of adventurers to Virginia was commerce. . . . the history of Virginia is virtually barren of spiritual affairs [but] the conversion of Pocahontas as Indian princess is one of the chief events of these times."
[Electronic Version]

Ship's Figurehead of Pocahontas. c. 1820. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 41.) Rasmussen and Tilton say that the carving they show "once adorned a merchant ship owned by the wealthy Philadelphian Stephen Girard. . . . Indeed, it is one of the more spectacular of early nineteenth-century American ship carvings to survive." Since Pocahontas took a long sea voyage from which she did not return, it was a natural romantic notion to name ships or carve figureheads after her.
[artifact; illustrated]
[View Images: artifact]

[Tudor, William.] Letter XII: "On the past, present, and future State of the Indians." Letters on the Eastern States. New York, 1820. 245-46. (2nd ed. Boston, 1821. 290-91.) Tudor was an esteemed literary figure -- first editor, for instance, of the North American Review -- and we see him here ruminating on the Indian problem that Jackson would pursue at the end of the decade and that would lead to the Trail of Tears in the 1830s. Tudor mentions Pocahontas as one of the few positive points of reference in the otherwise dismal present state of the Indians: "Attempts have been occasionally made . . . to give individuals an education . . . . but notwithstanding all these attempts, I do not at this moment recollect that one civilized Indian has ever discovered any kind of superiority; not a single family of them has been kept up in a tame state. There has never been even a scion ingrafted on the wild stock, that has produced fruit of any value. The only example that I know of is in Virginia, where it is said some of the descendants of Pocahontas are proud of their descent from that interesting Indian princess. . . . There are one or two characters preserved in our histories that interest us in a degree, like Pocahontas. But the prejudice against the Indians, even when they were our equals in some things, and our superiors in power, prevented all intermarriages. They were treated with contempt, and of course with injustice."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Waln, Robert. American Bards: A Satire. Philadelphia, 1820. 29. Byron's "The cry is up and scribblers are my game" is one of Waln's epigraphs in this satirical survey romp through American poets. John Davis's 1814 "Angel of the Wild" -- "alias Miss Pocahontas" -- is the subject of Waln's barb. Davis is described as "famous for seldom being read, and never understood."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1821

By a Virginian. [Carter, St. Leger Landon.] The Land of Powhatan. Baltimore, 1821. 9, 68-102. The notes show Carter, a literary man who was a long time contributor to the Southern Literary Messenger, familiar with Stith and especially Burk, but this version of Pocahontas as traitor to her people is totally his own: "I have availed myself of the unbounded license of versification in fashion at the present day." Pocahontas saves Smith, but Powhatan has already promised her as bride to Japasaws. Someone, probably Smith, kills Japasaws and abducts Pocahontas, incurring the wrath of Opechancanough and Powhatan. The upshot of the rescue, then, is Powhatan regret that the moment for freeing his country passed because of giving in to Pocahontas (a shameful daughter) in a weak moment and "revenge be now his only care."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Deffebach, Lewis. Oolaita; or, The Indian Heroine. Philadelphia, 1821. The chief's daughter intercedes for two white lovers, not for love but for the principle of love. Discussed in Sollors 1986.
[Pocahontas-like]

Harris, William Tell. Remarks Made during a Tour through the United States of America in the Years 1817, 1818, and 1819. London, 1821. 6, 52.
[Electronic Version]

"The Indian Character." [Charleston] City Gazette 15 August 1821: 2. The Indian problem that's starting to get attended to; see Tudor 1820. This article meditating a bit melancholily on the gradual and inevitable disappearance of the Indians includes a section from the Boston Patriot: the education of Indians had not been properly conducted and has not been successful, but "let a plan for instructing the Indian youth be adopted. . . . we may then consider the experiment fairly tried, whether our red brethren, the descendants of Massasoit and Pocahontas, are not capable of becoming at some future period useful citizens of our happy country."
[Indian problem]

Pocahontas County, West Virginia.
[homage]
[Electronic Version]

Review of The Land of Powhatan, By a Virginian [St. Leger Landon Carter]. Evangelical and Literary Magazine and Missionary Chronicle 4.7 (July 1821): 356. Liberally quotes from the description of the rescue ("one of the finest incidents in all romance") and expands on how the poem then "dallies a little with history."

Wright, Frances. Views of society and manners in America, in a series of letters from that country to a friend in England, during the years 1818, 1819, and 1820. London, 1821. 211. Fanny Wright, engaged in radical projects involving the status of slaves, women, and the working man, was a leading social reformer of the early 19th century. In her "Observations of the Indians" during her first tour of America, this young "liberated woman," though sympathetic, saw a race rightly destined to fade: "The increase and spread of the white population at the expense of the red is . . . the triumph of peace over violence." The mixed race that is the result of Spanish intermarriage with the Indians may soon rival in strength the nations of the Old World, but "the marriage of Rolfe . . . with the amiable Pocahontas is almost the only instance on record of a legal engagement contracted by the early [English] settlers with the women of this country."
[Electronic Version]

1822

Davis, John. American Mariners, or, The Atlantic Voyage. London, 1822. Lines 218-20. Probably based on his return voyage to England, the purpose of this book in a post-War of 1812 period was to paint a positive picture of Americans, and it contains the last product of Davis's cottage industry on Pocahontas begun in 1800. "Sunrise in the English Channel" on the first sight of England ("This is the land where love and pity mourn / O'er the soft Indian's monumental urn; / Virginia's jewel, and her sex's pride, / Who on a foreign shore untimely died") triggers an emotional telling of the Pocahontas rescue of Smith: "She flies on seraph's wing, and through the crowd, / With piercing cry, 'mid acclamations loud, / Seeks the pale victim, by compassion led, / And in her arms sustains his languid head / . . . Streams from her eyes -- sobs from her bosom flow -- / And pale that cheek where the rose loves to glow." A footnote indicates that Pocahontas's life exemplified that "Fine Spirits / Are touch'd to fine Issues" and that her descendants are the "patricians of Virginia": the Bowlings, Murrays, Jeffersons, Randolphs, Middletons, and Pierpoints.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Gardiner, W. H. Review of James Fenimore Cooper, The Spy. [Boston] North American Review 6.11 (July 1822): 250-82, esp. 255-56. Smarting from English criticism after the 1812 war, nationalism reared its head. In a review important to our literary history for its promotion of native materials ripe for an "American" literature, Gardiner lists Smith, the man of martial adventure in his youth, who spent "his riper years, amidst the cares of a colonial government, in the arms of the renowned Pocahontas."
[Electronic Version]

Goodrich, Charles A. A History of the United States of America, on a Plan Adapted to the Capacity of Youths. 35th ed. Boston, 1822. 19-24. Rather substantial account of the rescue is the only event elaborated in the section on early Virginia. Doomed to death "as a man whose courage and genius were peculiarly dangerous to the Indians," Smith was saved by Pocahontas, who sought his life with "the eloquence of mute, but impassioned sorrow," causing a sympathy that "melted the savage throng." Brief mention of her second rescue and the marriage to Rolfe. Lnk is to the 1834 edition. (In the 1853 [28-30] edition, all the Smith and Pocahontas material is moved to footnotes.)
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Hamilton, Augusta, Lady. Marriage Rites, Customs, and Ceremonies, of All Nations of the Universe. London, 1822. 327, 330-33. "Women form so prominent a feature in the history of the universe, that whatever respects their various ranks and conditions must be important and entertaining," says Hamilton, and the information she has compiled from travelers, navigators, and missionaries "have powerfully attacked the demons of Superstition and Terror." Her purpose seems to be "to render women more virtuous." After sections on Native Americans, Canada, Massachusetts, New England, and Pennsylvania, Hamilton's discussion of Virginia mores is straight out of Davis's 1803 Travels, copying his description of the fashionable Indian girl with the pretty feet who reminds him of Pocahontas and recounting at length the Pocahontas-Smith-Rolfe affairs, though without especial comment except that the story "has lately been a subject of theatrical exhibition."
[gender]
[Electronic Version]

"On American Literature." Alexandria Herald 17 June 1822: 4. Like Gardiner, this essay promotes an American national literature: "America has resources, which are as yet almost untouched, and which will not suffer by comparison with any." Among incidents to be snatched "from the shades of oblivion by the hand of genius, and inscribed forever on the roll of fame" is the story of Pocahontas. "The day may come when Pocahontas will breathe in productions of the painter and the statuary and animate the glowing lines of the poet" (to which the writer adds that since writing the essay he has come across Carter's 1821 work).

Sigourney, Lydia H. Traits of the Aborigines of America, A Poem. Cambridge, 1822. 74-79. The prolific Sigourney, the "Sweet Singer of Hartford," was one of that "damned mob of scribbling women" responsible for the rise of feminized, sentimental fiction in the early nineteenth century that Hawthorne complained about. In this, the first of several writings about or mentions of Pocahontas, and one of her earliest works, Pocahontas is, memorably, like the maid who saved the infant Moses, who then overcame the Pharaoh.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1823

Carey, Henry Charles. The Geography, History and Statistics of America and the West Indies. London, 1823. 206-7. Short historical sketch of Virginia from 1607-1783. The colony is indebted to Smith for its preservation, and the Pocahontas rescue is "an incident which occurred during this period [that] has lent to his history the attractions of romance."
[Electronic Version]

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Pioneers, or the Sources of the Susquehanna. New York, 1823. Elizabeth says of Natty, "I suppose he is a descendant of King Philip, if not a grandson of Pocahontas."

Everett, John. Review of John Smith's True Travels and Generall Historie. North American Review 16 (April 1823): 270-83. Longish summaries of both these works hits the main Pocahontas reference points: the two rescues, providing food, the "Virginia Maske" (interestingly, "bearing a pretty fair comparison in point of social, intellectual delight, with certain more refined assemblies in later days") abduction, marriage, reunion with Smith, and death. As if answering an implied question about a relationship, the reviewer affirms Pocahontas's "love for Smith," but, though "he had found leisure in the tumults of the new colony, to cultivate her friendship," he stresses that Smith "never alludes to her in any other terms than gratitude for her protection."
[Electronic Version]

"First Lessons in History." New-York Mirror: A Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 1.2 (August 9, 1823): 14-15. Favorable review of Thayer 1823, with accounts of Pocahontas's two rescues of Smith the only example quoted from a book that "has conferred an invaluable benefit on the rising generation."
[Electronic Version]

Goodrich, Charles A. A History of the United States of America. Hartford, 1823. 17-20. (Hartford, 1833. 46-53.) The material in the 1822 Goodrich is now preceded by a detailed account of Smith's life before Virginia, making, in effect, Smith's biography equal to the history of Virginia up to 1609.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Haywood, John. The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee. Knoxville, 1823. 47-48. Another Pocahontas-like figure. During the Revolutionary War, the British policy was to arm the Indians and wreak havoc on the Americans. The attack of the Cherokee around the Tennessee-Virginia border "was rendered much less destructive than was intended, by the address and humanity of another Pocahontas, Nancy Ward, who was nearly allied to some of the principal chiefs, obtained their plan of attack, and without delay communicated it" to the Americans.
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Hulbert, Charles. "Princess Pocahontas." Museum Americanum, or, Select Antiquities. London, 1823. 312-15. Description of the capture of Smith and the rescue of Pocahontas given at some length, as well as the lengthy excerpt from Robertson on her marriage to Rolfe and baptism that links her far superior beauty to Rolfe's attraction -- all under what looks like a series title: "Instances of Extraordinary Personal Beauty." The story of the "Princess Pocahontas will live while gratitude and feeling exists in the minds of Englishmen and Americans." Hulbert regrets "he has not at hand more detailed and circumstantial particulars of this lovely and heroic Indian."
[Electronic Version]

Paulding, James Kirke. Koningsmarke, The Long Finne. New York, 1823. This novel has a Pocahontas-like plot element that Tilton 1994 (76-77) sees as a parody of the rescue, suggesting Paulding's sense that such scenes were "ridiculous."
[novel; Pocahontas-like]

Thayer, Caroline Matilda. First Lessons in the History of the United States. New York, 1823. 22-23. Amiable account of this "amiable child" and later the "amiable princess," with a great misprint: in England Pocahontas "became very formal and evil [sic] in her manners, after the English fashion." O, those wicked English etiquetters.
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

1824

American Society for Promoting the Civilization and General Improvement of the Indian Tribes within the United States. [Jedidiah Morse] "A Plea for the Indians." The First Annual Report of the American Society for Promoting the Civilization and General Improvement of the Indian Tribes in the United States. New-Haven, 1824. 71-74. Another reference to Pocahontas in the context of the Indian problem that we first saw here in Tudor 1820. Morse, the Father of American Geography (see 1789), promoted civilizing and Christianizing Indians, and in 1820 headed a government commission visiting various tribes to devise the most suitable means for their improvement. This essay is described in the headnote as "A Speech which might be delivered in Congress, on the motion of the Hon. Mr. Cobb, from Georgia, to discontinue the annual appropriation of $10,000 for the civilization of the Indians." "We have a right to infer that if nothing is done to preserve the Indians, they will soon cease from the earth, and not a memorial remain but the mounds which cover their ashes. . . . Are the services of Uncas, and the good Pocahontas, to be forgotten, or requited with the extirpation of the Indian race?"
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

"An Account of the first English settlement in Virginia, founded by captain Smith." Columbian Historian 1.14-1.17 (Oct. 22-Dec. 9, 1824): 110-37. Interesting that this series of articles, posing as real "history," is, rather, from John Davis's First Settlers 1805.

Barbaroux, Charles Ogé. Résumé de l’histoire des États-Unis de’Amérique. 2 éd. Paris, 1824. 45-50. (Philadelphia, 1848. 33-37.) The 1848 edition is for students learning French, "a book as flattering to our national pride, as it is favourable to the cultivation of patriotic feelings and sentiments."
[foreign language; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Buckingham, Joseph T. "Jamestown." Miscellanies Selected from the Public Journals. Volume 2. Boston, 1824. 33-37. A collection of newspaper pieces by Buckingham, prominent journalist and editor of the Boston Courier. A traveller meditates on the past at this deserted, dilapidated, but "romantic spot." "Here, too, the cunning and insidious Powhatan, swayed his savage sceptre; here his daughter, the humane, and ever memorable Pocahontas displayed those virtues which, as they have given her an immortality, have proved to the world, that the warmest sensibility and most disinterested friendship are not confined to civilized life. Who can think of her vigilance, her humanity, her despairing intreaties in behalf of captain Smith, while in the power of her inexorable father, without emotion? So much virtue, constancy, and magnanimity, even to the savage heart, was irresistible."
[Electronic Version]

Carter, Bernard M. "Pocahontas." Poems. London, 1824. 9-20. Maybe I'm just having a series of bad days, but I can't make anything of this poem. Inscrutable. Impenetrable.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Child, Lydia Maria. Hobomok, A Tale of Early Times. New York, 1824. No specific mention of Pocahontas in this early novel, but Tilton 1994 (65-66) suggests a connection because of the way the intermarriage of Indian and White is handled, specifically its failure.
[novel; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Cooper, Thomas. Strictures Addressed to James Madison on the Celebrated Report of William H. Crawford, Recommending the Intermarriage of Americans with the .... Philadelphia, 1824. 12-14. Another entry related to the Indian problem. To weaken the presidential prospects of William H. Crawford in 1824, Cooper republishes his earlier letters in answer to Crawford's 1816 Indian Report that suggested possible Native American assimilation and inter-marriage with whites. Cooper is vicious: "You can no more convert an Indian into a civilized man, than you can convert a negro into a white man." "Let any man look at the strange, wild, forbidding, doubtful features of the person who boasts of his descent from the princess Pocahontas [John Randolph?], and let him ask himself 'Would I wish my child to look like this man?' I protest and vow with all seriousness that I would not." "How many sweet little cherubs, beautiful as John Randolph, the princess Pocahontas might have added to our population when she condescended to let some naughty foreigner take liberties with her lovely person I do not pretend to say."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

"Copy of an Interview with Thomas Jefferson by My Father, the Late Samuel Whitcomb, Formerly of Dorchester, Mass., June 1, 1824." Jefferson Papers. Alderman Library, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. Cited by Sheehan 1973 as containing the record of a conversation in which Thomas Jefferson said proudly that both his daughters married descendants of Pocahontas. Peden 1949 prints the manuscript but says it's in the Massachusetts Historical Society.

Davis, John. "Sonnet to Pocahontas." Columbian Historian 1.17 (December 9, 1824): 130. Within the Columbian Historian cited above. The poem that begins "WHERE from the shore, I oft have view'd the sail."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Newark Bible Society." The Religious Intelligencer 9.16 (Sept. 18, 1824): 248. Yet another entry addressing the Indian problem. Extract of a speech by William W. Miller, June 13, exhorting the Bible Society to work with the Indians "or they will be exterminated." "Having been for three centuries in the immediate neighborhoud of christians, and within the echo of the songs of Zion, they are still rude heathens, and know not the God who made them. Why is it thus? Cannot the Aboriginies be converted to christianity? Are the brethren of Pocahontas and Logan too base, too degraded, to be affected even by word which is sharper than any two edged sword? Have you tried it? . . . . Are ye willing to witness their utter extinction? Are ye willing that the dying moan of the last Indian should reach the ear of Him who is no respecter of persons?"
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

1825

"The American Love of Country." Christian Watchman 6.41 (September 16, 1825): 164. The excerpt from Stow's speech quoted in the entry below.

Anderson, Rufus. Memoir of Catherine Brown. Philadelphia, 1825. Cherokee woman attends Moravian mission school and becomes the first convert. Her life is such a sterling example of saint-like Christianity that she becomes a kind of poster woman for the potential of the Indians, like Pocahontas was: "Shall her people, of whom, by the purifying and ennobling influences of the gospel, so much can be made, be abandoned to ignorance and wo? Shall beings, who are capable of knowing God, of understanding the grand economy of his grace, of enjoying the imperishable blessings of his salvation, be shut out eternally from such wisdom, and debarred for ever from such enjoyment? Are they not susceptible of whatever is useful, and beautiful, and even sublime, in character? Can they not appreciate, and will they not use, the means of Christian civilization, if placed within their reach?" (See Knapp 1842)
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Blake, Rev. J. L. " The Indian Princess." The Historical Reader, Designed for the Use of Schools and Families. Concord, 1825. 238-41. An excerpt from Chastellux, still circulating from 1786.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

By The Stranger. [Hiram Haines.] "The Virginiad." Mountain Buds and Blossoms, Wove in a Rustic Garland. Petersburg, 1825. 30-33. Haines, poet and newspaper editor, hosted the honeymoon of Poe and Virginia Clemm at his house. "Virginia hail! thou loveliest land on Earth" begins this hymn of praise to the land, the people, and the principles of Virginia by an author who declares, "Born and reared in the Old Dominion, I wish never to go permanently beyond its boundaries." Pocahontas, not Smith, stands with Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Washington, Madison, Monroe -- "Virginia's Sons of lustrous Fame" -- in this regional celebration. Like in Davis, "him, for whom her chaste affections burned, / Ne'er from his breast, love's echoing notes returned." But there is no Rolfe to assuage Pocahontas's passion this time. Smith, "cruel man," leaves his "guardian angel" weeping over his "imagined grave."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Capellano, Antonio. "Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas." 1825. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 14.) Rasmussen and Tilton point out that the rescue was so accepted that it was chosen for inclusion in the Capitol building in a relief by the Italian sculptor Capellano that emphasized the reaction of Powhatan's "grim courtiers" to Powhatan rather than his response to Pocahontas.
[sculpture]
[View Images: page 14]

"Captain John Smith." [Worcester] Rural Repository 1 (1825): 100. Relatively brief biographical sketch of Smith notes his rescue by Pocahontas.

Halkett, John. Historical Notes Respecting the Indians of North America. London, 1825. 98-118. Scotsman Halkett, one of whose official posts was governor of the Bahamas, traveled in America in the early 1820s, and this book recommended a more sympathetic policy toward the Indians. The story of Pocahontas (drawn from Smith, Purchas, and Stith as the notes show) dominates his chapter on "Friendly Conduct of the North American Indians towards the Early European Settlers" and ends with an appreciative nod to Virginia statesman John Randolph, who "perhaps esteems himself in nothing more fortunate than that there flows in his veins the blood of Pocahontas."
[Electronic Version]

Kanki, Vicente Pazos . Compendio de la historia de los Estados Unidos de America. Nueva York, 1825. 30, 34. (La Paz, 1976. 49, 55.)
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Robertson, John. Virginia: or, The Fatal Patent. A Metrical Romance. In three cantos. Washington, 1825. Robertson, later Attorney General of Virginia and member of the United States House of Representatives, creates a tale in which a "lone exile," the last of the Roanoke colonists (and based on a character from Scott's Waverly novels), saves Pocahontas, who then saves Smith. Powhatan, enraged that Pocahontas has become Christian, is not permanently reconciled and chases the trio for days through the wilderness. The story ends with the "exile" having a vision of the future glory of America and of Pocahontas "on her nuptial day . . . array'd in white . . . blessed with every Christian rite" -- apparently marrying Smith.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Stow, Baron. Oration, delivered at the Columbian College, in the District of Columbia, July 4, 1825. Washington City, 1825. 11. Stow, who would become a prominent Baptist minister in New England with a special interest in missions, exhorts his jubilee year audience at what is now George Washington University to engage "in a cause which aims at the civil and moral redemption of a world; and cease not, till the banner of enlightened freedom wave over the demolished battlements of despotism." In doing so, he enjoins this "new people" to shed a tear for the doomed Indians: "We tread, however, upon the ashes of aboriginies; -- and while the mounds that enclose their sacred relics may be distinguished from the everlasting hills, we shall cherish towards them the sentiments of solemn respect. All the heroes of Ossian can never to us possess that thrilling and mournful interest which we feel in the characters and deeds of a Logan, an Alknomok, a Pocahontas. Their fate, and the fate of the many tribes that fished in our rivers, and hunted in our forests, should excite the sympathy of every heart not dead to the feelings of humanity."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

1826

"Pocahontas. From Darby's 14th Lecture, extracted from the Philadelphia Democratic Press." [Lexington] Western Luminary 2.37 (March 22, 1826): 585-87. Pocahontas's life from her abduction on; some quotes from Burk. Her marriage "contributed but little to her own earthly felicity," and in England she met with some kindness, but "more of idle obtrusive authority." She needed to learn only the ceremonies of Christianity, for "its genuine spirit was infused into her heart from infancy." "Pocahontas's "name is sanctified and incorporated in history; not for acts of splendid eclat. With Joan d'Arc, Isabella, Elizabeth or Catherine II she cannot be compared. Their feat, their fortunes and their characters were unlike. But in deeds of tender heroism, where tears, flowing from the warmest sensibility; where supplications, and soul-subduing expressions of mercy, which no man could ever withstand, and in contests where all the most delicate attentions of female kindness were the weapons, Pocahontas was a heroine who stands without a rival." See Darby entry below.
[Electronic Version]

[Hemans, Felicia] F. H. "The American Forest-Girl." New Monthly Magazine 16 (April 1826): 407-8. (Records of Woman: With Other Poems. Boston, 1828. 131-35.) (Poetical Works. Boston, 1857. 157-60.) Author of probably twenty volumes and 400 poems, Hemans is one of the most noted English poets of the early 19th century. Records of Woman, called her most personal and profitable book, chronicles the lives of both famous and unknown women, women of strong but humble spiritual strength and faith. This poem, perhaps like no other, humanizes Smith at the moment of death, taking us inside his head to his thoughts of happy home, of mother's love, of dying with his father's courage, of God. Pocahontas knows death -- she's "mourn'd a playmate brother" -- and thus she pities Smith. At her "He shall not die," the Indians' "dark souls bow'd before the maid," overpowered by "Something of heaven."
[poetry; gender]
[Electronic Version]

1827

Chateaubriand, François-René de. The Natchez: An Indian Tale. London, 1827. The fuller version of Chateaubriand's Indian tales. See Atala (1801) and Rene (1802).
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Grahame, James. The History of the Rise and Progress of the United States of North America. Vol. 1. London, 1827. 50-61, 74-75. The notes to the Virginia section show Grahame familiar with and drawing on Smith, Stith, Robertson, and Marshall, and for the most part he's writing a straightforward account, without surprises. But when he does embellish, Smith, not Pocahontas, is his subject, and often grandly so: "he bequeathed a valuable lesson to his successors in the American colonies, and to all succeeding settlers in the vicinity of savage tribes; and in exemplifying the power to anticipate the cruel and vulgar issue of battle, and to prevail over an inferior race without either extirpating or enslaving them, he obtained a victory which Caesar, with all his boasted superiority to the rest of mankind, was too ungenerous to appreciate, or was incompetent to achieve."
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Hale, Salma. History of the United States; from Their First Settlement as Colonies, to the Close of the War with Great Britain in 1815. London, 1827. 13-23. (Keene, 1832. 15-20.) Pocahontas is "a constant friend" in this rather standard opening chapter on the history of Virginia, with Smith as the hero and central character, and Pocahontas saving him twice. What's a bit remarkable in this popular book often adapted for school use (and not found in Smith, his source) is the description of the Indians: "The whole country was then a wilderness, in which a few Indians roamed in pursuit of their enemies, or of wild beasts for food. In colour they were darker than the Europeans, but not so black as the negro. They possessed all the vices and virtues of the savage state; were cunning in strategem, ferocious in battle, cruel to their conquered enemies, kind and hospitable to their friends. . . . From such neighbors the emigrants could expect but little aid or comfort."
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Mellen, Grenville. Our Chronicle of ’26: A Satirical Poem. Boston, 1827. 14. In a satire on the year's congressional activity, Mellen pronounces shame on Virginia for a particular senator: "Not Pocahontas' self would own you a son of hers!"
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. Hope Leslie, or, Early Times in Massachusetts. New York, 1827. Pocahontas-like plot element in a novel sympathetic to Indians, and even countenancing intermarriage, by one of our important early writers. Indian woman sacrifices herself for the white man: "Magawisca, springing from the precipitous side of the rock, screamed -- 'Forbear!' and interposed her arm. It was too late. The blow was leveled -- force and direction given -- the stroke aimed at Everell's neck, severed his defender's arm, and left him unharmed."
[novel; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

"What Can be Done by a Mother." [New Haven] Religious Intelligencer 12.4 (June 23, 1827): 57-58. An article promoting the recognition of the influence of women "on our personal and national character and happiness." Mothers, for sure, to whom we owe "our mental and moral conformation," but daughters too. "How conspicuous a place in the early history of Virginia, is held by the celebrated Pocahontas, -- throwing herself between the knife of her father Powhattan, and his prostrate captive, Smith? But for the influence of that heroic and affectionate daughter, where now the 'Ancient dominion?'"
[gender]

1828

Barber, J. W. Interesting Events in the History of the United States. New Haven, 1828. 15-18. Apparently, the only two interesting events in Virginia were Pocahontas's two rescues!
[Electronic Version]

Child, Lydia Maria. "Capt. John Smith." Biographical Sketches of Great and Good Men. Boston, 1828. 16-28. The first of several references to Smith and Pocahontas in the writings of this important activist for women, African Americans, and Indians (she published An Appeal for the Indians, and there is intermarriage in her novel Hobomok). Child's focus is on Smith, but for whose "courage and ingenuity" the "infant settlement must have perished." But this "brave and intelligent friend of the colony" would have himself perished twice were it not for the "deep attachment" Pocahontas had for him. "This charming Indian girl," however, stolen, "did not meet with all the gratitude she deserved," and ended up in England, where "Captain Smith has been accused, perhaps falsely, of being sufficiently cold and selfish, to blush for his acquaintance with the generous North American savage."
[illustrated; juvenile; Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

Cooper, James Fenimore. Notions of the Americans. Volume 2. London, 1828. 36, 381. (Volume 2. Philadelphia, 1848. 29, 287.) The first of several references that our first important novelist, and one who dwelled significantly on Indian-White interaction, made to Pocahontas. Here in a note about the bas-reliefs in the Capitol, Cooper notes the one [Capellano 1825] on "the beautiful and touching story of Pocahontas saving the life of Captain Smith," along with three others chosen to depict historical events from the four principal regions of the Country. "More illustrious incidents might have been chosen, beyond a doubt: but there is certainly nothing discreditable to the American character in those they have selected for this purpose." Since there is less reluctance to intermarriage between Indians and whites than blacks and whites, Cooper believes that "an amalgamation of the two races" can occur: "Those families of America who are thought to have any of the Indian blood, are rather proud of their descent; and it is a matter of boast among many of the most considerable persons of Virginia, that they are descended from the renowned Pocahontas."
[Electronic Version]

Crafts, William. "Address Delivered before the New England Society of South-Carolina . . . being the Two Hundreth Anniversary of the Landing at Plymouth." A Selection, in Prose and Poetry. Charleston, 1828. 203. Crafts was a South Carolina legislator and a prolific contributor to the local newspaper and other rhetorical occasions. On the occasion of this important anniversary Crafts touches on the Indian problem that we saw raised at the beginning of this decade and which erupts in the near future and into the 1830s. "It is not true as a general proposition, that the soil of this continent ever belonged to the savage." The land belongs to the cultivators: "Shall the hunter stand at the mouth of the forest and oppose the entrance of civilized man?" So the Indians are headed to extinction, no problem, for Greece and Rome show that "nations are not immortal." What have the Indians done to escape their fate? "Nothing . . . Nothing . . . Nothing." "Yet in their history there will remain redeeming virtues. Many a monarch might covet the noble consistency of Montezuma, and the pure fame of Massasoit -- and many a maiden emulate the sweet acts of Pocahontas."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Darby, William. Lectures on the Discovery of America and Colonization of North America by the English. Baltimore, 1828. 173-94. Darby, a geographer and surveyor who worked fixing the boundary with Canada, tells the story of the "saving angel," the "guardian angel," with extensive quotation from Burk but ends with a long, melancholy personal response. He must "record the cold ingratitude of the man, whose life she contributed so much to prolong. Two hundred and eleven years have now rolled away since Pocahontas ceased to live in this world of pain and sorrow. Two centuries have consecrated her spotless name to well deserved immortality; and the same terrible lapse of time, has affixed upon the name of Smith an indelible and the only blemish that tarnishes its lustre; the black and shameful indifference to the finer feelings, of one of the purest hearts that ever warmed a human breast." Darby recalls in fancy dropping a tear over reading about Pocahontas's death: "I saw her unspotted soul, departing to the regions of peace and everlasting bliss . . . before the occurrence of that murderous warfare [the 1622 events], in which all that was dear to her, was involved in deadly strife; and in which, her brothers, kindred and countrymen, fell before the men whose lives she humanely saved."

1829

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. The First Settlers of New-England, or Conquest of the Pequods. Boston, 1829. 255. In conversational format, "As Related by a Mother to her Children" (female children, Caroline and Elizabeth), reads the title page. This is the year President Jackson legislatively promotes Indian removal. The Indian problem is front and center. The Mother hopes that the arguments for "usurpation of Indian territory . . . will hereafter be too unjust and unsound to be tolerated." She approves of John Neal, who "has given a high and glowing picture of [Indian] character and manners" and quotes his description of the "ten or eleven years of age" Pocahontas separating from her father to save Smith.
[juvenile; Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Wept of Wish Ton-Wish. Philadelphia, 1829. vii. (New York, 1871. vii.) Mention of Pocahontas in the preface to the first edition but not in all editions: "The early annals of our history are not wanting in touching and noble examples of savage heroism. Virginia has its legend of the powerful Powhatan and his magnanimous daughter, the ill-requited Pocahontas; and the chronicles of New-England are filled with the bold designs and daring enterprises of Miantonimoh, of Metacom, and of Conanchet." Tilton 1994 (67-69) suggests another connection with representation of Pocahontas because of the failed intermarriage between Indian and White here.
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Borderers: A Tale. Volume 1. London, 1829. ix. Alternate title in England for Cooper's The Wept of Wish ton-Wish.
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

"Female Education: What Can Be Done by a Mother." The Religious Intelligencer 14.8 (July 18, 1829): 113-14. Same as the similarly titled article in 1827.

Gilliam, Albert M. "Virginia, or Love and Bravery." 1829. See Martin Shockley, "American Plays in the Richmond Theatre, 1819-1838." Studies in Philology 37 (January 1940), 109-10. (See also Tilton 1994, 72.) The second play on a Pocahontas theme (after Barker 1808), opened in Richmond May 27, 1829, and no copies are known to have survived. Apparently reviewed in The Whig of June 10, 1829.
[play]

Goodrich, Samuel G. Stories about Captain John Smith for the Instruction and Amusement of Children. Hartford, 1829. 68-77, 86-100. Another one of the prolific publishing Goodrich family. Descriptions of the two rescues and the reunion in England. A paean to Pocahontas: "What a worthy girl was this! She was a savage, but her deed was noble! She had never been taught to love her enemies; but she shewed a benevolent disposition. Indians are cruel, and, at times, excessively so; but they sometimes show kind and generous feelings. The name of Pocahontas, and her generous deed, ought to be remembered, and will be remembered while America lasts."
[illustrated; juvenile]
[View Images: page 68]

Holmes, Abiel. The Annals of America, from the Discovery by Columbus in the Year 1492, to the Year 1826. 2nd. ed. Vol. 1. Cambridge, 1829. 126-59. Factual account, and the annals format means material from other areas is joined with the Jamestown story. Substantial number of notes show that Holmes was familiar with and drawing from several sources.
[Electronic Version]

Knapp, Samuel L. Lectures on American Literature. New York, 1829. 146. This is a work noted for its nationalistic purpose, "to establish the claims of the United States to that intellectual, literary, and scientifick eminence, which we say, she deserves to have, and ought to maintain." Knapp collects "a few scraps" of Smith's poetry -- assuming that it was always original -- including a piece after the Pocahontas rescue in which he assumes "as lively a countenance as possible."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Levasseur, Auguste. Lafayette in America in 1824 and 1825. Volume 1. Philadelphia, 1829. 198-99. A journal kept by Lafayette's secretary during his year-long return visit to America in 1824-1825 has mention of Pocahontas's rescue of Smith and marriage in a brief sketch of Virginia history. The failure of more general intermarriage yields this comment: "How much is it to be regretted that Rolfe's example had not been followed by his companions! It would have been easy for them to have secured their own prosperity by such alliances, and they would have spared humanity much blood and tears."
[Electronic Version]

McKenney, Thomas Loraine. "Address." Memoirs, Official and Personal. 1829. Volume 1. New York, 1846. 229-31. In this speech advocating removal as the humane and rational solution to the Indian problem, McKenney, head of the U.S. Department of the Indians, asks his audience to imagine Massasoit and Pocahontas making claims for their race. Pocahontas: 'And what . . . would have been the fate of Captain Smith . . . had not a gush of pity forced itself on my heart. . . . Where would now be their descendants?" Who can doubt, says McKenney, "that those generous savages gave us this country; or that, with other dispositions than those which animated them, we might not have possessed it for centuries to come, if ever?" (See 1844 for his mammoth memorial to the disappearing Indians.)
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Murray, Hugh. Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in North America. Vol. 1. London, 1829. 208-23. Murray, a Scots geographer best known for the mammoth Encyclopaedia of Geography that contained eighty-two maps and over a thousand woodcuts, gives a rather standard account, except that, for the first time I've seen, he draws on and argues with Prevost, specifically his speculation that it was a "breach of plighted love" that was the cause of Pocahontas's snit in the reunion with Smith in England. "It would not have been in much unison with her applauded discretion to have resented a wrong of this nature in such a time and manner," says Murray, who believes that she was angry that Smith did not pay her back by interceeding for her while she was in captivity.
[Electronic Version]

Paulding, James Kirke. "Old Times in the New World." Tales of the Good Woman. New York, 1829. 253-367 (esp. 268, 297-98). Tale of adventure and love in early Jamestown -- mainly fighting Indians in what resembles the 1622 massacre attempt. Smith plays a small part as the tough leader who forces the aristocrats to work and is accused of being better off because of the attention of the "copper-coloured Siren of the Woods." Another colonist, in search of a copper-colored wife, makes "a glorious declaration to the heiress of Pamunkey; but she mistook the language of love for that of hunger" and offers him a piece of bear meat instead. But Pocahontas is otherwise not a character in the story.
[short story]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [Oxford, Ohio] Literary Register, A Weekly Paper 2.24 (June 6, 1829): 187-88. See the Darby entries for 1826 and 1828.

Thomas, Benjamin F. "Address." The Brunonian 1 (July 1829): 58. Brown University publication.

Tuscarora. "Pocahontas." [Greenville, SC] The Mountaineer 14 November 1829, 21 November 1829, 28 November 1829. Reprinted from the Petersburg Intelligencer. Longish account of all the relevant episodes, virtually without inflection, except for, perhaps, the following about her marriage: "The flame was mutual. We have no detailed account of the courtship. . . . Were the particulars of this courtship preserved, it would present a touching instance of the simplicity of innocence, the purity of love, and the ardor of affection."

1830

Bolling, William. "History of Two Portraits Said to be Those of John Rolfe and Pocahontas." William Bolling Papers, Virginia Historical Society. 1830s? Abrams 1994 (p.301) cites this document. No date is given, but for convenience we'll ascribe it to the 1830s.
[painting]

Brodigan, Thomas. A Botanical, Historical, and Practical Treatise on the Tobacco Plant. London, 1830. 61-64. Irishman who visited America in 1817 to learn to grow tobacco and then did so at home and wrote about it here has an unremarkable brief account of the Smith and Pocahontas story.

Custis, George Washington. Pocahontas; or, The Settlers of Virginia, A National Drama. Philadelphia, 1830. (Representative American Plays from 1767 to the Present. Ed. Arthur Hobson Quinn. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1917. 181-208.) This play by Custis, the grandson of President Washington’s wife Martha through her first marriage, is the second extant play on Pocahontas and part of the early cluster of plays about her that includes work by the earlier Barker and the later Owen, Barnes, and Brougham. Through the influence of the last survivor of the previous Virginia expeditions, “the light of Christian doctrine” has already shone on Pocahontas’s “before benighted soul.” “The light of true faith [has] dispell’d the first darkness of [her] mind,” and she immediately perceives Smith’s group “like beings from a higher world,” falling for her “English cavalier” Rolfe in a flash. “Pocahontas the friend of the English” is literally the English soldiers’ password in time of trouble, and the rescue of Smith is the climax of the action, as “rising with dignity,” she assaults her father Powhatan with “Attend but first to me. Cruel king, the ties of blood which bound me to thee are dissever’d, as have been long those of thy sanguinary religion; for know that I have abjur’d thy senseless gods, and now worship the Supreme Being, the true Manitou, and the Father of the Universe; ‘Tis his Almighty hand that sustains me, ‘Tis his divine spirit that breathes in my soul, and prompts Pocahontas to a deed which future ages will admire.” This is a “national story,” and the final vision of the rising glory of America, interestingly, is given to Powhatan. Remember that this is the year of the Indian Removal Act.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Hinton, John Howard. The History and Topography of the United States. Volume 1. London, 1830. 28-34. Rather extensive but basically standard account drawn from a variety of sources: Smith, Stith, Belknap, Beverley, Purchas, Chalmers, Grahame. Footnote contains Smith's letter to Queen Anne.
[Electronic Version]

Letter of Linnaeus Bolling to William Bolling, 14 September 1830. William Bolling Papers, Virginia Historical Society. Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 quote Linnaeus siding with William (see 1838) disapproving of the Turkey Hill portrait of Pocahontas (see Rice and Clark 1842): Robert Matthew Sully's "Dowdy, Gross, coarse, & homely picture" must not be forced on the family as a likeness of Pocahontas, who would have been a "delicate, slender, & beautiful young Girl."
[painting]

[Hunt, Freeman.] "LXXVII. Captain Smith and Pocahontas." American Anecdotes. Vol. 1. Boston, 1830. 96-98. Brief, rather standard account (but noting John Randolph as a Pocahontas descendant) in a book of anecdotes designed to "illustrate the principles, and to display the characters of those who achieved our revolution." Our duo textually resides in the company of Franklin, Washington, Lafayette, etc.
[Electronic Version]

1831

Goodrich, Charles A. The Child's History of the United States. Designed as a First Book of History for Schools. Boston, 1831. 12-23. Chapters divided into "lessons" and "stories." "Learn the lesson first," says the narrator, "then read the story." The Indians, we learn, were "very brave, but cruel and revengeful" and "delight in war." "Of the true God they knew nothing." In the story, Pocahontas saves Smith because he was a "brave man." This was a "noble" act. Pocahontas may have been "brought up among savages, but she had kind feelings."
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Hart, Joel Tanner. "Pocahontas." 1831. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Hildreth, Hosea. An Abridged History of the United States of America: For the Use of Schools. Boston, 1831. 9-12. Standard "bare facts" coverage of the events for school kids: the two rescues, marriage, descendants, etc.
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

O. "Pocahontas." The Brunonian 12 (March 1831): 362-63. A Brown University publication. Smith doesn't shrink from the approaching death blow, but "a beautiful raven-tress'd maiden is there, / A lamb, from the tiger to rescue the prey."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Ruricola. "Mr. Wirt and the Indians." (New Echota, GA) Cherokee Phoenix, and Indians’ Advocate 31 December 1831. The occasion for reprinting William Wirt's essay on Pocahontas (1803) is a conversation with an "intelligent foreigner" about President Jackson's Indian policy. After enduring the "bitter sarcasms of my foreign companion, upon our National honour tarnished -- our plighted faith broken -- and our character as a Christian community foully blotted, what defence could I make? -- What apology offer? . . . . What could I say? Nothing -- Except indignantly to heap the disgrace, where it ought to be, on the heads of our rulers; and refer to the following letter, as a proof that some of us felt as a man should feel, towards an injured, persecuted, wronged, but noble race." "I had read the letters of the British Spy, again and again, when a boy. . . . but never, until that evening -- never, until after the cold hearted policy, of this administration towards the Indians, had been fully developed -- never until after I had felt the biting jeers of a foreigner, over my country's honour fallen! -- degraded! sneered at! never until then! did the sentiments expressed in that story come home to my heart."
[Indian problem]

Severance, Moses. The American Manual, or, New English Reader. Waterloo, 1831. 229-35. (Cazenovia, NY, 1841. 229-35.) In this usual account, Smith is "emphatically the father of Virginia," and Pocahontas is called "amiable" twice.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

Taylor, C. B. A Universal History of the United States of America. New York, 1831. 13-26. Traditional sketch of events with nothing out of the ordinary about Pocahontas.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

1832

Drake, Samuel G. Indian Biography. Boston, 1832. 270-78, 289-303. As the Indian problem mounts and the Trail of Tears nears, Drake and Thatcher (see below this year) start publishing large and sympathetic collections of material as memorials to cultures many people think will soon be extinct. Drake -- an eminent antiquarian, book collector, book seller, and editor and compiler of historical texts -- has generous entries covering the usual episodes drawn from Smith and Stith on both Pocahontas and Powhatan in this collection of biographical sketches. Powhatan, more the key figure to Drake, is praised as "one of the most celebrated chiefs recorded in history," and "the uncommonly amiable, virtuous, and feeling disposition of his daughter will always be brought to mind in reading his history."
[Indian problem; Indian history]

Dunlap, William. A History of the American Theatre. 1832. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2005. 376-85. James Nelson Barker responds to Dunlap's request for information with a letter that includes some factual information about his Indian Princess.
[Electronic Version]

Encyclopaedia Americana: A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography. Volume 10. Philadelphia, 1832. 194-95. A standard biographical sketch by now, hitting all the main points with little inflection, except, perhaps, that "during her stay in England, she advanced greatly in the knowledge of the English language, and her conversation was much sought after at court."
[Electronic Version]

Hale, Salma. History of the United States: from Their First Settlement as Colonies, to the Close of the War with Great Britain in 1815: to Which Are Added Questions, Adapted to the Use of Schools. Keene, 1832. 15-20.
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

J. M. "Virginia." [Boston] The New-England Magazine 2 (January 1832): 37-45. This witty and vigorous description, maybe I should say celebration, of Virginia and Virginians begins with a page or two on Smith and Pocahontas. Virginia should have been named "rather from the generous Pocahontas, the most amiable person in all history," instead of Queen Elizabeth, who was the least. Speaking rhetorically to Pocahontas descendant John Randolph, the writer says that he would give all Randolph's material advantages "to be a descendant of Powhatan's daughter -- a descent that is emblazoned on the vellum of your own skin."
[Electronic Version]

Kennedy, John Pendleton. "Chronicle of the Life of John Smith." Swallow Barn, or, A Sojourn in the Old Dominion. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, 1832. Separate part of "Clouds" (chapter 20): 231-315, esp. 303-15. Kennedy, a member of Congress and Secretary of the Navy, is known literarily as an important writer of regional romances like this one that examine plantation and Cavalier Virginia society. In Swallow Barn he describes the life of Smith and expresses a "renewed admiration for the hero of the Old Dominion" -- his "plain sense, mingled with the glory of manhood," "the homely thought and wise precept sustaining dauntless bravery," "so much gay and chivalrous adventure set off with such sturdy honesty." The Pocahontas episode "has given him a renown that has long made his name a pleasant sound to a lady's ear." Pocahontas -- whom he never speaks of without "a tender remembrance, and a strain of the softest and gentlest gratitude" -- loved Smith with that instinctive love that nature kindles in the breast of unsophisticated woman for a noble and valiant cavalier." In the revised one-volume edition all this material is cut from the "Clouds" chapter (chap. 48). I wonder why.
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

Lilly, Lambert. [Hawks, Francis L.] The Early History of the Southern States: Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. Philadelphia, 1832. 76-89, 100-6. Very full account written in colloquial direct address to younger readers. Only a few embellishments on the basic facts told many times by others, such as "Not long after this Mr. Rolfe proposed marriage to Pocahontas. He had long been attached to her, it is said, Indian as she was; and she had no great dislike for him." Now there's a rousing basis for a successful marriage.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 85]

Morrell, Benjamin. A Narrative of Four Voyages to the South Sea. New York, 1832. 426. Pocahontas reference in description of Micronesian women: "Their countenances ever express vivacity and cheerfulness; their movements are elastic and sylph-like; even the Virginian Pocahontas, on the score of personal attractions and tenderness of disposition, would be thrown in the shade by a comparison with the fascinating females of Bergh's group."
[Electronic Version]

Review of Indian Biography by B. B. Thatcher. The Parthenon 1 (1832): 150-53.

Thatcher, B. B. Indian Biography. Vol. 1. New York, 1832. 9-24, 40-47, 66-76. Similar in goal to Drake (see above this year) -- memorializing the fading Indian cultures. Expansive account of early Virginia history drawn from Smith, Stith, Hamor, Burk. Perhaps paraphrasing Burk, Thatcher bestows lavish praise on Pocahontas: "For those qualities more especially which do honor to our nature -- a human and feeling heart, an ardor and unshaken constancy on her attachments -- she stands almost without a rival. She gave evidence, indeed, of possessing in a high degree every attribute of mind and heart, which should be and has been the ornament and pride of civilized woman in all countries and times. . . . She asked nothing of Smith in recompense for whatever she had done, but the boon of being looked upon as his child. . . . Her dignity, her energy, her independence, and the dauntless courage which never deserted her for a moment, were worthy of Powhatan's daughter."
[Indian problem; Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

1833

Blake, John Lauris. American Universal Geography, for Schools and Academies. Boston, 1833. 16. Has the rescue by this "extraordinary Indian female" occur during Smith's second captivity, makes no mention of an abduction in relation to her use in "preserving peace," has her baptized in England.
[school book]

"The Death of Pocahontas." [New York] American Monthly Magazine 2.4 (December 1, 1833): 274-77. John Rolfe and John Smith at the deathbed of Pocahontas, in what must be the first fictional representation of this moment. Very teary. Pocahontas still beautiful: "Eyes still swimming in unutterable tenderness, although the mists of death were gathering fast around them, a mouth, which might have rivalled in its voluptuous curve, the smile of her of the Medicis, and a form, which though wasted from the fullness of its exquisite proportions by protracted illness, yet bore the traces of surpassing loveliness, would have rendered her, before the evil days had come upon her, a dangerous rival for the proudest beauty of European climes." Rolfe anxious and not fully sure of his Christian beliefs about afterlife. Smith, hair blanched by years of toil but showing no symptom of decay, feeling guilt, almost "the murderer of her, who had so nobly, so devotedly rescued him, the natural foeman of her race." She, trusting in the Rock of Ages, charges Smith to be a father to her husband and to her son, and dies asking that her bones be carried back to her valley and that her country never be forgotten. Wow!
[Electronic Version]

Goodrich, Charles A. A History of the United States from the Discovery of the Continent by Christopher Columbus, to the Present Time. Hartford, 1833. 51-53. Illustrations by John Warner Barber. Revised and enlarged over Goodrich's previous histories but basically the same account of Smith and Pocahontas as 1823.
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Hazard’s Register of Pennsylvania. Volume 11.3, no. 264 (January 19, 1833): 39. Minutes of the anniversary meeting of the Philadelphia Typographical Society at which Thomas McKenney (see 1829, 1842, 1844) was toasted for being "an able leader in distributing benevolence to the Indians of America," to which in his reply he "appealed to history for their vindication, and said that from the time Pocahontas had flew to the rescue of Captain Smith, there were innumerable proofs of elevation of character. On his approach to the Indian, he had perceived in him an eye lighted by intelligence . . . gain his confidence -- smoke with him the calumet of peace -- and it must be a stronger arm than his that does you harm. [But] There was one thing he was well assured of -- the Indians can not live happily near the whites."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Review of Indian Biography by B. B. Thatcher. The American Monthly Review 3.1 (1833): 63-72. The reviewer praises Thatcher's book "as an act of historical justice to a much abused race" and for "assuming the task of vindicating [Indian] claims to historic justice." The review starts with the section on Indians in Virginia in which we find: "Every body is familiar with the chivalrous character and romantic adventures of Captain Smith. The name of Pocahontas is dear to every friend of native virtue and simple purity. Her spotless life, her heroic character, her gentleness of soul, stand recorded in history, and will stand for ever."
[Indian problem]

Tufts, M. "Virginia Water." Shores of Vespucci, or, Romance without Fiction. Lexington, 1833. 37-54. Tufts has an interesting ambition here in this collection of sketches: "to combine . . . the interest of romance with the truth of history." "The design is believed to be original," for the book does not just contain "deluding romances," which are basically novels, nor, on the other hand, "merely popular abridgements of national history," which can be dull. For the contents are both interesting and "authentic" -- "not a single fictitious sentence is knowingly allowed in it." But could Tufts not know that the Pocahontas story in Davis's Travels was trumped up? In the first part he (she?) liberally quotes from Smith with only an occasionally interesting interjection, such as "A dance of the fairies indeed" after the Virginia "maske" episode. But the second part is totally the highly romantic clap-trap from Davis. Perhaps a case of invincible ignorance. (To give you an idea what else was in the book, the next sketch is on Lope de Aguirre.)
[Electronic Version]

[Simms, William Gilmore.] A Bachelor Knight. "The Forest Maiden." The Book of My Lady: A Melange. Boston, 1833. 52-59. The first of several Pocahontas representations by Simms, perhaps the foremost ante-bellum Southern writer, and perhaps most noted for The Yemassee. The rendering of the rescue here, Simms says, has additions (Powhatan's passion, the death of his son) "intended to place in a stronger light the amiable spirit of Pocahontas, and the great sacrifice, by her father, of his personal feeling and native impulse, in his compliance with her entreaties." Pocahontas's brother has died in the battle with the now captive Smith, fueling Powhatan's revenge and her sorrow, but still she "stayed the club in its descent." "How could that dark old king forbear, / Though writhing with his own despair, / To still her plaint -- to grant her pray'r! / How could he check the angel grace, / That gave such beauty to her face, -- / How stay the more than sweet control, / That, to the savage could impart, / Tho' all untaught, the Christian soul, / The woman's mood, the human heart!"
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1834

Baldwin, Ebenezer. Observations on the Physical, Intellectual, and Moral Qualities of Our Colored Population. New Haven, 1834. 38-46. We've been seeing Pocahontas referenced in regard to the Indian problem, but now we see her referenced in regard to the slave problem (but see Hillhouse 1820 too). The question Baldwin asks in this chapter is can emancipated slaves be amalgamated with whites? For discussion purposes, he adduces fourteen objections. The one in which Pocahontas is mentioned -- amalgamation means nothing without intermarriage -- is a tough one to overcome. "Prejudices existing in relation to complexion are so strong, that the [Indian] mission school at Cornwall was broken up, in consequence of violations of public sensibility in that particular. And yet the disrelish for Indian alliances is by no means as strong as exists in regard to Africans. The Randolphs of Virginia are proud of the blood of Pocahontas, and their white kindred do not feel ashamed to acknowledge the descendants of Eunice Williams [a New England captive]. Mr. Crawford strongly commended the practice in an official report to Congress as a means of civilizing and christianizing the natives, and from the earliest settlement of the western country, the French, Spanish, and other European residents, were accustomed to form such alliances. Still the prejudice exists, and we are warranted in believing will never be conquered; but if unconquerable with regard to Indians, how remote from possibility in relation to Africans."
[slavery]
[Electronic Version]

"Death of Pocahontas." [Hudson, N.Y.] Rural Repository 10.26 (1834): 204-5. Same as 1833 article.
[Electronic Version]

"The Death of Pocahontas." Literary Journal and Weekly Register of Science and the Arts 1.37 (February 15, 1834): 289. Not seen, but presumably same as 1833 article.
[Electronic Version]

Dunlap, William. History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States. Volume 2. New York, 1834. 398. Regarding the painting of Pocahontas by Robert M. Sully from the Turkey Island portrait, "which is crumbling so rapidly that it might be considered as having already passed out of existence."
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Hillard, George S. "The Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith." The Library of American Biography. Ed. Jared Sparks. Vol. 2. New York, 1834. Esp. chapters 5, 8, 9, 16. (Rpt. Lives of Eminent Individuals, Celebrated in American History. Ed. Jared Sparks. Volume 1. Boston, 1839.) (Rpt. George S. Hillard, Makers of American History: Captain John Smith. New York: University Society, 1904.) First major Smith biography after Belknap. Hillard doesn't claim to do anything new, and throughout cites Smith, Stith, Grahame, Bancroft, Wharton, etc. -- but it is curious that he says the True Relation "does not differ materially" from the Generall Historie. Hillard does, however, wax eloquently and at length about Pocahontas. Of the rescue, he says, "Innumerable bosoms have throbbed and are yet to throb with generous admiration for this daughter of a people, whom we have been too ready to underrate." And in several wrap-up pages devoted solely to Pocahontas, we find such comments as "She reminds one of a delicate wild-flower, growing up in the cleft of a rock, where the eye can discern no soil for its roots to grasp, and sustain its slender stalk"; "We behold her as she came from the hands of her Maker, who seems to have created her in a spirit of rebuke to the pride of civilization"; "She has been a powerful, though silent advocate in behalf of the race to which she belonged. Her deeds have covered a multitude of their sins. When disgusted with numerous recitals of their cruelty and treachery, and about to pass an unfavorable judgment in our minds upon the Indian character, at the thought of Pocahontas our 'rigor relents.' With a softened heart we are ready to admit that there must have been fine elements in a people, from among whom such a being could spring."
[Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

Jones, Charles L. S. "Pocahontas: Second Sapphic Ode." American Lyrics: Comprising The Discovery, a Poem: Sapphic, Pindaric and Common Odes: Songs and Tales on American and Patriotic Subjects. Mobile, 1834. 85-87. Pocahontas successful at the moment of truth: "What could not then the power of man accomplish, / Beauty and infant innocence effected, / And the red war chief melting into softness, / Yielded his victim."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [Augusta] Maine Farmer and Journal of the Useful Arts 2.20 (May 30, 1834):160. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

"Pocahontas." [Boston] Christian Register 13.19 (May 10, 1834): 76. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

"Pocahontas." [Charlestown] Virginia Free Press 15 May 1834. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

"Pocahontas." [Concord, N.H.] The Literary Gazette 1.5 (October 24, 1834): 33-34. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

"Pocahontas." [Hudson, N.Y.] Rural Repository 11 (1834): 101-2. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [New York] The Man 2.34 (June 23,1834):136. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

"Pocahontas." Nashville Banner & Nashville Whig 10 June 1834: 2. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

"Pocahontas." [Charleston] Southern Patriot 19 May 1834: 2. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

["Pocahontas"]. [Portland, ME] The Christian Intelligencer and Eastern Chronicle 14.22 (May 30, 1834): 88. Excerpt from Hillard/Sparks this year.

Reed, Anna C. Vie de George Washington. Translated by Prof A. N. Girault. Philadelphia, 1834. xviii-xxi. (Philadelphia, 1856. xix-xxii.) Part of the Girault's French Teacher series, a text used for the teaching of French. Has a short section on Smith and Pocahontas in the introduction with a neat illustration. Somehow it all seems even more romantic in French: "Cette jeune fille n'avait que treize ans, et son pere qui l'aimait trop tendrement pour lui refuser sa demande, accors au Capitaine Smith la liberte de retourner a Jamestown."
[foreign language; illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Review of The Library of American Biography by Jared Sparks. [Boston] The American Quarterly Observer. 3.5 (July 1834): 201-2. Brief notice of Hillard's life of Smith that is part of this series. "The traditionary exploits of the 'Father of Virginia,' are as familiar as nursery tales. The romantic and magnanimous heroism of Pocahontas is in the mouth of every school boy."
[Electronic Version]

Reynal, Rafael. Viage por los Estados Unidos del Norte. Cincinnati, 1834. 86.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Tudor, Henry. Narrative of a tour in North America, comprising Mexico, the mines of the Real Del Monte, the United States, and the British colonies. Volume 1. London, 1834. 61. Tourist Tudor describes the Capellano sculpture in the Capitol building (see 1825): "The sweetly expressive countenance of the female savage, and her delightfully supplicating attitude to her father, who, with uplifted war-club, is on the point of sacrificing his prostrate foe, are most feelingly and beautifully delineated."
[Electronic Version]

1835

"Captain John Smith." [Boston] American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge 2 (October 1835): 73-74. Brief biographical sketch of Smith, matter-of-factly mentioning the rescue, and not referring to Pocahontas by name but simply as the "Sachem's daughter."
[Electronic Version]

Caruthers, William A. The Cavaliers of Virginia, or the Recluse of Jamestown. Volume 2. New York, 1835. 3-19. (Ridgewood: Gregg Press, 1968.) Caruthers, termed by his biographer "the chronicler of the Cavaliers," uses, like Winkfield and Sedgwick, a Pocahontas-like plot element in this novel about the 1676 Bacon's rebellion: Indian princess Wyanokee rescues captive hero Nathaniel Bacon and is later given a set piece defending her race and criticizing white justice. Positioning herself before the already tortured Bacon tied to a stake, Wyanokee proclaims, "Strike your tomahawks here, into the daughter of your chief, of him who led you on to battles and to victory, but harm not the defenceless stranger." Never will you kill him "unless you first cleave off these hands with which I will protect him from your fury." Wyanokee staves off the violence by promising to marry Bacon, which, interestingly, he later refuses.
[novel; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. The History of the Condition of Women, in Various Ages and Nations. Vol. 2. Boston, 1835. 235-37. Same as Child 1845.
[gender]
[Electronic Version]

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Monikins: A Tale. Volume 2. London, 1835. 221.
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

Drake, Samuel Gardner. Biography and History of the Indians of North America. 4th ed. Boston, 1835. 10-19. (Seems to have appeared under the title The Book of the Indians of North America. Book IV. Boston, 1835. 10-19.) (11th ed. Boston, 1857. 348-59.) Detailed account but nothing exceptional in the telling except, perhaps, calling Tomocomo's response to Powhatan about the size of the English population, "Count the stars in the sky" etc., "the golden rule of Confucius." Notes show Drake drawing on Smith ("minutely") but also Stith, Bancroft, Oldmixon, Keith, Purchas, etc.
[illustrated; Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

"Early Modern History." [Cincinnati] Chronicles of the North American Savages 1.2 (June 1835): 18-25; 1.3 (July 1835): 33-45. The familiar story -- prefaced by critical comments about how Europeans justified their rights in Native American territory ("the absurd superstition which disregarded the private rights of infidels") -- is drawn from Ramsay, Thatcher, Stith, and at least one other unnamed historian. The author's (editor Isaac Galland?) tone toward the story is a bit strange, almost debunking at least once, indicating that "it is obvious to the common sense of every reader" that Smith "delighted in the marvelous" and took advantage of the fact that he wrote without the possibility of detection or contradiction. Though nothing negative is said specifically about Pocahontas, the author says that "Who but a believer in the supernatural gifts of unknown tongues, can give credit to the story which Smith has related of his 'astronomical lecture'" and the role it played in his release.
[debunking]

Webster, Noah. "History of Pocahontas." Instructive and Entertaining Lessons for Youth; with Rules for Reading with Propriety, Illustrated by Examples: Designed for Use in Schools and Families. New Haven, 1835. Same as Webster 1797.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

[Brockenbrough, W. W.] "A History of Virginia from Its First Settlement to the Year 1754." Appended to Joseph Martin, A New and Comprehensive Gazeteer of Virginia and the District of Columbia. Charlottesville, 1835. 549-52, 561-64. Rather standard account (with Brockenbrough's notes and text showing reference to Smith, Stith, Bancroft, Burk, Robertson) with this concluding comment about Pocahontas: "Peace to her gentle spirit, her memory will not perish whilst the commonwealth of Virginia endures, or noble and generous actions are valued by her sons."
[Electronic Version]

1836

A Citizen of South Carolina. "Pocahontas: An Extract." The Genius of Erin, Columbia’s Freedom, Flights of Fancy, Lucinda. Charleston, 1836. 81-84. The preface asserts that "the South no less requires a literary, than a commercial independence" and laments that an author, in violation of patriotism and sentiment, must go to New York to publish. It's a matter of the "honor of the South" to produce her "own literature." And what better Southern topic. The moment of truth. Pocahontas, weeping, prays: "Spare, parent, spare -- The warrior begs to spare -- / A friendless stranger on Powhatan's hearth; / Or if you strike the blow -- you cannot tear / My mangled body from this gory earth! / Hark! how the spirit of Powhatan's sire, / Frowns down in wrath from out yon mutt'ring cloud -- / See, see the mighty spirits vengeful fire, / Bursting in awful thunder peals aloud! Slay not the wretch -- slay not the wretch my sire; / But let my life appease the chieftains' ire!"
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Chapman, John Gadsby. "Pocahontas Saving the Life of Captain John Smith." 1836. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 15.) Rasmussen and Tilton note that Chapman anticipated (by almost a decade -- see 1842) Simms's suggestions for painting the rescue scene. "As in a scene by Caravaggio of the martyrdom of a saint, Chapman silhouettes Pocahontas against a cloud of white smoke and bathes her in light. The smoke and light seem to sanctify her."
[painting]
[View Images: page 15]

Chapman, John Gadsby. "The Warning of Pocahontas." 1836. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 19.) This is Chapman's painting of the "second" rescue, Pocahontas's dark night journey through the irksome woods to warn Smith of her father's murder plot. Rasmussen and Tilton note that the composition is meant to complement Chapman's painting of the coronation of Powhatan and that Chapman had clearly read Smith's account. "For enhanced drama, [the other soldiers] sleep through the incident like guards at the tomb in Renaissance paintings of Christ's resurrection." (See White's "warning" painting 1852.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 19]

Dielman, Henry. Pocahontas Grand March. [Grand March to the National Drama Pocahontas, written by G.W. Custiss Esq. of Arlington] Philadelphia: James G. Osbourn's Music Saloon, 1836. Dielman received the first Doctor of Music degree at Georgetown. Written for the "piano forte," as the sheet music quaintly says -- see Custis's play 1830. Interesting that the publisher's address is "opposite the Indian Queen Hotel"!
[illustrated; music; engraving]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: engraving]

Hawks, Francis L. Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of the United States of America. Volume 1. New York, 1836. 28-29. Hawks -- an Episcopal priest, captivating speaker, and eminent authority on church history -- wrote this about Rev. Alexander Whitaker, "the Apostle of Virginia": "What would have been the emotions of this devoted missionary, when he admitted Pocahontas to baptism, could he have foreseen that, after the lapse of more than two hundred years, the blood of this noble-hearted Indian maiden would be flowing in the veins of some of the most distinguished members of that church, the foundations of which he was then laying?"
[Electronic Version]

Jay, William. "Remarks on Professor Dew's Vindication of Perpetual Slavery." The Quarterly Anti-Slavery Magazine 1 (April 1836): 215. Professor Dew published a treatise justifying slavery after an insurrection in Southampton in 1831 caused the Virginia legislature to consider abolishing the practice. Jay rips Dew's arguments based on the law of war, invoking Pocahontas (see Hillhouse 1820 and Badlwin 1834 for other connections between Pocahontas and slavery): "Let us suppose that one of the ancestors of our Virginia Professor had been captured by the royal but savage father of Pocahontas, and had, after the peace effected by that generous damsel, been sold as a slave to one of the Colonists. The whole transaction, according to the teacher of 'Political Law' in William and Mary College, would have been strictly legal, sanctioned not only by the example of Julius Caesar, Paulus Emilius, and other great men of antiquity, and above all, by the conduct of 'the children of Israel under the guidance of Jehovah.' The posterity of the hapless captive, would of course through successive generations have been lawfully held in bondage, and the professor, instead of publishing theories about slavery, would at the present day, by his own shewing, be fairly, justly and honestly experiencing in his own person the blessings of hopeless interminable servitude, with the assurance that his own fate would be the inheritance of his children after him."
[slavery]
[Electronic Version]

Paulding, James Kirke. "Ode to Jamestown." 1836. The Magnolia. 1836. Edited by Henry W. Herbert. New York: Monson Bancroft, 1836. (The Magnolia; or, Gift-Book of Friendship. Ed. Clara Arnold. New York: Leavitt and Allen, 1843. 33-35.) (The Poets and Poetry of America. Ed. Rufus Wilmot Griswold. Philadelphia, 1856. 83-84.) (Poems of American History. Ed. Burton Egbert Stevenson. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1922. 46-47.) Wandering among the "old stones" of Jamestown, Paulding has visions backward and forward and can't imagine anyone not shedding a tear "of reverent gratitude to those that moulder here." Singled out -- though both are buried in England -- are Smith and Pocahontas, she "the glorious Indian maid," "the tutelary of this land," "the angel of the woodland shade," "Sister of charity and love," "goddess of the sylvan grove," "flower of the forest," and "nature's pride."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas--Born, 1594--Died, 1617." [New York] Family Magazine; or, Monthly Abstract of General Knowledge 4 (1836): 88-91. Relatively lengthy biographical sketch of traditional nature, most of which is credited as having come from Drake.
[Electronic Version]

"The Rescue of Captain John Smith, by Pocahontas." [New York] Family Magazine; or, Monthly Abstract of General Knowledge 4 (1836): 361-64. Excerpt from Smith of the key episode, from the killing of Robinson and Emry through Pocahontas doing her rescuing.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Virginia. Extracts from an unpublished Abridgment of the History of Virginia." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 2.2 (January 1836): 108-9. Has bad words in dense language about the abduction: "Power was never yet at a loss for plausible pretexts to palliate its outrage on virtue: policy, expediency, necessity, are the hackneyed themes resorted to, to mitigate the merited reprobation; but the human heart will not be answered so. Insulted, not convinced, by the proffered palliative, it recoils from the false and unnatural subterfuge, and true to its connate susceptibilities, entertains forever the same sentiment of instinctive abhorrence. As long as the memory of the compassionate Pocahontas shall be cherished by a remote and admiring posterity in Virginia, so long will the unhallowed names of Argall and Jappassas be associated with deep and bitter execrations." And good words in dense language about Pocahontas: "The simplest narrative of her life, is the profoundest eulogy to her memory. Born in an age too rude to afford her the precepts and the instructions of virtue, while the condition of her sex seemingly precluded her from opportunities for the display of shining merit, she has yet left examples so signal, that after-times will best evince their progress to refinement by their successful emulation of her mercy" and on and on. You get the idea.
[Electronic Version]

1837

Bancroft, George. History of the Colonization of the United States. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Boston, 1837. 117-58. Prominent statesman (as Secretary of the Navy he established the Naval Academy), Bancroft was also probably the pre-eminent historian of the 19th century. This multi-volume history went through many (changing) editions in various forms for forty years. Bancroft embellishes a bit, for instance, indicating that "Smith had [previously?] won the confiding fondness of the Indian maiden," and he describes her successful reception in London thus: "The daughter of the wilderness possessed the mild elements of female loveliness, half concealed, as if in the bud, and rendered the more beautiful by the child-like simplicity with which her education in the savannas of the New World had invested her. How could she fail to be caressed at court, and admired in the city?" Bancroft's description of the rescue footnotes Smith's Generall Historie but contains this curious comment as well: "This account is fully contained in the oldest book printed on Virginia, in our Cambridge library. It is a thin quarto, in black letter, by John Smith, printed in 1608 -- 'A True Relation . . . .'" But the True Relation, of course, does not contain the Pocahontas rescue. In any event, Bancroft is later moved by the debunking efforts of the 1860s to alter his description of Smith's captivity. See Bancroft 1853, 1866, 1876. (No link to an early edition is available at this time, so the link is to the 1853 version so you can see the curious footnote, but note that 1853 is different in some other respects than 1837.)
[U.S. history; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Chevalier, Michel. Lettres sur l’Amérique du Nord: avec une carte des Etats-Unis d’Amérique. Volume 1. Bruxelles, 1837. 209-11. French economist, advocated industrial development as the key to social progress, a proponent of free trade, negotiated the Anglo-French trade treaty of 1860, positive about the United States in his Lettres.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Davison, Gideon M. The traveller’s guide through the middle and northern states and the provinces of Canada. 7th ed. Saratoga Springs, 1837. 32-34. Davison is known for writing the first American tourist guidebook (1822), and here in his description of Jamestown (no vestige except a steeple and a cemetery) the only historical connection he makes is with the "celebrated Pocahontas," copying a few paragraphs from another publication on her London experience and descendants now in Virginia.
[Electronic Version]

"Four Great National Pictures." New-York Mirror: A Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 15.10 (September 2, 1837): 80. Announcement that John Gadsby Chapman is one of four painters chosen to finish off the spaces in the Capitol rotunda. Chapman's work will be "The Baptism of Pocahontas" (1840).
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Frost, John. History of the United States: For the Use of Common Schools. Philadelphia, 1837. 31-36. (Philadelphia, 1852: 27-36.) See the other Frost entry this year. The 1852 edition is slightly revised but not in regard to Pocahontas.
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Frost, John. History of the United States: For the Use of Schools and Academies. Philadelphia, 1837. 35-49. In this account in the first year of his several accounts of the colonization of Virginia (and basically the same as his other account this year), Frost describes but does not trumpet the rescue (though there is an illustration). More emphasis is given to the marriage of Pocahontas, "which has always been regarded with great interest by the Virginians," "was hailed as an auspicious event at the time," but "never operated as an example": "The English and Indians would not intermarry, and the races have always remained distinct." Nothing about England.
[U.S. history; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Olney, J. A History of the United States, on a New Plan. New Haven, 1837. 35-40. "Adapted to the capacity of youth," the title page says. Interestingly, this is one place "the" rescue is not highlighted, though the students can find it described in the fine print of the notes. Instead, Pocahontas's "other" rescue, the dark night journey, is the one highlighted in the text. And there's nothing about the abduction or the England experience.
[illustrated; juvenile; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." A famous mid-19th century thoroughbred.
[homage]
[Electronic Version]

Review of Robert Dale Owen, Pocahontas: A Historical Drama. New-York Mirror: A Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 15.19 (November 4, 1837): 149-50. Positive review, made up almost entirely of a long quote as Smith and Rolfe learn of the abduction and chaining of Pocahontas.

Review of Robert Dale Owen, Pocahontas: A Historical Drama. [New York] American Monthly Magazine new series, 4 (1837): 489-90. "We are not disposed to do the writer of Pocahontas injustice, nor can we deny him poetical power. . . . There is frequently a mistake in the love-language of Pocahontas and Nomony. It is not the language of such women. The endearing expressions are unnatural, and savour too much of the drawing-room -- and not at all of the wigwam or the forest. The best poetry in the drama, it strikes us, is that of the awakened spirits of Powhatan and Smith. Rolfe and Pocahontas sometimes equal them in their outbreaks."
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Review of Robert Dale Owen, [The Editors' Table] Pocahontas: A Historical Drama. [New York] Knickerbocker 10 (1837): 180-81. "[This play] is a production of a man of genius, learning, taste, and morality. It adheres to historical truth, and exhibits, in an instructive light, the vices and virtues of both savage and civilized society."

Review of Samuel G. Drake, Biography and History of the Indians of North America. North American Review 44.95 (April 1837): 301-33. "We next meet with an account of Powhatan; the romantic and daring adventures of Captain John Smith; and the eventful history of the heroic and high-souled Pocahontas. But these are familiar themes. The universal symphony of mankind has reared to the memory of Pocahontas a monument as enduring as the human heart's reverence for virtue."
[Electronic Version]

Roux de Rochelle, [Jean]. Etats-Unis d’Amerique. Paris, 1837. 31-38.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

"Selections from New Works. The Speaking Leaf.-- from 'Pocahontas.'" New-York Mirror: a Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 15.20 (November 11, 1837): 157-58. The section from the Custis play in which Rolfe and Smith amaze Pocahontas and Nomony with the reality of writing on paper is herewith printed.

[Owen, Robert Dale] A Citizen of the West. Pocahontas: A Historical Drama. New York, 1837. Another of the cluster of Ante-bellum plays about Pocahontas (see Barker, Barnes, Custis, and Brougham). Owen, later member of Congress and minister to Italy, was an active social reformer, a collaborator with Fanny Wright (see 1821), who was involved in promoting such radical issues as utopian communities, socialism, the abolition of slavery, universal suffrage, free secular education, birth control, changes in the marriage and divorce laws. The dozen or more sources in the notes show that Owen did his homework, but he re-arranges events and invents a few for dramatic rather than historical purposes. The rescue of Smith occurs in Act Two, Pocahontas claiming him as "father," and the tearful climax is Smith leaving for England, severely wounded in a battle to free Pocahontas from her abductors (repaying his debt), and celebrating her approaching marriage with Rolfe. An interesting aspect of Pocahontas's character is her awakening sense of the equality of women: "Nomony! thinkest thou / Woman was made to be the friend of man, / To share man’s confidence – win his respect -- / To be – to be – his EQUAL? That’s the word, / Are not these strange – strange thoughts?" (Perhaps we should remember that the Trail of Tears will occur next year.)
[play; gender]
[Electronic Version]

1838

Howitt, William. Colonization and Christianity: A Popular History of the Treatment of the Natives by the Europeans in all their Colonies. London, 1838. 337-39. The goal of this book by English writer Howitt is, as he says in the introduction, to lay open to the public the most extensive and extraordinary system of crime which the world ever witnessed. Forget favorable comparisons with the Spanish, he continues, for, except for one or two "beautiful exceptions," "English and American treatment of the aborigines of their colonies is but Spanish cruelty repeated." Even Smith, good as he was, "was not sufficiently aware of the power of friendship" and chose to attack rather than treat with the Indians. "The better nature of the Indians saved him" from death, however, in the person of "the Indian beauty" Pocahontas. Though Rolfe would eventually marry Pocahontas, "the rest of the colonists of the period held aloof from Indian marriages as beneath them. They looked on the Indians rather as creatures to be driven to the woods -- for, unlike the negroes, they could not be compelled to become slaves -- than to be raised and civilized." The result was the Indian massacre of 1622 and the ensuing war of extermination. "Such was the mode of settling Virginia."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Knapp, Samuel L. "Sketch of the Life of John Smith, the Father of Virginia." [New York] Family Magazine 5 (1838): 443-44. A sketch of Smith's life must inevitably linger on Pocahontas saving that life: "Poetry, painting, and sculpture, have tried to give immortality to this event: but they have added nothing to the moral beauty of the scene -- that is inherent in the story: no meagre terms can diminish its interest; no swell of language increase its lustre; even the cold chronologist stops to say something affecting upon it, and the annalist grows eloquent as he puts it upon his record."
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 442]

Letter of John Gadsby Chapman to William Bolling, 27 January 1838. William Bolling Papers, Virginia Historical Society. Rasmussen and Tilton 1994: "In 1838 John Gadsby Chapman saw the Robert Matthew Sully copy from which [the Rice and Clark 1842 lithograph] derives and called the figure 'coarse and unpoetical.'" Chapman thanked Bolling from having to use this figure as a model for his own work, for it would "break the beau ideal . . . and the romance of her story."
[painting]

"Pocahontas, The Indian Princess." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 4.4 (April 1838): 227-28. Elegiac -- the writer remembers remembering Pocahontas at the "Basin of Pocahontas" in Petersburg, in the cemetery at Jamestown, before what is believed to be her "veritable portrait" at Cobbs (the one Robert Matthew Sully copied from -- see 1842). For instance, "How often . . . have I figured to myself the form of this beauteous princess, meditating the protection of the white man, from the wiles of her ferocious countrymen, and the vengeance of her father, advancing to her ablutions, and perhaps lifting up her orisons to the Great Spirit for the welfare of the white man, as standing by this stone, she looked towards the orient, radiant with the pencilled messengers of the morning." "Who gave to this dark daughter of the red man, nurtured in the wigwam of the savage, and familiar with blood, these gentle emotions, those generous feelings, that delicate sensibility, that maidenly decorum, and yet that princely and exalted heroism, which have ranked this Indian girl among the loftiest of her sex in any age or clime." The piece ends with a poem -- see next entry.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"The Preservation of the Early Colonists from Massacre." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 4.4 (April 1838): 228. A poem appended to the essay in the previous entry that commemorates the "signal service" of this "untutored child of the wilderness" in warning Smith of Powhatan's treacherous plot to murder him and his band (the subject of paintings by Chapman 1836 and White 1852). "I have saved thee before from his terrible ire, / When the club was uplifted, and kindled the fire, / And thy death was decreed by his oath; Thy head on the block as my arms did entwine, / Between it and the club I then interposed mine, / And I told them to strike at us both. / Then believe me, my Chieftain, and hasten away; / I return, or suspicion will blacken my stay, / And the morning my embassy tell. / May thy God e'er protect thee, and give thee his aid, -- / Oh, live mindful of me, tho' a poor Indian maid -- / Pocahontas now bids thee farewell."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Smith, Russell, Mrs. "The Indian Maid. Translated from the French. Chapter I. Chapter II. Pocahontas in England." Gentleman's Magazine 3.2 (August 1838): 108-18. Can't locate -- must be a bum citation.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

William Bolling, statement, May 1838. William Bolling Papers, Virginia Historical Society. Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 quote Bolling, a prominent descendant of Pocahontas, as denying the lifelikeness of the Turkey Island portrait (see 1842): "it represented a large, fat, sallow [person of] rather a dead white skin, enormously large breasts much exposed, brown curly hair, with blue Eyes."
[painting]

1839

Bush, Joseph Henry. "Mrs. Scolley Lynch (Mary Lucy Pocahontas Bibb)." 1839. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

C. C. [Charles Campbell?]. "The History of Virginia." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 5.12 (December 1839): 788-92. A concise but rather comprehensive sketch of early Virginia history with the purpose of calling attention to its often overlooked value and attraction. The Indians all groped "within a narrow circle of animal instincts, and the necessities of a precarious subsistence; strangers to that Arcadian paradise, those Elysian scenes, of which youthful poets have fondly dreamed. Yet here and there a solitary gleam of light shoots across the surrounding gloom. In Opechancanough we perceive perfidy blended with heroism; in Powhatan the cruelty of a savage despot, and the tenderness of a doting father; and in Pocahontas the graces of some guardian angel descended from the heavens." Pocahontas regarded Smith as a father not a lover, and here is but the second mention in the archive so far of a sister to Pocahontas named Cleopatra. Campbell, the probable author, wrote histories of Virginia in 1847 and 1860.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Hillard, George. "The Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith." Lives of Eminent Individuals, Celebrated in American History. Ed. Jared Sparks. Volume 1. Boston, 1839. 250-58, 280-90, 337-47. (New York, 1847. 250-58, 280-90, 337-47.) See Hillard 1834.
[Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

Phillips, Richard, Sir. A Million of Facts, Connected with the Studies, Pursuits, and Interests of Mankind. 4th ed. New York, 1839. 287. Brief mention punctuated with "History scarcely furnishes a character, which, in so few years of human life, was a greater benefactor of mankind than Pocahontas."

"Pocahontas." New-Yorker 8.14 (December 21, 1839): 216. Same as following entry: brief biographical sketch from Stith.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [Hudson, N.Y.] Rural Repository 16 (1839): 134. Brief biographical sketch from Stith.
[Electronic Version]

1840

Bolles, John. "Essay on a Congress of Nations." Prize Essays on a Congress of Nations, For the Adjustment of International Disputes, and for the Promotion of Universal Peace without Resort to Arms. Boston, 1840. 15. A collection of essays gathered by the American Peace Society on the subject of a Congress of Nations, in which Bolles says, "Amongst those elements of character which are found in every condition of human existence, and which are developed and strengthened by the progress of civilization, one powerful principle is humanity, -- that quality of mind which leads us to pity and weep over the sufferings of others. In the breast of the savage, this principle is scarcely felt, and in his conduct seldom seen; but, though small and feeble, it does exist even there; and occasionally it has stayed the uplifted tomahawk, extinguished the blazing brand, or, perhaps, urged some, of gentle mood, like Pocahontas, to interpose their own persons between the object and the instrument of barbarous vengeance."
[Electronic Version]

Chapman, John Gadsby. "The Baptism of Pocahontas." 1840. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 24.) (See preliminary oil sketch in Abrams 1999. 123.) One of the eight large paintings hanging in the rotunda of the United States Capitol building in Washington. There are no details in the historical record about Pocahontas's baptism (no one up to this time in the Archive entries here has even elaborated on it), so Chapman was introducing a new visual element into her representation in American consciousness. Rather than the familar rescue scene, for instance, Chapman chooses as his subject for this august location the moment "Pocahontas" becomes "Rebecca," the moment Indian becomes (literally) white, the moment of absorption. Tilton 1994 devotes a chapter to analysis of the painting.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: painting]

Chapman, John Gadsby. The Picture of the Baptism of Pocahontas. Washington, 1840. A small pamphlet by Chapman describing his painting for the U.S. Capitol rotunda (see previous entry). Chapman justifies the subject on political and religious grounds. She is, after all, "the great benefactress, the tutelary genius of the first successful Colony planted within the limits of the United States; who, when famine raged or conspiracy menaced it with swift destruction, ever interposed her benign and gentle influence to supply their wants and ward off their dangers." But, also, "She stands foremost in the train of those wandering children of the forest who have at different times -- few, indeed, and far between -- been snatched from the fangs of a barbarous idolatry, to become lambs in the fold of the Divine Shepherd." There's a helpful diagram identifying the characters in the painting.
[painting]

"Continuation of the Description of the Capitol." [Baltimore] The Sun 21 August 1840: 1. The other stone panels in the Rotunda are "indifferently executed," but Capellano's rescue of Smith is "more skillfully grouped and executed than any of the others."
[sculpture]

Cooper, James Fenimore. Mercedes of Castile, or, The Voyage to Cathay. Volume 2. [Chapter 7] Philadelphia, 1840. 113. Pocahontas-like actions. "It was not easy to escape from such a combined assault, and our hero received one or two bruises from glancing arrows, though no blood followed the blows. A second attempt of the same nature was about to be made, when the alarmed girl, rushed from her place of concealment, and, like the Pocahontas of our own history, threw herself before Luis, with her arms meekly placed on her bosom."
[novel; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Correspondent. "Preparations in the Capitol -- Paintings in the Rotunda." New York Herald 6.64 (December 3, 1840): 2.
[painting]

Landscape. "Mr. Chapman’s Picture—The Baptism of Pocahontas." [Washington] Daily National Intelligencer 21 December 1840: 3. Positive response to the Chapman rotunda painting. "When out of the swarthy hordes of arrow-sending barbarians there budded forth the flower of the desert, when the rose sprang up beneath the everlasting forests, and Christianity blew upon and expanded its leaves, there was a sublimity in the incident that certainly must have touched the hearts of those bold settlers. . . . The first barbarian brought in the knowledge of the living God! It is an incident full of the solemn, the beautiful, and the grand, and Chapman has shown a high and noble sense of right in selecting it."
[painting]

Morris, George P. "The Chieftain's Daughter." [New York] Godey's Lady's Book, and Ladies' American Magazine 21 (November 1840): 202. Morris was a highly successful journalist and editor (co-founder of the New York Mirror) and critic and writer ("Woodman, Spare That Tree"). This is perhaps the first appearance of the poem that just might be the most reprinted poem about Pocahontas in the 19th century. Three stanzas focusing on the crucial moment: "Above his head in air, / The savage war-club swung; / The frantic girl, in wild despair, / Her arms about him flung. / Then shook the warriors of the shade, / Like leaves on aspen-limb, / Subdued by that heroic maid / Who breathed a prayer for him." The poem is introduced by a prose description of the rescue from an unidentified work called Sketches of Virginia.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Mr. Chapman's Painting of the Baptism of Pocahontas." [Washington] Daily National Intelligencer 1 December 1840: 3. Marks the opening of Chapman's painting in the Capitol rotunda the previous day with a long quote from Chapman's own pamphlet about it.
[painting]

"Mrs. Webster’s Pocahontas." [Washington] Daily National Intelligencer 9 October 1840. Positive notice of Mary Mosby Webster's book this year. "It is a traditional and genuine history of the romantic incidents in the life of a woman whose parallel is scarcely to be found in the annals of the world." The prominent fault of the book about the "young, beautiful, noble, and generous" Pocahontas is "want of connexion in the incidents," but "every American should get a copy."

"Pocahontas." New York Evangelist 11.3 (January 18, 1840): 12. Same as entries in 1839.

"Pocahontas." New-York Mirror: A Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 18.3 (July 11, 1840): 17. Illustration by W. D. Redfield. A passionate panegyric! On Pocahontas as woman. Accompanied by an engraving based on the 1616 van de Passe from life. "Welcome, sweet woman . . . rather would we see thee as thou wert arrayed when thy bare arm was interposed between the brow of Virginia's first hero and the uplifted arm of the smiter." Pocahontas was not beautiful (the picture shows that) nor wise (like Powhatan who foresaw Smith as "the destroyer of his race"). But she was a woman. She saw Smith a hero, a human being in distress, and she pitied him. "Her woman's heart melted." Smith's bravery would not have saved him for Powhatan, for "the safety of a nation was at stake." But he yielded to her. "He was a father." Pocahontas did not love Smith; he was "elderly"; and her actions were disinterested. "She saved the colony; and the motto of the armorial shield of Virginia ought to be -- 'Woman!' Fare thee well, sweet flower of the forest. When every quality that endears woman to man shall have fallen into contempt, then wilt thou be forgotten."
[illustrated; gender]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 17]

"Pocahontas." [Boston] Prisoner's Friend: A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Criminal Reform, Philosophy, Science, Literature, and Art 16.17 (February 1, 1840): 134. Can't locate; must be faulty citation.

"Romance of Indian History. Sketch of Pocahontas." New-York Mirror: A Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 17.34 (February 15, 1840): 270. Her actions furnish "evidence of noble and disinterested benevolence that have scarcely any parallel in the whole range of history. There is a beautiful symmetry in her character which could only be found in woman. Every part of her short but glorious history, is calculated to produce a thrill of admiration and to reflect the highest honour on her name." Capellano's 1825 sculpture "failed to give the features and costume of the Indian, and made a figure which resembles more a Grecian Venus than an Indian princess."
[Electronic Version]

Smith, Elizabeth Oakes Prince. "The Worthies of Virginia." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 6.1 (January 1840): 49-51. Virginia is "holy ground," "soil consecrated by the ashes of the great and good," says "Mrs. Seba" Smith (not as well known now as Seba -- see 1841 -- Elizabeth was an active writer in her own right). So, who are the worthies of Virginia? Raleigh, Smith, Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Patrick Henry, and . . . Pocahontas: "the beautiful personation of all that is loveliest in woman -- the meek, loving child of the forest, whose history seems like a tale of romance, with its sad melancholy close -- who rises like a beam of beauty upon the sight, winning the admiration and gratitude of every heart, capable of one solitary response to all that is lovely in woman and heroic in our race." Pocahontas "beams forth in those dark and perilous times, like some kindly spirit, hushing the tempest of savage passion, dispensing comfort and succor to the disheartened exile, and with her own gentle bosom warding off all the evils that threaten the infant colony of Jamestown."
[Electronic Version]

T. J. S. "Pocahontas—A Legend." [Washington] Daily National Intelligencer 28 September 1840. Positive notice of Mary Mosby Webster's book this year: "the perusal exceeded far our expectations." On Pocahontas herself: "It is in vain we ask of History, how it was that such a character was formed. . . . History gives no answer. It lifts the curtain that for ages had concealed the Western world, and discloses, amid the shade of its forests, a being of as bright perfections as any that figure within the drama of human action, without detailing the steps by which she reached this height of moral worth. It furnished, however, in its very brief details, the outline of a character so free from stain, so marked with rarest excellence, uniting so much of woman's heart with all the loftier virtues of man's better nature, that, it would seem, the only reason why History left the picture thus imperfect was, that Poetry might finish it with such exquisite art that it would win for virtue the love and admiration of the world."

Virginia. "Pocahontas." [Washington] Daily National Intelligencer 25 September 1840. Positive notice of Mary Mosby Webster's book this year, which "will be welcomed cordially and find peculiar favor with the sons and daughters of Virginia, to the sympathy of so many of whom its narrative has hereditary claims." "We never see the name of Pocahontas without being transported in imagination to the days of 'chivalry and chain armor,' or to the more practical exploits of Joan of Arc, or Margaret of Anjou."

Watterston, George. "Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas." A Picture of Washington. Washington, 1840. 22-23. Description of the 1825 Capellano sculpture in the Capitol. "There is an evident want of truth in their delineation and costume. The face and head-dress of Pocahontas are Grecian, and the features of Powhatan are less like an Indian than an European."
[sculpture]
[Electronic Version]

Webster, Mrs. M. [Mary] M. [Mosby] Pocahontas: A Legend. Philadelphia, 1840. (very short excerpt in Burton Stevenson, My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 20-21.) Mosby, who identifies herself as a seventh generation descendant of Pocahontas, indulges in the "wildest fancy," the "poetic mixture of unvarnished truth [the notes to established sources are many] with time-worn legends. . . a few speculative opinions and occasional snatches of the purely ideal." The story is melancholy, moving from Pocahontas's attachment to her mother Ila (descendant of a Norseman), who dies; to her attachment to the son of Powhatan's other wife, Ergina, who also dies; to exile from her father for not marrying as he demands; to saving Smith who is not interested in any connection; to seer Manatowa's vision; to Japazaw's treachery; to her baptism and marriage, barely saving Rolfe from murder by her father; to escape from a storm on the way to England; and ending without elaboration of events in England with an image of her faithful page (Tomocomoco?) returning to Virginia to die wandering alone.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1841

[A. P. H.]. "The Baptism of Pocahontas. On the Picture in the Rotunda at Washington." [Philadelphia] Graham's Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine 19.4 (October 1841): 178. No sooner does that Chapman painting (1840) open the door to the baptism as a subject of representation than we get a poem adding to the scene: "From thy dark shades of superstitious lore, / Thou com’st arrayed in purest vestal white, / That he, the man of God, might on thee pour / Jordan’s still wave, to give thy blindness sight."
[poetry; painting]
[Electronic Version]

"About Tight Lacing -- A Word to Young Men." [Baltimore] The Sun 19 July 1841: 54. The absence of corsets is not necessarily followed by a deformity in the female figure: "Did Pocahontas practice tight lacing?"

Bancroft, George. History of the Colonization of the United States. Vol. 1. Boston, 1841. 58-82. An abridged edition, one of many forms of the basic work by perhaps the pre-eminent historian of the 19th century (see 1837). Same account of the rescue as earlier versions but without the True Relation footnote.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

"The Baptism of Pocahontas." [Louisville] Christian Observer 20.1 (January 1, 1841): 1. Approvingly marks the completion of the Chapman 1840 painting by quoting from his 1840 pamphlet.
[painting]

"The Baptism of Pocahontas." [New York] Family Magazine; or, Monthly Abstract of General Knowledge 8 (May 1, 1841): 307-9. Approvingly marks the completion of the Chapman 1840 painting by quoting from his 1840 pamphlet and by quoting information from Hamor on Pocahontas's abduction and Dale's efforts to convert her.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Barber, John Warner, and Henry Howe. Historical Collections of the State of New York: Containing a General Collection of the Most Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, and etc.. New York, 1841. 376-77. An amazing incident "which furnishes a parallel to the rescue of Capt. Smith by Pocahontas." An Indian council decides that, according to their belief in what is necessary for the happiness of the deceased, a certain (innocent) white man must die in reparation, in atonement for the murder of one of their own by a white. The man argues for his life, seemingly to no avail. Against all custom, three Indian women, all wives of chiefs, appear, carrying knives, disrupting the proceedings. The women pledge to kill themselves if their husbands carry out the unjust death sentence. And the man's life was saved.
[Pocahontas-like]

Brandburn, George. "House Report, No. 7, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the House of Representatives, Jan. 19. 1841." 1841. Qtd. in James Hugo Johnston, Race Relations in Virginia and Miscegenation in the South. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1970. 335-39. The report argues for repeal of the state law against miscegenation: "No white person shall intermarry with a Negro, Indian, or Mulatto." Among the arguments we find: "It were vain to imagine it impossible for virtuous persons to form such alliances, since the facts prove they may. One of America's most distinguished orators and statesmen [John Randolph] was accustomed to boast that he owed his birth to the union of Pocahontas and a certain Anglo-American, -- a union from which, history tells us, have 'descended some respectable families of Virginia.'"
[Electronic Version]

Buckingham, James Silk. America, historical, statistic, and descriptive. Volume 1. New York, 1841. 71, 200-1. Playing off a resolution by the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church that slavery is a civil and domestic institution, is not a moral evil, and thus the Church has nothing to do with its existence, Buckingham finds it "remarkable that this prejudice against dark complexion does not extend to the aboriginal Indians." "On the contrary, to have a mixture of dark Indian blood is rather a matter of pride than reproach," and as an example he describes a well attended lecture on Pocahontas by Reverend Francis Lister Hawks (see 1836, 1842, 1852), who "placed his hand upon his heart, and apologized for the pride which he must naturally feel in the recollection that some of the blood of Pocahontas flowed in his own veins [and] the sympathy of the audience manifested itself in marks of universal approbation." And yet Hawks as well as most of his audience were anti-abolitionist.
[slavery]
[Electronic Version]

Denton, Miss M. S. "Character and Condition of Woman." New-York Mirror: A Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts 19.27 (July 3, 1841): 213. In what appears to be a kind of valedictory address to graduates of a girl's school, the condition of women is traced from the Garden of Eden through the savage state, Egypt, India, China, Rome, and into England, and finally to America, where the very first words are about Pocahontas. "In turning to America we find on the first page of history, an infant colony saved by the heroism of a woman -- and that woman a savage. The name of Pocahontas is never pronounced by the Virginian without a thrill of gratitude. Self-denying and self-sacrificing, she was truly the friend of our fathers. And cannot the American look with pride to his own loved country as distinguished for good, virtuous, and learned women?"
[gender]
[Electronic Version]

Foote, Henry S. Texas and the Texans, or, Advance of the Anglo-Americans to the South-West. Volume 2. Philadelphia, 1841. 245. Pocahontas-like nurturing during the Mexican war. Describing a time when American captives were being executed and their bodies burned, Foote finds it "not inappropriate to mention one female, Pacheta Alevesco; the wife of Captain A. She was indeed an angel of mercy -- a second Pocahontas. All that she could do to administer to our comfort, -- to pour 'oil into our wounds,' was done. She had likewise been to Major Miller and men, a 'ministering angel.'"
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Morris, George P., and Henry Russell. The Chieftain's Daughter. New York: Firth Pond & Co., 1841. Morris's 1840 poem set to music.
[illustrated; music; engraving]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: cover]

"Pocahontas--A Poetical Legend." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 7.1 (January 1841): 78. Review of Webster 1840. "We never read the story of Pocahontas without the solemn conviction that she was raised up by Divine Providence to protect and nourish the first germ of Christian civilization in the Western World. Her high-souled courage -- her gentleness and humanity -- her extra-ordinary sympathies -- her inflexible sense of justice, -- and above all, her devotional spirit, which found nothing satisfying in the senseless rites of Paganism, -- were all so opposed to the habits and prejudices formed by education, that it is difficult, if not impossible, to account for their existence upon mere human principles." Interestingly, though, the reviewer would like more attention to the more familiar heroic historical incidents (that is, the rescues) than to the legendary.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [Harper's Ferry] Ladies' Garland and Family Wreath Embracing Tales, Sketches, Incidents, History, Poetry, Music 4.7 (January 1841): 175. George P. Morris's 1840 "The Chieftain's Daughter."
[poetry]

"Powhatan: A Poem by Mr. Seba Smith." [New York] Knickerbocker 17.4 (April, 1841): 350. Promising a longer review of this year's work in the future, the reviewer quotes the single passage in which Powhatan tries to get Pocahontas to remember her mother.
[Electronic Version]

Publicola. "Baptism of Pocahontas." [Boston] Christian Reflector 4.3 (January 20, 1841): 9. The Chapman 1840 painting hanging in the Capitol rotunda cost $10,000, and it is "broadly sectarian"! Which is cause for concern to this writer and his audience. Reprehensible is the fact that "there is no baptistery in sight, and nothing but a small vessel calculated to hold very little water." "Small as it may seem, it is, nevertheless, an unintentional outrage on the known religious principles of millions of people of this country. It is taking their money to propagate, in one of the most winning methods over which the genius of man has control, an error that has done more than almost every thing else to divide and cripple the church of God. It is by such exhibitions of the Fine Arts . . . that the most subtle and most dangerous delusions have been foisted on the people, at the people's expense."
[painting]

R. R. "Pocahontas." [Washington] Daily National Intelligencer 4 March 1841. The writer -- a fifth generation descendant -- is "thrilled with admiration" at seeing the Chapman 1840 painting in the Rotunda but wishes that he had first painted her marriage and then "shown her as a matron." Hmmm, curious and unexplained hierarchy.
[painting]

Review of Seba Smith, Powhatan: A Metrical Romance. [Philadelphia] Graham's Magazine 19.1 (July 1841): 46-47. The reviewer says nothing of the historical substance of the poem. He is too wrapped up in how bad it is: "We never saw any one so uncommonly bad."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Review of Seba Smith, Powhatan: A Metrical Romance. [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 7.7 (July 1841): 588-89. Brief review notes the "heroic tenderness of Pocahontas" and quotes a description of her and a conversation with Powhatan.
[Electronic Version]

Sigourney, Lydia H. "Pocahontas." Pocahontas and Other Poems. London, 1841. 13-37. (Illustrated Poems. Philadelphia, 1849. 181-209.) Sigourney significantly elaborates the story in this her second work on Pocahontas. The tone is distinctly sentimental (for instance, scenes of remembering her father while in England and with her child on her deathbed), and the frame seems to be guilt and regret over what has happened to the Indians. "I wish we had not to your mad lip prest / The fiery poison-cup, nor on you turn'd / The blood-tooth'd ban-dog, foaming, as he burn'd / To tear your flesh." The Indians have fled, only to be heard are their "exiled murmurings" from the far west. "Forgotten race, farewell!" "But thou, O forest-princess, true of heart, / When o’er our fathers waved destruction’s dart, / Shalt in their children’s loving hearts be shrined; / Pure, lonely star, o’er dark oblivion’s wave, / It is not meet thy name should moulder in the grave."
[poetry; Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Sinclair, Thomas. "Captain Smith Rescued by Pocahontas." 1841. James Wimer, Events of Indian History. Lancaster, 1841. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 15.) Rasmussen and Tilton point out that Smith is a handsome young officer in 19th century dress and Pocahontas is "petite, beautiful, and seemingly Caucasian" (look at her hairstyle!) -- Sinclair apparently disregarding historical accuracy, feeling that his depiction "would find admirers among both the readers of Sir Walter Scott and the large, often female readership of sentimental fiction."
[lithograph]
[View Images: page 15]

Smith, Seba. Powhatan: A Metrical Romance. New York, 1841. Smith, best known as one of the first vernacular humorists with his Maine Jack Downing character, here focuses on Powhatan, the man, not the tribe. Pocahontas does not play a major role (though there's a long note about her taken from Burk in the notes). She has a tender, loving relationship with her father, knows she cannot love the Indian picked out for her ("He has a cruel heart / . . . . He never saves a captive’s life, / But a scalp will always bring: / How could I live with such a man"), but feels "something" (pity? love?) for Smith and saves him. Powhatan is emotionally devasted at the English threat to kill the hostage Pocahontas if he doesn't agree to peace terms, sending him into self-imposed exile. Opechancanough takes over and engineers a massacre (like the 1622 one), triggering a war that brings Powhatan back as a fierce warrior. But Pocahontas is forgotten in the story, which ends with a solitary, sorrowful Powhatan heading west alone.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Waldron, William Watson. "Pocahontas, Princess of Virginia." Pocahontas, Princess of Virginia and Other Poems. New York, 1841. Not the clearest of poems. In canto one, without contextual background, Pocahontas saves Alcanzor (why not use "Smith"?) from burning to death (?), and they seem to part friends. In canto two Pocahontas marries Rodolph (why not use "Rolfe"?). They travel to England, where on the dock Pocahontas meets Alcanzor again and forces contrition out of him. But for what, exactly? After many years in England the "pensive exile" wants to return to Virginia but dies first. Really not much in the way of adherence to the "facts" here nor any interesting flights of fancy.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

[Wimer, James.] Events in Indian History, Beginning with an Account of the Origin of the American Indians, and Early Settlements in North America. Lancaster, 1841. 72-116. Illustrated by Thomas Sinclair. See Sinclair entry to view image. Longish description of the main events in our narrative drawn from Smith, Stith, Hamor, Burk, Beverley -- and ending with a long excerpt from Seba Smith 1841.
[illustrated; Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

1842

Baker, Miss. "Last Wish of Pocahontas." Songs, Odes, and Other Poems on National Subjects. Ed. William McCarty. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1842. 282-83. See the "Death of Pocahontas" articles 1833. This short poem is similarly sentimental and similar too in Pocahontas's wish to be buried with "my fathers" back in Virginia: "I wish for my lowly grave to be made / In my native vale, 'neath the wild-wood shade. / When the dying strife in my bosom is o'er, / And closes mine eye to wake no more, / Then bear ye my pallid corse away / To my own green vale, where the sunbeams play -- / Where the streams with a gentle murmur flow, / The wild birds sing, and the fresh winds blow. / There first I sported when wild and free, / And there may the place of my resting be."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Barstow, George. The History of New Hampshire, From its discovery, in 1614, to the Passage of the Toleration Act, in 1819. Concord, 1842. 14-16. "While history retains a record of the generous affection of Pocahontas, the name of Smith cannot be lost," and the rescue of this man whose name will "be forever associated with the noblest achievements in navigation" is described as part of the series of exciting adventures in his life.
[Electronic Version]

Buckingham, James Silk. The Slave States of America. Volume 2. London, 1842. 498-510. A standard account highlighting the rescue and reunion in England but ending with interesting comments on Pocahontas's descendants. The "celebrated" John Randolph " was as proud of his ancestry, as any peer of England who could trace his descent from some Norman baron brought over in the train of William the Conqueror." And then further: "The pride of ancestry, from an Indian stock, is much stronger in the few Americans who have so descended, than it appears to be in any possessing unmixed European blood. . . . This is more remarkable, when it is contrasted with the cruel treatment which the Indians have generally received from the American nation and people; and still more remarkable when we consider that there is nothing so repulsive to American feeling, as an intermarriage with persons having the least taint of colour from an African stock."
[slavery]
[Electronic Version]

Ella. "Pocahontas." Lowell Offering 3 (October 1842): 14-20. An intriguing magazine. The Lowell Offering -- written, edited, and published by the female operatives of the Lowell, Massachusetts, woolen mills -- was the most prominent of several magazines produced by New England factory employees. And this is a very striking essay, morphing from an analysis of Pocahontas's distinctive character to reflections on the state of the Indians and back again. Pocahontas, "like a visitant from the ethereal world," must have led a "lonely life" in her culture, "yearning for communion with those she could not find," and it is no wonder how quickly she moved to "assimilate" with the whites. And the Indians recognized her power: "Powhatan treated her not as a child –- but as a woman. Aye, there and then, she was treated as a man."

Everett, Alexander H. "Mrs. Sigourney." [New York] United States Magazine, and Democratic Review 11.51 (September 1842): 246-49. Review of Sigourney 1841. "[Pocahontas] is perhaps better fitted for a historical romance, in the manner of the Waverly novels, than for a poem; and waits, in order to receive entire justice, for the pen of some American Walter Scott. We rather wonder that Cooper. . . never happened to direct his view to this attractive point."
[Electronic Version]

[Hawks, Francis Lister.] The Adventures of Captain John Smith, the Founder of the Colony of Virginia. New York, 1842. 71-87, 142-44, 194-99. Standard telling of the story (notes indicate he was drawing from Smith and Stith) except for a few things. Such as a strange interpolation questioning the reality of the rescue: "The king's daughter, Pocahontas, (it seems,) had entreated that [Smith's] life might be spared." And it's "the providence of God" that renders Pocahontas the "friend" who saves him the second time from Powhatan's murder plot.
[juvenile; Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

Kemble, Fanny. Pocahontas. London, 1842. A ballet according to Margaret Armstrong (Fanny Kemble: A Passionate Victorian, New York: Macmillan, 1938: 266.) by an English woman who was one of the most prominent actresses of her day as well as a successful writer and who visited America and spent time on a plantation.
[music]

Knapp, Samuel L. "Pocahontas." Female Biography: Containing Notices of Distinguished Women, in Different Nations and Ages. Philadelphia, 1842. Illustrations by W. Croome. Frontispiece, 100, 381-86. We noted the coming of these kinds of collections of model women with Hays 1807. Catherine Brown, who "must be ranked with Pocahontas," and Pocahontas herself are among dozens of women so distinguished here (Joan of Arc, Abigail Adams, Anne Boleyn, Queen Isabella, etc.). But Pocahontas is special: "In every age and nation, rare instances of benevolence have been found; but in the whole range of educated nations, no female can be produced that has superior claims to Pocahontas. . . . The whole of her story surpasses all that fiction could create, and the embellishments were not wanted along side of the simple character of this child of nature. A thousand artificial flowers, in gilded vases, have not, to the true botanist, the beauty and perfume of one in the garden where it grew; nor can the Geraldines and Cherubines, those monsters of loveliness in fiction, reach the unsophisticated elegance of character displayed in Pocahontas."
[illustrated; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Moore, William V. [John Frost]. Indian Wars of the United States, from the Discovery to the Present Time. Philadelphia, 1842. 90-110. Same old basic story here. Doesn't deal with the English phase of Pocahontas's life, no doubt because of the focus of the book on Indian wars.
[illustrated; Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

Morris, George P. "Pocahontas." ["The Chieftain's Daughter"] Songs, Odes, and Other Poems on National Subjects. Ed. William McCarty. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1842. 287-88. (My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Ed. Burton Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 19-20.) See Morris 1840.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Rice, Daniel, and James Clark. "Pocahontas." 1842. (Thomas McKenney and James Hall, History of the Indian Tribes of North America. Vol. 3. Philadelphia, 1844.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 35.) Rasmussen and Tilton say that this is a lithograph of a painting by Robert Matthew Sully, which, in turn, was a copy of the so-called Turkey Island portrait of Pocahontas that Ryland Randolph, a descendant of Pocahontas, acquired in England. And they point out that the figure of Pocahontas here "was invented to provide an alternative image" for the "rigid, formal, and Europeanized" 1616 van de Passe figure. This lithograph would later appear famously in McKenney and Hall 1844. Sully did three later paintings of Pocahontas in the 1850s. The Turkey Island portrait (Turkey Island was the Randolph home) was in bad shape and disappeared.
[lithograph; painting]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 35]

[Simms, William Gilmore.] "Pocahontas; A Study for the Historical Painter." The Magnolia (May 1842): 305-6. (Views and Reviews in American Literature, History and Fiction. New York, 1845. 88-101.) (Ed. C. Hugh Holman. Cambridge: Belknap Press of the Harvard UP, 1962.) Simms, in his second work on the Pocahontas story, gives a wonderfully dramatic reading of how the scene should be painted, indicating that Chapman's rotunda painting on her baptism (1840) is the wrong topic and without realizing that Chapman had indeed painted the rescue (1836). "She darts from her seat. . . . He looks only upon her. . . . [Powhatan's face] is full of surprise and anger." "What arrests the blow? What has arrested the blow of the murderer, so frequently and in all ages? – what but the interposition of an Angel. A form of light – that loveliest creation of human beauty, a young girl, just budding into womanhood – is this interposing angel."
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Watterston, George. A New Guide to Washington. Washington, 1842. 47-51. Very positive tour book kind of description of Chapman's Capitol rotunda painting of the baptism of Pocahontas (1840), dotted with some quotes from Webster's poem (1840), and noting the lack of previous representations of this event: "It is an incident in the early settlement of our country, which is scarcely known, and not susceptible, from its character, of very great ornament. Pocahontas was certainly an extraordinary girl, and one that we rarely meet with, with either in savage or civilized life."
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

White, J. W. De la F. [Pittsburgh] "Character and Treatment of the Indians." Literary Casket 3.6 (December 1842): 126-29. We boast of our freedom, but we seldom "reflect on the inconsistency of our conduct," for instance, concerning treatment of African Americans and Indians. "These are dark, deep spots on the American character." There is an active anti-slavery movement, however, yet "how seldom is it the poor Indian receives so much as one pitying thought." The Indian may be savage but has virtues. "Who is there among us who has not heard of the beautiful Pocahontas? whose virtues and amiable qualities would grace the highest circles of civilized societies, and put to the blush many of our fashionable ladies. Yet she was born and raised in the forest amidst the yells and war-whoops of the savages. Brought into existence and educated in Nature's own bower she early imbibed those heaven-born sentiments which a contemplation of her works inspire. Pocahontas is a name destined for eternal remembrance. It will live -- will bid defiance to the pelting storms of Time, or the reckless hand that would attempt to bury it in the past. On the page of history it is written in characters of living light, encircled by a chaplet of fadeless green -- the grateful tribute of the poet and the historian; there it shall ever remain, an honor to the Indian character, and a disgrace to the European."
[slavery; Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

1843

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. Letter XVIII [May 26, 1842: Origin of Manhattan] Letters from New York. New York, 1843. 110. (New York, 1845. 122.) A walk on the Battery invokes Pocahontas as a point of reference in a gnarly meditation on societal progress. "What have we gained by civilization? . . . there is much to be said in favour of that wild life of savage freedom, as well as much against it." So, "should I have learned more of the spirit's life, could I have wandered at midnight with Pocahontas, on this fair island of Manhattan? I should have, at least, learned all; the soul of Nature's child might have lisped, and stammered in broken sentences, but it would not have muttered through a mask."
[Electronic Version]

Conrad, Judge. "The Sons of the Wilderness. Reflections Beside an Indian Mound." [Philadelphia] Graham's Lady's and Gentlemen's Magazine 23.1 (July 1843): 39-47. Robert Taylor Conrad was indeed a judge but also mayor of Philadelphia as well as a journal editor. This longish poem with longish notes is a meditation on the wrongs -- "the heritage of blood" -- committed against the Indians. How has a race of God ceased to be? One of the notes, in fact, sharply criticizes the right of discovery used to justify European claims in America. Smith, whom Pocahontas saved, of course, shrank from no treachery or outrage and was no better than the "chief of banditti," and Pocahontas was later imprisoned, triggering this reaction: "Vain was thy love, fond Pocahontas! Thou / Dreamed not so false the race which thou hadst saved: / Yet – though with fainting heart – thy flashing brow, / Queenly and cold, that scene of torture braved. / Loving and lost, thy grief and scorn were graved / Where no one turned the leaf. Didst thou not think, / Fawn of the desert! of the day when waved / The war club o’er his head, and thou didst sink / Between him and the death? Alas, that love / Young, yearning, truthful, hath no home save that above!" What can the Indians do but die. "It is their doom."
[poetry; Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Cruden, Robert Peirce. The History of the Town of Gravesend. London, 1843. 286-87. Brief notice drawing on Smith in this history of the town in which Pocahontas died and was buried is prefaced with "It is not inconsistent with the proposed arrangement of an account of the presence of royal and noble personages at Gravesend, to offer here the notice of an event, interesting to the cause of humanity."
[Electronic Version]

Frost, John. The Pictorial History of the United States of America. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1843. 86-106. (Boston, 1852. 80-106.) Illustrations by W. Croome. Lively but standard version of events, with longest attention given to events in England in a quote from Salmon (?).
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 91, page 96]

[Goodrich, Samuel G.] By the Author of Peter Parley's Tales. "Pocahontas." Lives of the Celebrated American Indians. Boston, 1843. 169-89. This Goodrich, of the family of publishing Goodrich's represented in this archive, began the widely popular Peter Parley books for young people in the 1820s and wrote many of them. The preface indicates that the purpose of this book is to correct the "misrepresentations" and "deep prejudice," confirmed by evidence of their current wasted condition, that characterizes knowledge of the Indians. His account of Pocahontas here is of quite generous length, of quite generous praise (the rescue is the "most striking and dramatic incident in the whole history of the North American Indians"), and ends with this paean: "The name of Pocahontas adorns the brightest page in the history of the natives of America. In whatever light we view her character, either as maiden, a wife, or a mother, she is equally entitled to our respect and admiration. Heroic and amiable, constant and courageous, human, generous, discreet and pious, she combined in an extraordinary manner the virtues and perfections of both savage and civilized nature. The union of so many qualities honorable to the female sex and to the human species, should never be forgotten, in forming our estimate of the human race."
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 170]

Hitchcock, E. A., and J. C. Spencer. "A Second Pocahontas." [New York] Spirit of the Times 13.10 (May 6, 1843): 116. Hitchcock is an army officer who sought out the Seminole woman, Milly Francis, whom we saw reports of several times here in the archive in 1818 for her Pocahontas-like rescue. Hitchcock verified the story, reports the details, and reports that he is asking for a pension for the woman, who is now suffering hard times. One of the details: the American proposed marriage, but she declined: "she did not save his life for that," she said. See the Boston Recorder entry below, and see also 1855.
[Pocahontas-like]

Hitchcock, Hon. J. C. Spencer. "A Second Pocahontas." Pensacola Gazette 13 May 1843: 4. See previous entry.
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

"Indians in Washington." [Amherst, NH] Farmer's Cabinet 28 December 1843: 2. Fox Indians touring the Rotunda: "Chapman's picture of the baptism of Pocahontas . . . called up a shrug of the shoulder and a grunt of a few words which were all Indian to me. Their looks, however, seemed anything but favorable criticism of the painting." Instead they were interested in the picture of the marriage of Pocahontas, the landing of the Pilgrims, and William Penn's treaty.
[painting]

"Jamestown." [Bradford, VT] Green Mountain Gem; A Monthly Journal of Literature, Science, and the Arts 1.2 (January 21, 1843): 15. Standing on the neglected ruins of Jamestown triggers a meditation on Smith and Pocahontas, "that unsuspecting, sincere, confiding child of the forest . . . who loved Smith with all the natural ardor of maiden's love [and] for his sake, loved the colony." It is shameful "to think of the deception played on this artless child of the woods, by designing men, for political and interested purposes." "She was led to believe that Smith was dead, or he had forgtten her, until after she was Mrs. Ralph. She was greatly affected, as all lovers are in such cases, on seeing him for the first time after her nuptials. Shame shame on such conduct!"

Lilly, Lambert. The Adventures of John Smith, The Founder of the Colony of Virginia. New York, 1843. Same as Hawks 1842.
[Electronic Version]

Morris, George P. "Pocahontas." [Bradford, VT] Green Mountain Gem; a Monthly Journal of Literature, Science, and the Arts 1.12 (June 17, 1843): 92. Another reprint of Morris's "Chieftain's Daughter." This is the second Pocahontas piece in this New England journal this year?!
[poetry]

Prescott, William Hickling. History of the Conquest of Mexico. New York, 1843. (New York: Modern Library, 1998. Chapter 6: City of Cholula, 1519, 356-57.) A good place for information about Dona Marina/Malinche, Cortes's mistress and interpreter, the Native American who conspired against her people, and who is often paired with Pocahontas. Here the "amiable manners of the Indian girl" enable her to win the confidence of a cacique's wife, exposing a plot against Cortes, enabling her to save him.
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

"A Second Pocahontas." Boston Recorder 28.18 (May 4, 1843): 71. See Hitchcock entry above. Reports that Milly Francis did indeed receive a pension for her Pocahontas-like rescue and "to show to the Indian tribes how mercy and humanity are appreciated by the government."
[Pocahontas-like]

Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth Oakes. "The Worthies of Virginia." [New York] The Rover: A Weekly Magazine of Tales, Poetry, and Engravings 1.17 (June 21, 1843): 271-72. Same as 1840.
[Electronic Version]

"The Indian Princess Pocahontas." Pensacola Gazette 11 February 1843: 1. One-paragraph sketch, expands on her life after the rescue -- Rolfe's struggle of conscience, her baptism, marriage, trip to England (noting King James's snit), death, celebrated descendants. Nothing on reason for rescuing Smith or meeting him in England.

[The Anniversary of the Ladies Home Missionary Society.] [Baltimore] The Sun 8 May 1843: 4. Reports that in a sermon on "Female Influence and Power," a Rev. John Smith (I kid you not) extolled Pocahontas in the company of Queen Esther, Cleopatra, Charlotte Corday, and Hannah More: "retrograding for a moment we enter the thicket, and on the banks of the James river, armed savage like, unalleviated and unenlightened by christianity, we find our own Pocahontas, then but a child, offering her own life to save that of Captain John Smith."
[gender]

[The Pocahontas Tribe of Improved Order of Red Men.] [Baltimore] The Sun 15 February 1843: 2. This group gave a ball -- "truly a fancy and romantic affair" -- for the benefit of their school fund.

1844

Archer, Armstrong. A Compendium of Slavery as It Exists in the Present Day in the United States of America. London, 1844. 11-24. The purpose here: to contribute "my mite towards the exposure of so barbarous a traffic in human flesh and bones." Archer, son of a freed African American slave and an Indian mother, literally interjects a longish account of Pocahontas (drawn from Smith, Stith, and Thatcher) between an account of his grandfather's enslavement and a series of essays detailing the contemporary horrors of slavery. Archer claims descent from Powhatan on his mother's side through the chief's other daughter, Powcanoe (the first we've heard of her in this archive, I believe), and his purpose in telling the Pocahontas story is "to establish my claims on the sympathy and patronage of Englishmen, by the memorable services which the illustrious Pocahontas rendered the first English colony that settled in Virginia." In contrast, the present treatment of the Indians in "the most bloodthirsty and slave breeding state in all the union," is a "disgrace," and in a few centuries the Indians "will live only on the pages of history." Archer wants to show that "the Indians have been most shamefully abused, by a people who boast so loudly of being the only free nation on earth." For previous uses of Pocahontas in connection with slavery, see Hillhouse 1820, Baldwin 1834, and Jay 1836.
[illustrated; slavery; Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Balch, Rev. T. B. "Pocahontas, Burr, and Wirt." [Bradford, VT] Green Mountain Gem; A Monthly Journal of Literature, Science, and the Arts 2 (1844): 19-20. Balch was a literary Southern minister, and this piece about a trip to Richmond seems a selection from another work, as yet unidentfied. Pocahontas, "a kind of tawny Shepherdess," is also "a Princess of blessed memory" and must ever be "the presiding genius of Richmond": "Her image seemed continually present during my stay at Richmond. She seemed to stand at every sylvan gate, and to be reflected in every setting sun. When the imagination unfolded its saloon, she entered as a welcome but pensive guest; and amid all its gay and vernal creations, she seemed to pluck nothing but cypress leaves, and suspend her wampum belt among its golden willows. Child of the forest! hadst thou been in Wyoming, that helmet never would have perished, and the tones of that tragic story would never have echoed among the slopes of Parnassus." (Is that a reference to Thomas Campbell's "Gertrude of Wyoming"?)
[Electronic Version]

Barnes, Charlotte Mary Sanford. The Forest Princess, or Two Centuries Ago. 1844. Plays, Prose and Poetry. Philadelphia, 1848. 145-270. (Plays by Early American Women, 1775-1850. Ed. Amelia Howe Kritzer. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1995.) Barnes -- active in our early theater as an actress, playwright, and director -- is one of the cluster of ante-bellum dramatists working on Pocahontas that includes Barker, Custis, Owen, and Brougham. She calls her Pocahontas "the animated type of mercy and peace, unselfishness and truth," focusing on her "benevolence," and, eschewing the temptation to attribute romance to her motivation with Smith, her "disinterestedness" -- her simple dedication to mercy and justice. But her Pocahontas is also a "warrior," strong in the face of adversity and tough in her indictment of English policies. The rescue of Smith happens dramatically at the end of the first act, and Smith is already gone from Virginia at the beginning of the second act, whose climax is the marriage with Rolfe, the "first of the two nations joined," uniting "in peace and love the old world and the new." After saving Rolfe in the third act, the play ends with a glorious death-bed "Vision of Pocahontas," in which the figures of Time, Peace, the Genius of Columbia, and Washington prophesy a future in which the arms of "the island mother and her giant child" exchange the "grasp of lasting friendship."
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Blake, John. "Captain John Smith." Anecdotes of the American Indians. New York, 1844. 99-102. Short sketch of Smith's capture followed by Pocahontas's rescue.
[Electronic Version]

"Captain Smith and Pocahontas." [New York] The Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine 2 (November 1844): 236-38. Here is another one of those hints that we've seen two or three times thus far in the archive of the debunking of Smith that will get serious at the end of the next decade. The author raises the possibility that the legend around Pocahontas is false, only to say truth doesn't matter. Why should we believe Captain Smith more than Captain Gulliver? Perhaps he used his imagination. Perhaps he wanted to puff up his service. Perhaps the story is an elaborate allegory of civilization struggling with barbarism. But who cares and what good would it do to disprove the story? "The story as it stands is a beautiful and touching story; one very worthy of belief; and for the sake of Pocahontas, I would not have it disproved if I could. . . . let us believe the story; let it be sacred in our memories and our faith."
[illustrated; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Hawes, Barbara. "Pocahontas and Captain Smith." Tales of the North American Indians. London, 1844. 278-309. Some chapters of this book deal with real people, some with legends, some nature. Nothing especially remarkable in this account drawn totally and without elaboration from the usual sources, some of which are mentioned in the introductory material.
[juvenile; Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

McKenney, Thomas, and James Hall. "Po-ca-hon-tas." History of the Indian Tribes of North America. Vol. 3. Philadelphia, 1844. 65-69, 197-98. One of the most beautiful and important books on Indians in the 19th century. A collection of 120 visual and verbal portraits of Indian leaders spearheaded by McKenney, who had been head of the U.S. Department of the Indians. Contains appreciative and historical material on Pocahontas in the essay by James Hall (author of a story called "The Indian Hater"), as well as the lithograph by Rice and Clark (see 1842), and a note on "The Genuineness of the Portrait of Pocahantas" gives evidence for same. About the rescue, Hall says, "The motive of that noble action was benevolence, the purest and most lofty principle of human action. It was not the caprice of a thoughtless girl, it was not a momentary passion for the condemned stranger, pleading at a susceptible heart, for her affections were reserved for another, and the purity as well as the dignity of her after life, shewed that they were truly and cautiously bestowed. . . . Yet this woman was a savage! A daughter of a race doomed to eternal barbarism by the decree of a philosophy which pronounces the soil of their minds too sterile to germinate the seeds of civilization!"
[lithograph; painting; Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

Murray, Hugh. The United States of America; Their History from the Earliest Period. Vol. 1. Edinburgh, 1844. 92-112. Murray's second standard account, without elaboration, drawn from Smith, Purchas, Hamor, Pinkerton, Hillard.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

1845

Anderson, James S. M. The History of the Church of England in the Colonies and Foreign Dependencies of the British Empire. Vol. 1. London, 1845. 294-300. (2nd. ed. Vol. 1. London, 1856. 178-79, 238-44.) Often noted as an important early book on this subject, but the Pocahontas account is standard, except, perhaps, for this comment in regard to her abduction: "It was a cruel and shameful act to ensnare and take captive one who had rendered such signal services as these; and, albeit in the end it was overruled for good, the contrivers of the scheme must still bear the burden of its reproach."
[Electronic Version]

"Antiquities of Virginia." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 11.6 (June 1845): 351-53. Sketch of early Virginia history to 1613 mentions Pocahontas's blowing the whistle on Powhatan's murder plot and her abduction and marriage, but, surprisingly, not "the" original rescue.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

"Buried Alive." [Baltimore] The Sun 13 November 1845: 1. Under the sub-heading of "A Question Settled," we are told that "a writer in the Richmond Enquirer, after a prolonged argument, concluded that Pocahontas had no claim for damages for breach of promises against Captain Smith."

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. Brief History of the Condition of Women in Various Ages and Nations. 5th ed. Volume 2. New York, 1845. 235-37. Perhaps the fifth mention of Pocahontas by Child here in the archive. Saying that "dancing was a common amusement with the Indians," Child quotes the Virginia Maske episode from Smith, punctuating it with: "Captain Smith does not give a very gallant account of an entertainment intended as a particular compliment to his arrival. The dance, like most savage dances, was unquestionably a pantomine; and he probably did not understand what it was intended to represent." Well, what was it intended to represent?
[illustrated; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Commuck, Thomas. Indian Melodies. New York, 1845. 64. An original collection of airs, on religious themes, by a Narraganset. The names of the pieces are all Indian tribes, people, or places, but out of respect or acquaintance, not because of any connection. So the lyric on this one has nothing particular to do with Pocahontas: "Jesus, shall I never be Firmly grounded upon thee? Never by thy work abide? Never in thy wounds reside?"
[music]
[Electronic Version]

"The Epochs and Events of American History, as Suited to the Purposes of Art in Fiction. Pocahontas, A Subject for the Historical Painter." [Charlestown] Southern and Western Monthly Magazine and Review 2.3 (September 1845): 145-54. See Simms 1842 and this year. Simms edited this magazine.

Goodrich, Samuel G. Peter Parley's Geography for Beginners. New York, 1845. 70. Another Parley volume; another entry by a Goodrich. Brief mention of the rescue.
[school book; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Hale, Mrs. Sarah Josepha. "The Empire of Woman." [New York] Godey's Magazine and Lady's Book 31 (July 1845): 12. (Three Hours; or, The Vigil of Love: and Other Poems. Philadelphia, 1848. 86-90.) Hale was a prolific writer and long-time editor of Godey's, which, as the most popular woman's magazine of its era, wielded enormous influence, focusing mainly on the domestic role of women. In this poem "the outward World" is given to "Man's dominion," and Hale, in separate stanzas, sketches women's role as daughter, sister, wife, and mother. Pocahontas and Powhatan embody the father/daughter relationship, showing what influence in the outside world a female can have: "The iron cares that load and press men down / A father can, like school-boy tasks, lay by, / When gazing in his Daughter’s loving eye, / Her soft arm like a spell around him thrown; / The passions that, like Upas’ leaves, have grown / Most deadly in dark places, which defy / Earth, heaven and human will, even these were shown / All powerless to resist the pleading cry / Which pierced a savage but a father’s ear, / And shook a soul where pity’s pulse seemed dead; / When Pocahontas, heeding not the fear / That daunted boldest warriors, laid her head / Beside the doomed! Now with our country’s fame, / Sweet forest Daughter, we blent thy name."
[poetry; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Hillard, George S. "Pocahontas." The District School Reader; or, Exercise in Reading and Speaking; Designed for the Highest Class in Public and Private Schools. Ed. William D. Swan. Philadelphia, 1845. 69-72. Choice selection from Hillard 1834.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

Howe, Henry. Historical Collections of Virginia. Charleston, 1845. 22-51. Great frontispiece image showing the rescue of Smith as the "base" for future Virginia history and glory. The account itself is substantial and notes a handful of respected sources, but it does not especially trumpet Pocahontas. At execution time, though, "an advocate appeared, as unexpected as would have been the appearance of an angel sent immediately from heaven to ask his release." And the requiem: "Peace to her gentle spirit! Her memory will not perish while the commonwealth of Virginia endures, or noble and generous actions are valued by her sons."
[illustrated; Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece, page 20]

Lewis, Alonzo. "Love: Canto II." Love, Forest Flowers, and Sea Shells. Boston, 1845. 19-30, esp. 20. In this long popular poem (10 editions) by the "Lynn Bard," Pocahontas is referenced as a model lover and positioned in good company: "How pure and fond the love that Mary knew, / When her warm tears bespangled Calvary's dew! / What sweet regard the Roman daughter moved, / When her fond instinct saved the life she loved! / What proud affection Pocahontas felt, / When by the fatal stone she boldly knelt; / Or when, to serve the tribe she loved in vain, / Her noble form was drenched in midnight rain, / As through the trackless wild her footsteps sped, / Risking her own to save the stranger's head."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [New York] Dwight's American Magazine [American Penny Magazine], and Family Newspaper 1.22 (July 5, 1845): 337-39. Calls attention to Pocahontas's young age at the time of her rescue of Smith: "nothing could have directed her in the course she pursued, but a strong natural dictate of humanity. Yet why she should have been so affected in that case, it is difficult to say, as it may be presumed that she had witnessed scenes of cruelty, bloodshed and murder, among the savage race, and in the savage family to which she belonged." So what about the fierce Powhatan? "The character of Powhatan is a very marked one. His attachment to his daughter alone would be enough to vindicate the red race from the charge of being without natural affection."
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Sigourney, L. H., Mrs. "First Church at Jamestown, Virginia." Scenes in My Native Land . Boston, 1845. 25-26. "Now, all are swept away." Even Pocahontas, where, perhaps here, she, "moved with pity, sighed, / O'er the pale victim, by her firmness saved." One of the several ubi sunt Jamestown meditations in the archive so far.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Simms, William Gilmore. "Pocahontas: A Subject for the Historical Painter." Views and Reviews in American Literature, History and Fiction. New York, 1845. 88-101. (Ed. C. Hugh Holman. Cambridge: Belknap Press of the Harvard UP, 1962.) See 1842.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

"Virginia's Rebecca." [Chicago] Christian Advocate and Journal 19.22 (January 8, 1845): 88. Reprinted from the American Messenger. Focuses on her second life as a Christian, for instance, her baptism: "With folded arms before the font she stood, / Encircled by the hushed and reverent air; / Her upward glance was a sweet hymn to God, / Her downward look a soul-suffusing prayer."
[poetry]

Willard, Emma. History of the United States, or, Republic of America. New York, 1845. 21-27. Willard, pioneer in education for women and founder of a school in Troy, New York, that still exists, dutifully records that Pocahontas rescued Smith at a "tender age," that she "repeatedly saved the life of Smith," that "Smith was penetrated with gratitude," and that she ranks high "not merely on the roll of savages and of women, but of humanity itself."
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

[Smith, John.] "A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned in VIRGINIA." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 11.1 (Jan. 1845): 65-67. No mention of the rescues or other Pocahontas acts in this advertisement for an edition of Smith's 1608 work that appears in the next issue. Curious that nothing else was worthy of mention or that the discrepancy with Generall Historie escapes notice.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

[Smith, John.] "A True relation of such occurrences and accidents of note, as hath hapned in VIRGINIA." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 11.2 (Feb. 1845): 69-82. Edition of Smith's 1608 work.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

1846

Belloc, H. Histoires d’Amérique et d’Océanie. Paris, 1846. 29-33.
[foreign language; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

[Campbell, Charles.] "Contributions to the History of Virginia, Chapter VII." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 12.9 (September 1846): 533-38. Campbell's book-length history of Virginia would come out in 1847. This chapter dealing with the rescue ascribes, since "nature often implants noble and tender emotions in the least cultivated mind, especially in that of woman," to Pocahontas motivations "something stronger and more sacred than pity or that mysterious reverence with which he had inspired her countrymen." Campbell revised his work, and this interesting remark is not in the 1847 or 1860 book versions.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Howison, Robert R. A History of Virginia. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1846. 119-27, 150, 189-205. Howison draws from a bevy of sources, as his notes make clear, and writes a pretty standard history in pretty familiar language. Noteworthy, perhaps, is his description of the young Pocahontas (who is "budding into womanhood, and cotemporary writers tell us of her beauty, her intelligence, her sensitive modesty"), her reaction to imprisonment ("we cannot doubt that she found her present position more congenial to her taste than the rude scenes of an Indian wigwam"), and a rebuttal to slurs against the quality of her descendants ("it would be easy . . . to find, in man, those gifts of nature which cause the few to govern the many, and in woman, the most brilliant personal beauty, united with the highest of mental endowments."
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Sigourney, Mrs. L. H. "The Emigrant Bride." Myrtis: With Other Etchings and Sketchings. New York, 1846. 49. See Sigourney, Water-drops, 1848, 144.
[short story]
[Electronic Version]

Simms, William Gilmore. The Life of Captain John Smith, The Founder of Virginia. New York, 1846. 143-61, 182-90, 251-71, 326-36, 355-67. (Freeport: Books for Libraries, 1970.) This third involvement with Smith and Pocahontas by Simms is strictly biography and history rather than fiction. His approach is lush and expansive but basically quite straightforward. There are, however, several lyrical passages about Pocahontas. For instance: "As these virtues were not of the time or the people among whom she was born and nurtured, so they denote a degree of excellence which lifts her beyond her race and period, and links her name and reputation with those of the few noble spirits, like herself, of whom the universal heart everywhere keeps a tenacious memory. A more incomparable creature never did honor to her sex. A more feminine spirit never was sent to earth for the purpose of humanity." Quite provocative, though, is Simms' view of the relationship between rebellious daughter and stern father: "We have no reproaches for Pocahontas, and her conduct is to be justified. She obeyed laws of nature and humanity, of tenderness and love, which were far superior, in their force and efficacy, in a heart like hers, to any which spring simply from ties of blood. But, even though his designs be ill, we cannot but regard the savage prince, in his age and infirmities, thus betrayed by child and subject, somewhat as another Lear. He, too, was fond of his Cordelia."
[illustrated; Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece, title page]

"Sketch of Pocahontas." The Weekly Raleigh Register, and North Carolina Gazette 30 October 1846. Fears her story "will be regarded as a romance." Standard retelling with direct quotes from a source prefaced by this incredible run-on sentence of awe: "To see one brought up among, a fierce, warlike, and cruel race, herself the daughter of an emperor, and still almost in her infancy, voluntarily rushing forward, and encountering difficulties, dangers and fatigue, to save a total stranger from death, who was thought to be the deadly enemy of her race, and fearlessly and generously persisting in extending relief and assistance to him and rescuing from famine and death his destitute companions, who had invaded the land of her birth and the country of her fathers, and from whom she could expect nothing in return for her kindness, cannot but excite the highest admiration, as furnishing evidences of noble and disinterested benevolence that has scarcely any parallel in the whole range of history." Whew! But there's a "There's a beautiful symmetry in her character which could only be found in woman" thrown in there too. Reference to Capellano's sculpture points to the basis for this article in the 1845 "Romance of Indian History."

Thompson, Waddy. Recollections of Mexico. New York, 1846. 29. Thompson was sent as minister to Mexico during hostilities on the border to demand the release of prisoners who were United States citizens and to require that Texan prisoners be treated with consideration. In this book about his tenure there, Thompson praises Cortes, Santa Anna, and some other elements of Mexican culture, making an almost off-hand comment about Pocahontas that triggers a defensive response by Pickett next year. Thompson says, "The [Cholulan] plot [against Cortes] was discovered through the address and sagacity of that miracle of a woman Dona Marina, the Indian interpreter of Cortes, whose great qualities throw into the shade our own Pocahontas." That's all. And that's enough to set Pickett about "vindicating" Pocahontas's reputation!
[Electronic Version]

"Touching Incident." Milwaukee Sentinel 31 August 1846: 2. A story of "self-sacrificing attachment" the equal of Pocahontas and Smith. A little girl saves a dog from being shot by the Marshal, saying, "he's not mad, Mr. Marshal -- he's not mad." The marshal then said that "he would not kill that dog for all the mayors and aldermen in creation."
[Pocahontas-like]

Warburton, George. Hochelaga, or, England in the New World. Part 2. New York, 1846. 163. Hochelaga, the ancient name for area around Montreal, is the account of the author's visits to Canada and America. "Many of my observations may, perhaps, be distasteful to an American reader," says Warburton, and one can imagine that in the context of his Pocahontas reference. "The treatment of the Indian races in America by the Europeans, has generally been contemptuous and cruel. . . The people of the gentle and generous Pocahontas have perished from the land, and the magnanimous Mohicans are only remembered through the pages of a romance. . . . The negro lives in chains -- the Indian dies in freedom."
[Indian problem; slavery]
[Electronic Version]

1847

Campbell, Charles. "History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 13.2 (February 1847): 67-80. Here are portions of the book-length history also published this year: chapters 1-4. The notes show that Campbell was drawing from the usual suspects, so, since there is no editorializing of much note, the account is solid but not exceptional in any way.
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Campbell, Charles. "History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia." [Richmond] Southern Literary Messenger 13.3 (March 1847): 129-44. Continuation of the previous entry: chapters 5-9. A straight-arrow telling (the interesting comment about Pocahontas's rescue motivation in the 1846 entry is dropped), though Campbell does say, anticipating the debunking controversy that will begin in earnest with Palfrey 1858, that "it is remarkable that [True Relation] contained no allusion to [Smith's] rescue by Pocahontas" (see toward the end of chapter 7).
[Virginia history; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Campbell, Charles. Introduction to the History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia. Richmond, 1847. 14-40. Campbell, as we've seen in the above two entries, is little given to straying from the facts and a sober historian's approach, but at the end of his account here in his first book version (there's another in 1860) he argues that the "integrity of Smith stands untarnished" from censures sometimes cast on him for "having failed to marry Pocahontas. History, however, has no where given any ground for such a reproach. . . . [for] Pocahontas seems to have regarded [him only] with a sort of filial affection." Note again, also, though, that, as mentioned in the previous entry, Campbell does pick up on the fact that there is no mention of a rescue in 1608.
[Virginia history; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Chapman, John Gadsby. "The Chief's Daughter." The Evergreen for MDCCCXLVII a present for all seasons embellished with ten elegant engravings, from designs by eminent artists. Philadelphia, 1847. Title page. Engraved by Rawdon. Another one of the various images done by Chapman, best known for his 1840 Capitol rotunda painting on the baptism of Pocahontas. An illustration to accompany the poem in the following entry. The Evergreen was a popular, annual "gift book."
[engraving]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: engraving]

"The Chief's Daughter." The Evergreen for MDCCCXLVII a present for all seasons embellished with ten elegant engravings, from designs by eminent artists. Philadelphia, 1847. 234-35. With that title, we might think this is another reprinting of the Morris 1840 poem, but it isn't. "A change has come," the result of a "despotic fate," and the Indians must leave "their ancient home." Pocahontas must "say farewell to every hallowed scene." How will her romantic stream rejoice, when once "its nymph, its charm" is gone?
[poetry; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. "The Youthful Emigrant: A True Story of the Early Settlement of New Jersey." Fact and Fiction: A Collection of Stories. New York, 1847. 44. The probably mainly true story of Elizabeth Haddon, an English Quaker who developed a love for America as a child during a visit from William Penn and eventually moved there, giving her name to Haddonfield, New Jersey. Penn whetted her imagination by telling of Indians, and immediately thereafter Elizabeth named her doll Pocahontas and called her kitten a papoose.
[short story]
[Electronic Version]

Hall, James. "Pocahontas." The Hemans Reader for Female Schools: Containing Extracts in Prose and Poetry Selected from the Writings of More Than One Hundred and Thirty Different Authors. [The Hemans Young Ladies' Reader.] Ed. T. S. Pinneo. New York, 1847. 269-70. The preface says that "every article has been carefully studied with reference to its . . . adaptedness to the cultivation of the female mind and heart. The development of correct sentiment and taste, the encouragement of gentle and amiable feeling, and the regulating and maturing of the social affections, have been objects constantly prominent." So, Pocahontas as model for women. Hall's selection is from McKenney and Hall 1844.
[school book; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Howe, Henry. Historical Collections of Ohio. Cincinnati, 1847. 40. A Pocahontas-like person. A white man about to be burned to death was saved by a "young squaw" who was "touched by sympathy" and used some fur and money to free him," an act "which entitles her name to be honorably recorded with that of Pocahontas, among the good and the virtuous of every age." Ha! of course the Indian is not named!
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Juvenille. "The Sketcher. Passages in the Life of Pocahontas." [Ashland, OH] Amaranth. A Semi-Monthly Publication, Devoted to Polite Literature, Science, Poetry and Amusement 1.2 (March 6, 1847): 5-6. The rescue scene with some meaningless changes is depicted in a short sketch. For instance, Moxahaba, "the Wild Flower of the Forest," daughter of Powhatan, has a dream that the Great Spirit wants the "doomed stranger" saved. Once done, the scene shifts to an English cathedral where royalty and nobility wait in "breathless silence" as the Wild Flower is baptized, becoming the "Christian Woman."

Morris, George P. "The Chieftain's Daughter." The Hemans Reader for Female Schools: Containing Extracts in Prose and Poetry Selected from the Writings of More Than One Hundred and Thirty Different Authors. [The Hemans Young Ladies' Reader.] Ed. T. S. Pinneo. New York, 1847. 271. Morris's well-traveled 1840 poem. See the Hall entry above this year for info on the goal of the reader.
[poetry; school book; gender]
[Electronic Version]

[Pickett, James Chamberlayne] By a Kentuckian. The Memory of Pocahontas Vindicated against the Erroneous Judgment of the Hon. Waddy Thompson. Washington, 1847. 4-6, 15-16, 25-39. Here is Pickett responding to what he considers a slur against Pocahontas in Thompson 1846: "In all history and in all romance it would be difficult to find a more perfect character than Pocahontas. . . . It is impossible to become acquainted with her story without loving and admiring a being so good, so gentle, so humane, and so heroic. . . . Being by birth a Virginian, with strong attachments for my native State . . . and the memory of Pocahontas being dear to every son and daughter of the 'Old Dominion,' I trust that in vindicating her memory, I am doing nothing culpable, presumptuous, or officious." Among his arguments that Pocahontas was better than Marina are the fact that Pocahontas was a princess, that she converted, and that Smith was a better man than Cortes. The appendix contains extracts about Pocahontas from a dozen or more histories, including some foreign language works (with only partial citations).
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Review of Robert Howison, A History of Virginia. [Richmond] Southern and Western Literary Messenger and Review 13 (Jan. 1847): 1-13. In a positive review that describes and assesses all the prior historians of Virginia, we find: "Although Virginia may be blotted from the map of nations, and although the English race may become as totally extinct within its confines as the Indian has done, the legend of Smith and Pocahontas will be remembered so long as the human heart retains its nature."
[Electronic Version]

Sears, Robert. The Pictorial History of the American Revolution. New York, 1847. 56-63. Pocahontas, "seized with those tender emotions which form the ornament of her sex," rescues Smith.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Sigourney, Mrs. L. H. "Pocahontas." The Child's Book. New York, 1847. np. (New York, 1851. 116-22.) Sigourney this time with a pretty straightforward historical sketch for children, one of only a few real persons in the collection (Henry I, Moses, Washington, Napoleon). Pocahontas's aid to the colonists precedes (and perhaps accounts for ) her rescue of Smith. In England, the gentry "admired the rich, flowing black hair, and the gentle ladylike manners of the forest princess." The climactic image is of the aged, white-haired Powhatan, sitting on a high hill, "watching the waters, and hoping that every speck which appeared among the mist, was the vessel bearing her to his arms." "But he saw her no more [and] mourned for her till he died."
[juvenile; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Southern Justice." [Boston] The Emancipator 17 November 1847:2. Reports that a South Carolina court ruled that a person of Indian descent is colored, and "consequently an incompetent witness in a court of justice." So John Randolph would be incompetent since he boasted of his descent from Pocahontas.
[slavery]

Willson, Marcius. History of the United States, for the Use of Schools. New York, 1847. 47-56. (History of the United States, from the Earliest Discoveries to the Present Time. New York, 1854. 47-56.) Willson, who was offered the position of founding president of Vassar, authored three popular reading series over a period of three decades, and his history books, which began around this time, were also constantly in print during the same period. Pocahontas's rescue of Smith and her marriage to Rolfe are covered in this survey of early Virginia history, but students are not told of her abduction.
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 47]

Willson, Marcius. Juvenile American History for Primary Schools. New York, 1847. 36-45. (Primary American History for Primary Schools. New York, 1863. 36-45.) Interestingly, Willson's history book for the younger students has more detail than the one for older students in the previous entry -- including a comment that the justice of the way the "artful white people" treated the "ignorant Indians" is "greatly to be doubted," that Pocahontas was abducted, but that her "grief subsided" when told the reason was to foster a peace treaty.
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

1848

"Affairs in Washington." New York Herald 1 April 1848: 3. Brief notice: "Mr. and Mrs. E. S. Conner played tonight in Mrs. Conner's drama of Pocahontas, which was received in a very flattering manner."
[play]

"Another Fight in Washington. 'Personal Explanation' between Pocahontas and the Greek Slave." [New York] The John-Donkey 1.19 (May 6, 1848): 295. This satire magazine's three-pictured sketch involves a naked female wrestling match between the statues of Pocahontas and the Greek Slave, precipitated by the slave's vulgar gesture to the statue of John Smith. Pocahontas, who "showed more bottom than her slender antagonist," won!
[illustrated; cartoon]
[View Images: page 295]

Barnes, Charlotte Mary Sanford. The Forest Princess, or Two Centuries Ago. 1844. Plays, Prose and Poetry. Philadelphia, 1848. 145-270. (Plays by Early American Women, 1775-1850. Ed. Amelia Howe Kritzer. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1995.) Publication of the play first performed in 1844. See 1844.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Bibaud, Maximilien. Biographie des sagamos illustres de l’Amérique Septentrionale. Montréal, 1848. 67-85.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

"Capt. Smith and Pocahontas." [New York] The John-Donkey 2.6 (August 5, 1848): 58. Smith, who went to Virginia to relieve the aborigines "of a superabundance of the mopusses," is the butt of the satiric humor in this article. Just as Smith was about to be clubbed by Powhatan, "a respectable old red rascal, who dealt in hogs-fat and homony," up rushed "Miss Pocahontas, and throwing herself on her narrow bones, after the manner of Alexina Fisher, in her melodrama, implored her pappy -- 'not -- for -- to -- go -- for -- to -- come -- to -- do -- it -- no how!' Like a dutiful old cock o' wax, old Powhatan put his club on one side, whistled, and made Captain John Smith a great chief."

"From the Sandwich Islands." [Boston] Daily Evening Transcript 7 August 1848: 2. American whaler escapes death by Sydenham's Island natives when a chief's wife "threw herself betwixt" him and the executioner: "This is the story of Pocahontas over again."
[Pocahontas-like]

Guernsey, Egbert. History of the United States of America, Designed for Schools. New York, 1848. 84-99. Guernsey's school book, like Willson's, portrays the rescue and, without mentioning her abduction, her marriage and trip to England. Pocahontas died, "saved, as if by the hand of mercy, from beholding the extermination of the tribes from which she sprung, leaving a spotless name, and dwelling in memory under the form of perpetual youth."
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Odard. "Pocahontas, The Indian Heroine." [London] Bentley's Miscellany 24 (1848): 41-52. The framework for talking about Pocahontas here is the sad disappearance of the Indians: "I speak of them in the past tense, for the aboriginal children of the lake and wood are gone for ever from the shores of the Atlantic. . . . [and] in the course of a few generations [will] utterly disappear from the face of the earth." The reason? The result? "The repudiating Yankee now treads the hunting-grounds where the honest, faithful Indian roamed of yore, and the breeze that fanned his free bosom is heavy and polluted with the breath of slavery." But, for example the life of Pocahontas, there are studies of great interest. Significantly, Odard makes Pocahontas sixteen and notes that the "proper thing" would have been for Smith "to fall violently in love" with her, creating "many interesting consequences" for a good story. But "not thus went the reality." Her beauty, dignity, sensibility, and intelligence attracted Rolfe, however, but "was Pocahontas happy? Had the grand peut-etre of a woman's career resulted in her case in weal or woe?" Weal, not even shaken by the reunion with Smith. And, after a year in England tolerably acclimated and entirely reconciled to her new life, she died: at the moment the sun set "over the land of her fathers," "her gentle spirit passed away."
[Indian problem; slavery]
[Electronic Version]

"Old Virginia Vs. Suckerdom." [Amherst, NH] The Farmers' Cabinet 17 August 1848: 1. Comic anecdote of an "Illinois Sucker" who, disturbed by a young Virginian's self-promotion as a member of the First Family, baits him into a fight by declaring, "I never seed a Virginnyin that didn't claim to be either decended from an Injin, John Randolph, or a nigger."
[slavery]

"Our Indian Gallery." [New York] The John-Donkey 2.7 (August 12, 1848): 73. The third appearance of the Smith-Pocahontas story in the short life of this satirical magazine. Here we are invited to "contemplate that most extraordinary event to whose occurrence we owe the existence of so many of the F.F.V.'s."
[cartoon]
[View Images: page 73]

"Pocahontas." [Boston] Christian Reflector 11.2 (January 13, 1848): 8. Same as Dwight's American Magazine 1845.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [Hudson, New York] Rural Repository 24.14 (March 25, 1848): 105. A sketch Based on Sigourney's Child's Book (see 1851).
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 105]

"Pocahontas." [Philadelphia] Friends' Weekly Intelligencer 4.50 (March 11, 1848): 395-96. Same as Dwight's American Magazine 1845.

Sigourney, Mrs. "Pocahontas." Prisoner's Friend: A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Criminal Reform, Philosophy, Science, Literature, and Art 24.14 (March 25, 1848): 105. Erroneous citation?

Sigourney, Mrs. L. H. "The Emigrant Bride." Water-drops. New York, 1848. 144. Classic Sigourney. Orphan maiden who "staked her all on love" elopes on the 1587 John White expedition to Roanoke only to find her husband worthless and the Indians restless, with "no Powhatan to succor the strangers, -- no Pocahontas to save the victim, at the jeopardy of her own life." Left alone by her husband, the woman is scalped and killed while seeking consolation from the Bible for her loss of earthly love. "Blood-stained Bible, from Virginia sands! we thank thee for thine enduring friendship, -- for thy last holy offices to the Emigrant Bride." (Also in Sigourney's Myrtis, 1846.)
[short story]
[Electronic Version]

Stearns, Junius Brutus. "The Death of Pocahontas." 1848. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 31.) Say Rasmussen and Tilton: "[Stearns] presents a fully Anglicized figure who had been transformed from her savage origins and thereby made worthy of Christian salvation," closing the circle begun with her baptism (Chapman 1840). "Stearns's stunning reconstruction of a scene for which no record survives is a remarkable display of history painting. He conceives a setting that is believable as provincial England. He paints muted paneled walls as a foil for lush fabrics that call to mind her social achievement. He juxtaposes English and Indian figures to suggest the bringing together of cultures that was the meaningful accomplishment of Pocahontas. Her youthful appearance, her beauty, and the distraught postures of her husband and son establish the pathos of the event."
[painting]
[View Images: page 31]

1849

"The Baptism of Pocahontas." [Dayton] The Western Miscellany 1.12 (June 1849): 374. Short sketch, perhaps based on Chapman's 1840 painting of the scene. Church bells called "the pioneers of civilization and Christianity in the new world to witness the sublime spectacle of this converted heathen girl . . . turning from her idols to God." "They indulged in pious exultation at the glorious beginning, and the prospect of peace, security, and prosperity, that seemed to dawn upon the colony."
[Electronic Version]

Bolton, Mrs. Sarah T. "Pocahontas. Suggested by Reading Robert Dale Owen's Drama." [New York] Home Journal 8.158 (February 17, 1849): 4. Bolton was a rather well known popular poet in her day and associated with Owen (for the play referenced here, see 1837) in radical causes like property rights for women. And this journal, edited by Nathaniel Parker Willis and George Morris (represented several times in this archive), was a very popular journal. The poem has three parts, the first two very familiar descriptions of the rescues. But the third describes Rolfe freeing Pocahontas from imprisonment that was not as hospitable as the traditional historical account holds: "Then there was the sound of conflict by the massive prison door: / . . . It was Rolfe, her Yengeese lover, who stood beside her now; / She felt his arms around her, felt his kisses on her brow; / Sweet words of love were falling, like a bird-song on her ear, / Doubt and danger were forgotten, there was nothing more to fear. / Forgotten was the prison, with its darkness and its chain, / She loved, and she was conscious that she was loved again."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Cabell, Mrs. "A Sketch from Nature." [New York] Godey's Lady's Book 38 (June 1849): 394. The occasion for the poem is a visit to a "beautiful, time-honored mansion, the hereditary seat of the Mayo family." The mansion is renown as the former seat of Powhatan and Pocahontas. "Traditionary lore informs us (and who would wish to doubt?) that it was the scene of her romantic attachment and interposition for her ungrateful lover, Captain Smith." There is a stone thought to be the site of the proposed execution, as well as one thought to be marking the grave of Powhatan. The poem itself is a meditation on the family dead in the Mayo cemetery and not about Pocahontas events.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Frost, John. Remarkable Events in the History of America, from the Earliest Times to the Year 1848. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1849. 147-70. A different and more detailed account than in Frost's other book this year but still basically nothing new. Frost seems to be staying quite close to his sources here.
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Frost, John. The Book of the Colonies. Hartford, 1849. 86-110. A thorough but thoroughly stock account of early Virginia history.
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Hildreth, Richard. The History of the United States of America, from the Discovery of the Continent to the Organization of Government under the Federal Constitution. Vol. 1. New York, 1849. 103-17. Hildreth, who, among other things, founded a newspaper and wrote in opposition to slavery, published this six-volume history, but this is a quite standard account of our subject.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Landis, Robert W. Liberty’s Triumph: A Poem. Book II. New York, 1849. 27. In this huge (544-page) epic poem on the American Revolution, "the model revolution of the world," this Presbyterian minister mentions Pocahontas in his survey of early history in her characteristic role as savior: "Virginia too / Established late by Rawleigh's enterprise, / Extends north, south, and west her wide domain, / Protected by her Pocahontas fair, / Her warden-angel."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Letter to the Editor. Savannah Republican 16 May 1849: 2. Reprints Smith's letter to Queen Anne as "embracing an event the most romantic in our history, in fact a romance of real life." Added information referring to the "imperial family" suggests that the author's resource is Stith 1747.

Martin, Charles Wykeham. "The Burial of Pocahontas." [Richmond] Virginia Historical Register, and Literary Advertiser 2.4 (October 1849): 187-89. Martin, member of Parliament, sends the entry from the parish register at Gravesend to the Virginia Historical Society, saying that if there were further memorial it would have been destroyed in a 1727 fire: "1616 [our 1617]. March 21. -- Rebecca Wrothe wyffe of Thomas Wrothe gent. A Virginia lady borne was buried in the Chauncell." Note that the record gets Rolfe's first name wrong.
[Electronic Version]

P. S. "A Brief Sketch of the Life and Character of the Princess Pocahontas." [Chillicothe, OH] The Scioto Gazette 29 August 1849: 1. Surprisingly interesting and apparently original sketch, especially for a newspaper. In regard to the rescue: "It may be said, by those whose souls were never inspired by this heaven-born principle of benevolence, that Pocahontas loved Capt. Smith, and indulged the hope of a matrimonial connection, and was actuated by no higher motive than self-aggrandizement, in thus exposing her life to save his. She was, no doubt, attached to Capt. Smith: but such was her innate modesty, sound discretion and true dignity of character, that she never betrayed her feelings, nor infringed the most rigid rules of female delicacy and politeness. Capt. Smith loved her above all others [this is not a common view as yet], but such was the pride of his heart, 'the fear of the world's dread laugh,' and the displeasure of the king, that he could not think of presenting her, as his wife, to the English Court, and consequently her hand was reserved for one more worthy" [Smith has been blamed previously for ingratitude but not, I believe, for a failure to follow through on his love]. In regard to the founding of America: "The same being, who inspired Columbus with wisdom, and nerved his soul with more than mortal energy, heroism and perseverance to make the discovery of this fair country, impressed upon the heart of this young Princess the lineaments of his own character, that, through her meditation and instrumentality, His design of peopling this vast continent should be effected." In regard to her gender: "Let American females, then, revere her memory, do homage to her character, and imitate her heroic virtue and God-like example." (The idea of Smith loving Pocahontas is beginning to take hold: see Brougham 1855, the Frank Leslie's piece 1856, and Cooke 1858.)

"Pocahontas." [Boston] The Massachusetts Teacher 2.1 (January 1849): 27-28. Reprints without comment in this journal of school and home education Smith's "little booke," introducing Pocahontas to Queen Anne -- at least the part of that letter dealing with her two rescues of him.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." [Rusk, Texas] Rusk Pioneer 15 August 1849: 1. Reprinted from the Tennessee Organ. In this short, short story, it's moments before Pocahontas marries Rolfe, and her bower-ladies -- Widow Forrest and Anne Laydon -- are dressing the bride. It's an emotional time, a time for bridal jitters. The Widow thinks of her dead husband. Pocahontas, "covering her face with her hands, preserved for a long time a fearful and impressive silence." For a moment -- remembering her free childhood, her status as a princess, her simple pleasures -- she repents that love has changed her forest nature. But, then, remembering what she did for Smith and her love for Rolfe, "she awoke from the long trance of the past, and with a loud cry of joy threw herself into [Rolfe's] outstretched arms."
[short story]

Pritts, J. Mirror of Olden Time Border Life. Abingdon, 1849. 69-76. (Rpt. Lewisburg: Wennawoods, 2004.) Rather lean sketch has an unattributed direct quote from Campbell 1813, and thus is no doubt highly derivative, and has at least one interesting error in saying that Smith left Virginia because he was "tired of the quarrels and jealousies of his countrymen, and anxious to visit his native land."
[Electronic Version]

Review of Geschicte der Colonisation von Neu-England. [Boston] North American Review 69 (October 1849): 495. Brief mention of Pocahontas as an adjunct to Smith, not really in her own right: "It is true we have no Past, no mist, no myths. We had one hero of romance, but his name was John Smith. That warrior's steel corslet and peaked beard, his perilous adventures by flood and field, in every land, among Moslems or Savages, Infidels or Christians, the charms of his Turkish princess and of the gentle Pocahontas, are all associated with the early chapter of New England colonization."
[Electronic Version]

Smith, L. Virginia. "Pocahontas." [Philadelphia and New York] Peterson's Magazine 15.2 (February 1849): 58-61. Rather lengthy and sentimental poem begins with Pocahontas's abduction and moves through her marriage and death, -- which, interestingly, leaves Smith totally out of the picture. Powhatan is ready for war so that the "stain upon [his] name be washed away in blood." But from Rolfe's soul "the tide of passion rolled" for the captive Pocahontas, and before you know it "the pride of the Powhatans" stood amid both white and red as a bride. In England the "Western Princess shone amid the gay and mighty throng," but before long "the dews of death" gather on her "holy brow," and "the lovely and the beautiful [Pocahontas] has laid her down to die." "Death prest its icy kiss on that sweet beloved face," and Rolfe must weep, for the "wild-dove of the mountain" will sing to him no more.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Warburton, George. The Conquest of Canada. Volume 1. London, 1849. 289-97. (New York, 1850. 229-31.) Thin, standard account. Draws on Thatcher, Bancroft, etc. Calls John Rolfe "Thomas."
[Electronic Version]

1850

Bryant, William Cullen. Letters of a Traveller; or, Notes of Things Seen in Europe and America. New York, 1850. 73. In a trip down Richmond-way, Bryant, one of the grand old men of early American literature, remembers that "a place was pointed out to us, a little way down the river, which bears the name of Powhatan; and here, I was told, a flat rock is still shown as the one on which Captain Smith was placed by his captors, in order to be put to death, when the intercession of Pocahontas saved his life."
[Electronic Version]

Cheney, Mrs. Harriet Vaughan. A Peep at the Pilgrims in Sixteen Hundred Thirty Six: A Tale of Olden Times. Boston, 1850. 144. One of the characters in this novel contemplates visiting Virginia, which is "associated with so many pleasing and romantic recollections. The adventurous courage of Smith, the chivalrous spirit of the unfortunate Raleigh, and the devoted heroism of Pocahontas, would alone render it immortal."
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

Copway, George. The Life, Letters and Speeches of Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh or G. Copway, chief Ojibway Nation. New York, 1850. 155-56. (Ed. A LaVonne Brown Ruoff and Donald B. Smith. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1997. 160-63.) The Christian Indian speaks out: Don't give up on missionary work. The whites "have driven us from our nation, our homes, and possessions; compelled us to seek a refuge in Missouri, among strangers, and wild beasts; and will, perhaps, soon compel us to scale the Rocky Mountains; and, for aught I can tell, we may yet be driven to the Pacific Ocean, there to find our graves? My only trust is, that there is a just God. Was it to perpetrate such acts that you have been exalted above all other nations?" Will you send missionaries to Burma and let the Indians perish? "Is it not well known that the Indians have a generous and magnanimous heart." "And what have we received since in return? Is it for the deeds of a Pocahontas, a Massasoit, and a host of others, that we have been plundered and oppressed, and expelled from the hallowed graves of our ancestors?"
[Native American; Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Corbould, Edward-Henry. "Smith Rescued by Pocahontas." c. 1850. Also engraving by George Virtue and lithograph by Christian Inger. (Ann Uhry Abrams, The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999. 63, 299.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 16.) See Inger 1870 entry to view image. According to Rasmussen and Tilton, "Here, a great story is given the richest of treatments. Pocahontas saves Smith from beheading at the hand of Opechancanough, who wields a magnificent metal sword, a weapon as foreign to his civilization as are the rich costumes and the horses also offered."
[painting; engraving; lithograph]

Foote, William Henry. Sketches of Virginia, Historical and Biographical. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1850. 14-18. (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1966.) "Powhatan never loved the whitemen. He made every effort, a sagacious savage could devise, for their destruction. The influence of that admirable girl, Pocahontas, was wonderful and extensive but temporary. It is an exhibition of the power of loveliness and gentleness over barbarians. She was the beauty of her tribe, -- of Virginia; as gentle and kind as she was beautiful. Her father loved her passionately. The nation admired her. The father's love, and the nation's admiration were the Englishman's shield." "Among all the Indian women of Virginia, Pocahontas had no rival, and posterity will love to think that few if any race either either in England or America could claim to be her superior."
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

Glass, James William. "John Rolfe and Pocahontas." c. 1850. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 27.) According to Rasmussen and Tilton, "Glass no doubt conceived his painting to supplement Chapman's [1840] mural by providing an earlier, foundational event. His figures are cruder than those of Chapman but bear a noticeable resemblance to them." Glass saw more "than a teacher-student relationship in their sessions. Rolfe embraces Pocahontas, and neither's eyes are directed at the crucifix to which he gestures." For the wedding of Rolfe and Pocahontas, see Glass 1850.
[painting]
[View Images: page 27]

Goodrich, S. G. A Pictorial History of America. Hartford, 1850. 339-50. Verbally enhances the usual sources at the rescue: "Regardless of the savage hearts and barbarous manners of her countrymen, and discarding all thoughts of the dignity of her birth, [Pocahontas] rushed to her father, and pleaded for the life of the stranger. Her interposition was repelled with coolness and obstinacy by the haughty chieftain. . . . The romantic intrepdity of this savage maiden at length touched the heart of the barbarous king
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Goodrich, Samuel G. "Story of Pocahontas." A Pictorial History of the United States . . . for the Use of Schools. New York, 1850. 30-32. At least partially drawn from Bancroft. Short, but can be pretty dramatic for the kiddies: Pocahontas, hair loose, eyes wild, tears streaming, throws herself on Smith "with a shriek." And Goodrich makes it sound like Pocahontas's "eloquence" in their England meeting is what caused Smith to introduce her to the gentry. Ugh.
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Kerney, M. J. "The Settlement of Virginia." Catechism of the History of the United States. Baltimore, 1850. 15-18. (6th ed. 1882. 16-19.) History via a question and answer format. Smith is Virginia's "distinguished man," and the Pocahontas connection is the main, the only elaboration. Of Pocahontas: "Was her prayer heard?" "What happened to her on another visit to Jamestown?" "Whom did she marry?" etc. Straightforward answers.
[Electronic Version]

Lucas, Samuel. Charters of the Old English Colonies in America. London, 1850. 9. In the brief introduction to Virginia's first charter, we find: "The influence, however, of Captain Smith with the colonists, resulting from the force of his genius and character, added to the ascendency he gained over the Indians, partly through the romantic attachment of Pocahontas, enabled him to make up for the faults of his predecessor."
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas and Captain Smith." [Boston] Robert Merry's Museum 20 (July 1, 1850): 14-15. This popular children's magazine has a short sketch explicating a Croome illustration of Pocahontas pleading for Smith's life (see Frost 1843) that literally begins with "Every one knows the story of Pocahontas. . . . the heroine of the most touching episode in the history of the natives of America." Most of the text seems lifted from others, but an interesting element is "no doubt [that] most of our young readers, if they could have the ordering of events, would take care to finish this adventure" with Smith marrying Pocahontas. Burk's 1804 prophesy rings true.
[juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Sully, Robert Matthew. "Pocahontas." c. 1850. (Ann Uhry Abrams, The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999. 70.) This is the "younger" Sully, the nephew of Thomas Sully. Earlier (see 1842) he did the copy of the Turkey Island portrait that appeared in McKenney and Hall (see 1844). There appear to be three other, different portraits by Robert Matthew Sully around the same time in the early 1850s, though Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 and Abrams 1999 both seem to deal with only two, but not the same two. This is the first of the three (shown only in Abrams), an attempt to picture a "forest girl" as a complement to the "civilized" Princess. Pocahontas, Robert Matthew Sully said, should be "Crowned with wild Flowers" and wear "pearls from the ear and on the neck." (This painting is owned by the Wisconsin State Historical Society.) Though it is not clear exactly which painting he refers to, Lubbers 1994 says Sully "transforms [Pocahontas] into a Mexican temptress" (174).
[painting]
[View Images: page 70]

Sully, Robert Matthew. "Pocahontas." c. 1850. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 37.) This is the second of three different portraits by Robert Matthew Sully (the "younger" Sully, nephew of Thomas) around the same time in the early 1850s (see the above entry for the first) and, according to Abrams 1994, is a revision of the first. Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 do not show the first painting and associate Robert Matthew Sully's "forest girl" goal with this one. See 1852 for the third painting. (This painting is owned by the Virginia Historical Society.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 37]

Warren, A. C. "Captain Smith Rescued by Pocahontas." c. 1850. (Ann Uhry Abrams, The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999. 63.) Abrams mentions this image in terms of pervasive depiction of Indian nudity.
[engraving]
[View Images: page 63]

Willard, Emma. Abridged History of the United States. New York, 1850. 38-48. Big changes for Pocahontas in this version (see 1845). For instance, she is "young" now not "tender," and the other references cited in the previous entry are cut out.
[school book; illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

1851

"Anniversary Dinner of the Maryland Historical Society." [Baltimore] The Sun 12 May 1851: 1. Main speaker Sir H. L. Bulwer calls Pocahontas "noble" but not "fair," for "royal and noble as she was, she certainly was not fair" -- all such references to Pocahontas and Powhatan being met with "great merriment."

Clement, Jesse. "Humane Spirit of a Forest Maid." Noble Deeds of American Women. Buffalo, 1851. 104-7. Celebration of all "the good, and grand, and glorious deeds" of American women -- several dozen of them, in fact: Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, a Kentucky Amazon (!), Hannah Dustin, Mary Rowlandson, etc., etc. Citing Hildreth and quoting two stanzas from Sigourney, Clement tells the story of Pocahontas's several rescues. "Some of the noblest attrubutes of humanity are sometimes exhibited by the wild children of the forest. . . . She was lovely in the broadest as well as the noblest sense of that word -- lovely in features, lovely in disposition, lovely in the highest adornments of Christian grace."
[gender]
[Electronic Version]

"On a Portraicture [sic] of Pocahontas." [Richmond] Virginia Historical Register, and Literary Note Book 4.2 (April 1851): 120. (reprinted Julia Wyatt Bullard, Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907: 25.) A flattering little ditty later used as a toast at the Jamestown tricentennial: "This maiden of the Indian race / Had but a copper-colour'd face; / But heare her storie trulie tolde, / You'll say her hearte was virgin golde."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Philo. "Strachey's Account of Pocahontas." [Richmond] Virginia Historical Register, and Literary Note Book 4.1 (January 1851): 36-40. Our poor Philo is upset at reading in Strachey that Pocahontas is married to Kocoum: "Now I own I was a little startled at reading this novel piece of intelligence; for though I am not exactly a monogamist, and have no objection, of course, to a young widow's marrying again (after a reasonable time allowed for mourning) I confess I felt a little hurt to learn in this way, that my incomparable Indian maid, (as I have always thought of her) had turned out to be one who had worn weeds." And what follows is a rather torturous attempt to prove Strachey wrong. Perhaps the serious point here is how resilient the Pocahontas story is. And how strong the need to keep her "pure" for white history.
[Electronic Version]

Pierson, Emily Catharine. [Pearson? see 1855.] Jamie Parker, the Fugitive. Hartford, 1851. 49, 63, 127. In this abolitionist work, slaves escape from a Virginia plantation at which the daughters, minor characters, are named Pocahontas and Virginia, both described as helplessly dependent on their slaves.
[novel; Pocahontas-like; slavery]

"Pocahontas and Capt. John Smith." [Montgomery] Daily Alabama Journal 2 January 1851: 2. Reports that the Richmond Inquirer reports that sculptor Hiram Powers is contemplating a work on Pocahontas, whose story he does not remember "well enough" to be specific about design but he knows "the history of our country affords few subjects, so exquisitely adapted to the chisel as this."
[sculpture]

"Pocahontas. The Chieftain's Daughter." [Boston] The Youth's Companion 25.14 (July 31, 1851): 55. George P. Morris's poem (1840) with introductory sketch that has language borrowed from Thatcher (1832) in this magazine that ran for about 100 years.
[poetry; juvenile]

"Pocahontas." [New York] Home Journal 28.283 (July 12, 1851): 1. Description of the rescue from Foote 1850.

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes on the American Frontiers. Philadelphia, 1851. 138-39, 208. Schoolcraft -- renowned ethnologist and Indian agent whose wife was part Ojibwe (and whom he calls here the "northern Pocahontas") makes this realistic comment: "It should not be an object of disappointment to find that the Indians do not, in their ordinary intercourse, evince those striking traits of exalted and disinterested character which we are naturally accustomed to expect from reading books. Books are, after all, but men's holiday opinions. It requires observation on real life to be able to set a true estimate upon things. The instances in which an Indian is enabled to give proofs of a noble or heroic spirit cannot be expected to occur frequently. In all the history of the sea-board tribes there was but one Pocahontas, one Uncas, and one Philip. Whereas, every day is calling for the exercise of less splendid, but more generally useful virtues. To spare the life of a prisoner, or to relieve a friend from imminent peril, may give applause, and carry a name down to posterity. But it is the constant practice of every day virtues and duties, domestic diligence, and common sense, that renders life comfortable, and society prosperous and happy. How much of this every-day stamina the Indians possess, it would be presumptuous in me, with so short an opportunity of observation, to decide. But I am inclined to the opinion that their defect of character lies here."
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Sigourney, Mrs. L. H. "Pocahontas." The Child's Book. New York, 1851. 116-22. See 1847.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[View Images: page 116]

1852

"Albany Female Academy." Albany Journal 9 July 1852: 1. An essay on "the Life of Pocahontas" was among those found worthy of special commendation.
[juvenile]

Arthur, T. S., and W. H. Carpenter. The History of Virginia. Philadelphia, 1852. 55-66, 110-20. Fairly straightforward account following Smith or his close followers, but the rescue is embellished a bit. Pocahontas, in a "prettily fringed" robe, "musical with tinkling ornaments," "gazed eagerly upon the bearded face of the wonderful white warrior," and then "broke away from those who would have restrained her" in order to save Smith, "making her name immortal in the annals of the new world."
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

"Athenaeum Gallery." [Boston] Daily Evening Transcript 19 August 1852: 2. Ames's Pocahontas is "a striking and gorgeous picture."
[painting]

Banvard, Joseph. Romance of American History. Boston, 1852. 159-281. Long and leisurely Virginia account, amply paraphrasing and quoting from his sources. So only a few interesting touches, like including Morris's 1840 poem with the description of the rescue; like a bit of dramatic rendering of the saving of Richard Wyffin; like, baptized after her marriage, Pocahontas converted, "convinced of the sinfulness of idolatry"; and like, especially, open questioning of why Smith did not keep up some sort of correspondence with Pocahontas after leaving Virginia: "it would not have been difficult for him to have occasionally sent her some trifling present as a testimony of his remembrance of the many favors which she had conferred upon him." Lest there be bad feelings about our hero, though, "Of one thing we may be certain," Banvard claims, "and that is, that it did not arise from ingratitude." That's a relief.
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Chambers, William and Robert. "Captain John Smith, Founder of the Colony of Virginia." Chambers's Repository of Instructive and Amusing Tracts. London & Edinburgh, 1852. 1-31. Elements out of the ordinary here are that the Indians were going to eat Smith, that Pocahontas felt "ungratefully neglected at the palace," that the king and queen were finally "shamed into their duty," and that partying in London "probably destroyed her constitution, and hastened her death."
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Departure of Mr. Clay's Remains." [Baltimore] The Sun 3 July 1852:1. Clay's comic duel with John Randolph, called "the eccentric descendant of Pocahontas," is recalled.

[Hawks, Francis Lister.] Historical Tales for Youth [American Historical Tales for Youth]. New York, 1852. Same as Hawks 1842.
[juvenile; Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

Lee, Hannah Farnham Sawyer. The Huguenots in France and America. New ed. Volume 2. Boston, 1852. 95-97. Those who visit Richmond will find Pocahontas, "the heroine of her race whose line contains many "who boast of their Indian blood," one of the many "interesting recollections." It is easy for the imagination to conjure images of "the heroine with her beads, plumes, and wampum belt, with her glittering mocasins, and embroidered sandals; -- her eyes first sparkling with indignation as she beholds the English captive bound for slaughter, then melting with pity as she lays her own head on his, to meet the first blow. Is it too much to say, that it is characteristic of the best part of woman's nature?"
[Electronic Version]

Melville, Herman. Pierre or The Ambiguities. New York, 1852. 8-13. Book I, chapter III. In an opening chapter of this dark novel (did he write any other kind?) that seems to be criticizing the meaning of lineages and heritages, Melville includes this reference "to the Randolphs for example, one of whose ancestors, in King James' time, married Pocahontas the Indian Princess, and in whose blood therefore an underived aboriginal royalty was flowing over two hundred years ago."
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

Murray, M. History of the United States of America. Boston, 1852. 33-38. The rendering of early Virginia is rather slim, the rescue -- no big deal -- is minimally mentioned, and the fact of an abduction is softened considerably.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

"The North American Indians." [Boston] Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion 3.8 (August 21, 1852): 124. Curious triptych of images with explanatory text: two grim, one -- on Pocahontas -- positive. A picture of an Indian encampment sees them as "the hunters of our era," "fast disapearing" and "dying off." An image of a scalp dance calls up "one of the diabolical orgies of savage life, and a frantic scene of savage revels." Then an image of the rescue -- with nothing in the text to relate it to the other two images, as one might expect.
[illustrated]
[View Images: page 124]

P. "On Sully's Portrait of Pocahontas." Virginia Historical Register, and Literary Companion 5.6 (October 1852): 240. Appreciation on viewing Sully's painting: "'Tis Pocahontas that you see; / As lovely as she ought to be; / For Sully, by his matchless art, / Has drawn her visage from her heart." Interesting reaction, given controversy over the accuracy of her likeness within Pocahontas descendants as well as the public. But which Sully -- Thomas or Robert Matthew -- for both had paintings this year? Or might this be a response to one of the two earlier paintings by Robert Matthew (see 1850)?
[poetry; painting]
[Electronic Version]

"Poccahontas [sic]: A Story of the First English Emigrants to North America, Founded on Fact." Leisure Hour: A Family Journal of Instruction and Recreation. 1.37 (September 9, 1852): 577-82; 1.38 (September 16, 1852): 594-97; 1.39 (September 23, 1852): 610-12; 1.40 (September 30, 1852): 625-27. Serialized novel loosely based on the "real" story. Smith is 36, with a wife and family in England; Pocahontas is 17 and falls in love at first sight. Neither Smith nor Powhatan are anxious for war; the villain is a spurned lover of Pocahontas, Jukka. Pocahontas makes a night journey to warn Smith; Smith has Powhatan in custody and releases him. Smith is wounded in battle and captured, leading to the climactic act of Pocahontas. "The noble self-denial of the girl's conduct to their chief was indeed universally acknowledged; not the shadow of a doubt existed in a single breast of the purity of her motives, nor was her partiality for him ever made the subject of a ribald jest. As for the governor himself, need we say that he entertained the sincerest regard for Poccahontas. Most unfeeling, had he felt otherwise, must he have been. Twice had she saved his life, and preserved at the same time the infant colony from destruction. But a dark passage at this point rests upon his memory. It is said that he promised his Indian deliverer that she should be his wife -- a promise dictated by state policy, and made but to delude."
[novel; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 577, page 593, page 609, page 625]

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Volume 2. Philadelphia, 1852. 29. "The Virginia tribes literally sustained the colony planted at Jamestown with supplies of Indian-corn from their own fields, and one of the prominent services which Capt. John Smith mentioned in his letter to Queen Anne, in recounting the friendliness of Pocahontas, was her leading these 'conductas' of grain herself to the suffering colonists, without which they must have perished. The track of its spreading among the tribes along the Atlantic Coast is clearly traced along the shores of the Atlantic into Massachusetts and all New England, where they raised the small and nutritious variety of white and yellow flint corn, and where the 'no-ka-hik' constituted the sustaining food of their warriors."
[Electronic Version]

"Sullivan's Rambles in North and South America." Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 72.446 (December 1852): 680-92. In this review of the book by Sullivan, the author begins reviewing representations of the Indians. "We are beginning to entertain serious and painful doubts whether all the notions which we have hitherto entertained regarding the innate nobility of the Red Indian are not absolute exaggerations. We pass Pocahontas and Captain Smith. . . . She became aware, through a process of intuitive logic, that the possession of the sinewy Smith, with his radiant locks intact above his brow, would be more valuable to her than the separated radiance would be, if girt around the leggings of her uncle, 'The Grizzly Bear;' and so, with sweet woman's instinct, she struck in, and no 'brave' dared forbid the banns. What could Smith do less than take her to his hairy bosom?" By the way, the author is not keen on Indians: like some animals cannot be tamed, some races cannot be civilized.
[Electronic Version]

Sully, Robert Matthew. "Pocahontas." c. 1852. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 38.) This is the third of three different portraits by Robert Matthew Sully (the "younger" Sully, nephew of Thomas) around the same time in the early 1850s (see two entries in 1850). It is shown in Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 but not in Abrams 1999. Rasmussen and Tilton say that "Sully presents Pocahontas with a crown, and in garments of regal colors, red and green. This Pocahontas is a gentle, amiable girl who is totally a figure of fantasy. She wears the clothing of a European princess, which suggests a conception about royalty that had no counterpart in the Powhatan political system." Frankly, it is not clear to me how this painting is an evolution of the other two.
[painting]
[View Images: page 38]

Sully, Thomas. "Pocahontas." 1852. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 39.) This is the "elder" Sully, uncle of Robert Matthew Sully. Abrams 1999 calls this painting a copy of Robert Matthew Sully's painting that appeared in McKenney and Hall 1844. Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 call it "perhaps the best-known representation of the princess." They see her portrayed for the Virginia gentry at her best moment, "after her absorption into English culture but before her fateful trip to England." A person of "obvious grooming and deportment" (note the necklace and brooch), a person of "remarkable refinement and grace," she is far removed from Indianness.
[painting]
[View Images: page 39]

"The Capitol on Fire." Boston Daily Atlas 6 January 1852: 2. The Boston Museum is said to have "a sketch founded on a historical incident, entitled, 'The Death Council of the Oneidas, or The Second Pocahontas.'"
[Pocahontas-like; painting]

White, Edwin. "Pocahontas Informing John Smith of a Conspiracy of the Indians." c. 1852. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 20.) This is White's painting of the "second" rescue, Pocahontas's dark night journey through the irksome woods to warn Smith of her father's murder plot. (Cf. Chapman's "Warning" 1836.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 120]

1853

Avon. "The Indians -- Their Treatment and Destiny." Nacogdoches Chronicle [Nacogdoches, Texas] 22 February 1853: 2. Melancholy meditation over the degradation of and passing of the Indian. Some cannot understand their refusal to assimilate. But the Indian's hate is rooted in "the numerous wrongs which he has suffered at the hands of the sons of civilization." "His great quest for blood and torture, it is the result of wanton cruelty on our part." "Search the rolls of ancient and modern time and where will you find so striking an exemplification of noble, disinterested generosity as in the conduct of the beautiful Pocahontas?" Suppose the white man had "reciprocated these acts of kindness?" There is good reason to suppose as good a result as Penn got.
[Indian problem]

Baldwin, Joseph G. "Samuel Hele, Esq." The Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi: A Series of Sketches. 2d ed. New York, 1853. 301. (New York: Sagamore, 1957. 220.) In this viciously humorous story by local color humorist Baldwin, the irascible town lawyer ("he had no tenderness for the creeds of others") verbally works out on a recently imported northern schoolmistress ("The ugliest woman I ever saw"), playing to her wholehearted belief in the evils of slavery in an incredibly exaggerated way. "Pocahontas negroes" = "halfbreed stock."
[short story; slavery]
[Electronic Version]

Bancroft, George. History of the United States. 15th ed. Vol. 1. Boston, 1853. 117-58. See Bancroft 1837, 1866, and 1876. Bancroft treats the rescue the same here, but he expands the 1837 edition significantly on Rolfe and includes a description of the baptism and marriage. Rolfe is a "troubled soul" who hears a voice "daily, hourly, and as it were, in his very sleep . . . crying in his ears" that he should make Pocahontas a Christian, and Bancroft pictures her standing before a hollowed out tree trunk for a baptismal font and, memorably, "stammering" her marriage vows.
[U.S. history; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Brownell, Charles de Wolf. The Indian Races of North and South America. Boston, 1853. 151-90. In the beginning of the prose text of the Virginia section, Brownell credits Smith with the best history of Virginia, and his list of sources contains Smith and Simms's biography of Smith. Standard text with plenty of direct quotes from sources. But Brownell was a famous artist, and the book is prized for its color plates.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Captain John Smith, Founder of the Colony of Virginia." Littell's Living Age 2.484 (August 27 1853): 515-32. Same as Chambers 1852.
[Electronic Version]

"The Chieftain's Daughter." George P. Morris, Poems. New York, 1853. 54. Illustrations by Weir and Darley. See Morris below this year.
[engraving]
[View Images: page 54]

Finch, Marianne. An Englishwoman’s Experience in America. London, 1853. 291-92. (Rpt. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.) Traveler Finch describes visiting a white gentleman "whose garden encloses the spot" where Pocahontas saved Smith and notes that the Randolphs "are all very proud of their descent from this heroic Indian girl" -- this in the same chapter where she visits a slave cabin, attends a black church, witnesses a slave auction: "It is painful, and humiliating, when we think how seldom, laws and institutions are changed because they are unjust. However bad, they are generally retained; till those, most oppressed by them, become strong enough to compel their abolitIon."
[slavery]
[Electronic Version]

Hale, Sarah Josepha. "Pocahontas." Woman's Record; or, Sketches of all Distinguished Women from "The Beginning" till A. D. 1850. New York, 1853. 474-75. Pocahontas is sketch 139 of 229 in this huge compendium of female genius. "Pocahontas has been the heroine of fiction and of song; but the simple truth of her story is more interesting than any ideal description. She is another proof of the many already recorded in this work, of the intuitive moral sense of woman, and the importance of her aid in carrying forward the progress of human improvement. . . . She was like a guardian angel to the white strangers who had come to the land of the red men; by her the races were united; thus proving the unity of the human family through the spiritual nature of the woman; ever, in its highest development, seeking the good, and at 'enmity' with the evil; the preserver, the inspirer, the exemplar of the noblest virtues of humanity." But Hale's Pocahontas is not all spirituality: "the dusky maiden had no doubt learned to love the gallant soldier," thus explaining her emotional reaction at the unexpected reunion with Smith in England.
[illustrated; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Jones, A. D. The Illustrated American Biography. New York, 1853. 21-22, 33-34. Sketches of both Smith and Pocahontas, the latter a little skewed. For instance, perhaps thinking of the "Virginia Maske" episode, the sketch of Pocahontas claims that "We first hear of her on a visit of Smith to Powhatan. That chief being absent, Pocahontas did the barbarous honors on a grand scale, nearly frightening Smith and his associates out of their wits." And the sketch also seems to confuse Pocahontas's rescue of Richard Wyffin with another rescue of Smith. Pocahontas acts out of a "partiality" for Smith, a strong attachment, but whether love or reverence, it is impossible to say.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

McIntosh, John. "Powhattans." The Origin of the North American Indians. New York, 1853. 227-28. This entry about the Powhatan tribe is given over to a description of the rescue by sixteen-year-old Pocahontas.
[Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

Morris, George P. "The Chieftain's Daughter." Poems. New York, 1853. 54-56, 355-56. Illustrations by Weir and Darley. Collected version of poem first published in 1840. A gloss on the poem in the notes is a long description of the rescue from an unidentified Sketches of Virginia. See "The Chieftain's Daughter" entry this year to view image.
[illustrated; poetry; engraving]

Olliffe, Charles. Scènes américaines: dix-huit mois dans le Nouveau Monde. 2 ed. Paris, 1853. 131-33. (Painesville: Lake Erie College Press, 1964. 49-54.) A French traveller: "Tutelary star" Pocahontas, "freeing herself from the clasp of her maids of honor, ran with the speed of lightning to the place of execution and threw herself upon the body of the intended victim." Which leads to comments on physical difference with blacks: "A beautiful Indian woman (and there are many such) gives one a very good idea of what those bewitching sultanas whose charms were kept hidden in the gilded chambers of the Alhambra during the Moorish domination of Andalusia must have been like. As for Pocahontas, [she] offers more than one similarity to Peri Nourmahal, 'the light of the harem' in Lalla-Rookh." The "Negro," on the other hand, has a flattened nose, thick lips, and woolly hair.
[foreign language; slavery]
[Electronic Version]

Ramsey, J. G. M. The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century. Charleston, 1853. 144, 161. Nancy Ward -- "another Pocahontas," "the Cherokee Pocahontas" -- aiding the Americans against the British during the Revolutionary War. Cf. Haywood 1823.
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

"[Correspondence] The Indians -- Their Treatment and Destiny." [Texas] Nacogdoches Chronicle 22 February 1853: 2. Meditation on the departed glory of the Indians, the way whites treated them, and what could have been under different circumstances. "Search the rolls of ancient and modern time and where will you find so striking an exemplification of noble, disinterested generosity as in the conduct of the beautiful Pocahontas."
[Indian problem; Indian history]

[Pearson, Emily Clemens] Pocahontas. Jamie Parker, the Fugitive, or Scenes in the Old Dominion. Boston, 1853. 80-85, 146-53, 174-79, 239-48. (Pierson? -- see 1851.) Like Hillhouse 1820, "Pocahontas" is the author here, a northerner who travels to her family's Virginia plantation and exposes the evils of slavery both on blacks and whites. Tilton 1994 sees a resonance with Uncle Tom's Cabin and discusses Pearson's use of the Pocahontas name as a hook for her readers.
[novel; slavery ]
[Electronic Version]

1854

A Searcher after Truth. "Pocahontas and Other Indians." The Rappers, or, The Mysteries, Fallacies, and Absurdities of Spirit-rapping, Table-tipping, and Entrancement. New York, 1854. 92-105. The first part of this book on "Modern Spiritualism" describes a series of visits to I guess what we would call seances, at two of which Pocahontas speaks through the medium. Nothing really coherent results. At one, Pocahontas says she loved John Smith and "Pocahontas love you all -- do you much good. . . . You will accomplish what you will. You have a good heart, and God will bless you." And other such gibberish. The second time Pocahontas says "Mortals know little of the beauty of angels. Pocahontas will give you each a flower." This activity cause a "gentleman Medium" to thank her and to speak "as if he was a young Indian who had known her in youth and wandered with her through the woods for flowers. He also again made a few very pretty remarks on the emblematic language of flowers." As the male medium separates the flowers, Pocahontas says, "Thus fall away all earthly pleasures, leaving only hope." The narrator-recorder is not much impressed.
[Electronic Version]

"Another Pocahontas." (Chillicothe, OH) The Daily Scioto Gazette 5 January 1854. The Indian wife of an Indian agent is thanked for her "peerless" work as a "second Pocahontas" when she volunteers to go along on an expedition surveying for the railroad, in case there is trouble with the Indians. "I will go with you," she tells her husband, "I will do what I can to settle difficulties, and when you die, I will."
[Pocahontas-like]

Belcher, Joseph. The Religious Denominations in the United States. Philadelphia, 1854. 437-38. "With the name of [Jamestown minister Alexander] Whitaker is joined the romantic story of the first Indian convert, whom he baptized into the Church of Christ."
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Brownell, Henry Howard. "The Settlement of Virginia." The People’s Book of American History. Volume 2. Hartford, 1854. 49-77.

Crane, A. Judson. Address Delivered at the Annual Commencement of the Mississippi Female College, at Hernando, De Soto County, July 7th, 1854. Memphis, 1854. Pocahontas, ("guided as if by inspiration from on High, rather than by any teachings of moral or social culture, which had blessed and humanized her virgin youth") is the launching pad for this graduation speech at a woman's college. The rescue "fills the mind with solemn wonder at what slight circumstances Providence employs to produce the most stupendous results." "This trite incident . . . has suggested forcibly to my mind some thoughts on the influence of women on civilization." "The best barometric measure of the social condition of any people is the condition of women," and the Indians have faded because "they would not concede to woman her true position."
[gender]

Lord, John. A New History of the United States of America for the Use of Schools. Philadelphia, 1854. 40-43. Sketches events leanly and concludes with the possibility of intermarriage that never materialized: "The two races were to remain for ever distinct, and inveterately hostile."
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Lossing, Benson John. A Pictorial History of the United States: for Schools and Families. New York, 1854. 47-58. Straightforward account by this prolific writer of history books for the general public (the first of several entries in the archive), though there is an image of Pocahontas.
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Mozier, Joseph. "Pocahontas." c. 1854. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 27.) Say Rasmussen and Tilton: "In a clear attempt to follow the mid-century vogue of such American sculptors as Randolph Rogers and Erastus Dow Palmer to provide Christian America with suitable biblical figures and religious themes, Joseph Mozier carved in marble an image of a young Pocahontas in deliberation" (note the crucifix).
[sculpture]
[View Images: page 27]

Mutzelburg, Adolf. Kapitain Smith, der Adventurer. Historischer Roman. Berlin, 1854.
[foreign language]

Parker, H. F. "John Smith." Morning Stars of the New World. New York, 1854. 249-75. The "sympathies" of the ten-year-old Pocahontas "were awakened; her pulse quickened, and a glow of ardor suffused her face; suspense, fear, pity, were in her attitude. . . . The noble impulse, the daring, the artless tenderness of the young girl, struck the savage assemblage with awe and admiration. . . . They appreciated the bold temper, if not the beautiful spirit, that impelled Pocahontas to the humane deed." Her agitation at the unexpected meeting with Smith in England was perhaps caused by memories of father, companions, and home, "as well as the presence of one loved from childhood." Pocahontas "died among the pale-faces. The broad sunlight of civilization wilted the wild flower that had blossomed in the shade of the Virginian forests."
[illustrated; Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 264]

"Pocahontas." [New York] United States Magazine of Science, Art, Manufactures, Agriculture, Commerce and Trade 1.7 (November 15, 1854): 199. Short sketch of the "youthful savior," "as amiable and intelligent as she was beautiful," several times "deliverer of Smith and his band of famished men." "Pocahontas seems to have been most strongly attached to Captain Smith, but whether it was love or reverence which drew her to him it is impossible to say. From the fact that she was ready so soon to marry another, we are inclined to believe it was the latter."
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Richards, T. Addison. The Romance of American Landscape. New York, 1854. 43-48. Records conversation in which one of the participants wishes that painter John Gadsby Chapman "had taken the more dramatic story of the rescue of Smith -- an event of national interest, upon which turned the destiny of the State; while the baptism [cf. Chapman 1840], however pleasing an incident, might or might not have occurred, and either way with no particular sequence."
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Simms, William Gilmore. "Pocahontas; A Legend of Virginia." Southward Ho! A Spell of Sunshine. New York, 1854. Chapters 7-8. (New York: AMS, 1970.) A sea journey from New York to Charlestown is the literary pretext for story telling, and Simms's fourth Pocahontas work is prefaced by scorn at the mere compilers of Southern history and the claim (with Prescott as the model) that "art is just as necessary in truth as in fiction." With this license, Simms makes Smith "an object of the love of Pocahontas." By nature Pocahontas has a "Christian heart" and eschews violence, avowing no chief will win her hand with his "bloody spear." So when her father, bent on a just revenge, prepares to kill the momentarily shaken Smith, Pocahontas intervenes, and Powhatan learns pity. Her "idol," then, goes free, but she, now smitten, "dreams not, in that parting hour, / The gyves that from his limbs she tears, / Are light in weight, and frail in power, / To those that round her heart she wore."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Stephens, H. Marion. "Pocahontas." Home Scenes and Home Sounds, or, The World from My Window. Boston, 1854. 115-16. A collection of sketches and poems by Stephens, who is described as an actress-turned-writer. A poem about a woman learning she's been deceived in love, yet dying happily with visions of home: "They had chilled her pulse with a strange wild tale / of the rescued captive's death, / And the flowers of hope, in their gorgeous bloom, / Had withered away to an early tomb, / 'Neath the frost of misfortune's breath. / Alas! O, alas for the trusting heart, / When its fairy dream is o'er; / When it learns that to trust is to be deceived -- / Finds the things most false that it most believed -- / Alas! for it dreams no more!" Dying "like a lilly crushed," angels whispered of "home, sweet home," and she dies happy,
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Sully, Robert Matthew. Letters of Robert Matthew Sully to Lyman C. Draper, April and May 1854. Draper and Wisconsin State Historical Society Papers, Wisconsin State Historical Society. Rasmussen and Tilton 1994 say that Sully complained here that "all Indian association was destroyed" in the Turkey Hill portrait (See Rice and Clark 1842), and said, further, that "My effort was to preserve the likeness, contour, feature of the copy (my copy) from the preserved original," yet "change the civilized, or rather fashionable, Princess, to the beautiful forest girl, of more pleasant association -- The Guardian Angel of the Colony!" Yet again, Sully imagined "many wild scenes of romantic adventure" with the "chivalrous" Smith and "the darling Princess" Pocahontas "hand in hand." He regretted Smith's "not marrying that dear Girl!" "Then the romance would have been perfect instead of its lame & impotent conclusion. . . . That she loved him is evident!"
[painting]

Willson, Marcius. History of the United States, from the Earliest Discoveries to the Present Time. New York, 1854. 47-56. Same as Willson, History, 1847.
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

1855

Armstrong, W. C. The Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith The Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith. Hartford, 1855. (Indianapolis, 1859. 74-89, 136-58, 182-95, 212-28. A slave to his sources -- Smith, Stith, Hillard, Belknap, perhaps others. Unremarkable except for ending the Pocahontas story with Hillard's (1834) five-paragraph encomium.
[Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

Bartlett, W. H. The History of the United States of North America. Volume 1. New York, 1855-56. 39-44. Rather usual account, with liberal quoting of sources, in this beautifully illustrated volume. Englishman Bartlett, well known for his steel engravings, was considered one of the foremost illustrators of topography of his generation -- best seen in Nathaniel Parker Willis's American Scenery. Noteworthy, perhaps, is the reference to the benefit of intermarriage that never materialized: the "auspicious example" of Pocahontas and Rolfe bore no fruit.
[illustrated; U.S. history]

Bartley, James Avis. "Pocahontas." Lays of Ancient Virginia, and Other Poems. Richmond, 1855. 7-15. Pocahontas, Bartley says in his preface, "enchanted" him: "How often the Guardian Angel of the Father of Virginia in surpassing loveliness rose before my imagining eyes! Like the spirit of a dream, she glided through the foliage, verdant and shadowy." In his poem, Pocahontas saves Smith for love ("On Love's swift wings, this Indian virgin flew, / To snatch from hateful death the lovely chief, / Love drew her tears, like showers of pearly dew"), but Smith is interested only in fame ("He whom she loved to all these charms was cold, / Though well he saw her bosom's gentle fire, / Stern is the soul that worships fame or gold"), but she marries Rolfe and, dying in England without mention of Smith, she finds a better home in heaven ("Let not a sound of thoughtlessness molest / The melancholy spot of her eternal rest!"). The patriot Virginian will ever praise and ever mourn Pocahontas.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Berard, A. B. School History of the United States. Philadelphia, 1855. 77-88. Not that Argall's actions were exemplary, but Berard makes the abduction worse: "Six years had now passed away since the English first came to Jamestown, and the little Indian girl Pocahontas had grown to womanhood. The gentle virtues which had marked her as a child, adorned her character now, and rendered her doubly dear to the heart of her father. But his affection for her was to receive a severe trial at the hands of the treacherous white man. A marauding party from the colony seized Pocahontas, and in the hope of obtaining a large ransom from her father, carried her off to Jamestown."
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Bonner, John. A Child’s History of the United States. Volume 1. New York, 1855. 30-40. "Little Pocahontas" -- "a pretty little girl" -- saved Smith; "you see what a child may do." Then "I am sure you will be shocked to hear" how Argall "contrived to seize pretty Pocahontas -- now grown up," and "terrible bloodshed would have followed had it not been for a strange accident." Rolfe is the strange accident. He had a dream he ought to marry Pocahontas, "which I have no doubt was the case, as most lovers have dreams of the same kind." "As soon as she was able to speak a few broken words, she was baptized," married, taken to England, where "the nobles and the great ladies caressed her," and died "far from home." Link is to 1860 edition.
[juvenile; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Brougham, John. Po-ca-hon-tas: Or, the Gentle Savage. 1855. New York: Samuel French, n.d. (Dramas from the American Theatre, 1762-1909. Ed. Richard Moody. Cleveland: World Publishing, 1966.) (Satiric Comedies. America's Lost Plays: Vol. XXI. Ed. Walter J. Meserve and William Reardon. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1969.) Meserve and Reardon say "Brougham set out to reduce the Pocahontas legend to an absurdity and succeeded admirably." Indeed! This play is a "trip," as the 1960s folk used to say, and as zany as the Marx Brothers, for those whose knowledge or experience with popular culture goes further back. Brougham (famous actor, director, and "showman" of his day) subverts not only history but all prior representation from the very first words of his Dramatis Personae, for Smith is "in love" with Pocahontas ("My love is like a raging hot volcano, / Vesuvius in a fit of indigestion"). In a work filled with word play, puns, contemporary allusions, and general singing and dancing and prancing goofiness, Pocahontas is a ditzy student at the Tuscarora Finishing School, and Powhatan has destined dumb Dutchman Mynheer Rolff, a shoemaker, as her husband. But Smith and Pocahontas have other things in mind, "for changing the current of History / Would certainly be diverting." Powhatan is reluctant to "run counter to Virginia records" and "can't warp the truth," but Smith wins Pocahontas in a card game and promises Rolff that, though "With her, in name alone, I'll be united," future history will see him "righted" -- so there's a happy resolution for all. All is nonsense in this play which makes Pocahontas's choice of a husband a matter of women's rights. Though Pocahontas has often been represented as in love with Smith, this may be the first major representation of Smith in love with her (on this point, see P.S. 1849, the Frank Leslie's piece 1856, and Cooke 1858).
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Brueckner, Henry. "The Marriage of Pocahontas." 1855. Also engraved by John McCrae. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 28.) Rasmussen and Tilton say that this "wedding scene carries no statements about southern pride or government policy toward Indians [like Chapman's 1840 painting of the baptism] . . . . [it] has a more universal appeal and was distributed to audiences in both the North and South, as well as in Europe." For contemporary description and analysis, see the Lossing articles below this year. For another wedding picture, see Hohenstein 1867. For Rolfe and Pocahontas together, see Glass 1850.
[painting; engraving]
[View Images: page 28]

"Celebrated pacing mare Pocahontas, driven by James McMann esq: Peforming her wonderful feat of pacing a mile in the unprecedented time of 2:171/2 in her match with 'Hero' for $2000 mile heats to wagons over the union course, L.I. June 21st 1855." New York: N. Currier, 1855.
[homage; lithograph]
[Electronic Version]

Draper, Lyman Copeland. "The Picture Gallery." Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 2 (1855-56): 43-47. Contextual comments and material, including letters and statements from Pocahontas descendants, on the Wisconsin Historical Society copy of the Turkey Island portrait of Pocahontas done by Robert Matthew Sully (1850). Says that the Virginia Historical Society, which has the other copy, was the one who pushed for indianizing of the portrait.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

F. F. "Pocahontas, The Emperor's Daughter." [Boston] Forrester's Boys' and Girls' Magazine, and Fireside Companion (December 1, 1855): 176-78. This sketch begins with "Who has not heard of POCAHONTAS the Indian princess? She was a beautiful maiden, the idol of her father, Powhatan, and the good genius of the early settlers of Virginia."
[illustrated; juvenile]

Gilmer, George Rockingham. Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of Upper Georgia. New York, 1855. Find descendants of Pocahontas by leafing through this book, for instance, pages 60, 63, 144, etc.
[genealogy]
[Electronic Version]

Hemans, Felicia. "The American Forest Girl." Sanders' Young Ladies' Reader: embracing a comprehensive course of instruction in the principles of rhetorical reading: with a choice collection of exercises in reading, both in prose and poetry, for the use of the higher female seminaries, as also, the higher classes in female schools generally. Ed. Charles W. Sanders. New York, 1855. 175-78. See Hemans 1826. From Sanders' preface: "That it may, therefore, serve to aid in developing and training the powers of the voice,-- in securing the charms of a graceful and effective delivery,-- in instilling noble and elevated sentiments,-- in imparting a taste for those refined pleasures that grow out of a just appreciation of what is sublime and beautiful in thought, chaste and elegant in expression,-- that it may, in fine, prove a worthy auxiliary in that sort of intellectual discipline that makes THE TRUE LADY, is the confident expectation with thic it is submitted to those, for whose use it has been especially prepared."
[school book; gender; poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Johnson, Anna C. [pseud. Minnie Myrtle] The Iroquois, or, The Bright Side of Indian Character. New York, 1855. 29, 270. In a book that is a vigorous defense of Native Americans in comparison with whites, we find this in the section on their traits of national character: "By the Governor of Jamestown, a hand was severed from the arm of a peaceful, unoffending Indian, that he might be sent back a terror to his people, and through the magnanimity of a daughter and King of that same people, that Colony was saved from destruction. It was through their love and trust alone that Powhatan and Pocahontas lost their forest dominions." Later Johnson records speeches by educated Indians in which we find one resisting the idea that Indians are doomed by a "superior" race. "Call to mind," he says, Philip, Tecumseh, Osceola, Red Jacket, and "the story surpassing romance of Pocahontas," in whose bosom "burned purely and rationally the flame of love."
[illustrated; Indian problem; Indian history]
[Electronic Version]

Kingsley, Charles. Westward ho! or, The Voyages and Adventures of Sir Amyas Leigh, Knight, of Burrough, in the County of Devon: in the Reign of Her Most Glorious Majesty, Queen Elizabeth. Cambridge, 1855. See Miss Randolph's entry 1857. The reference by Kingsley to Pocahontas Randolph refers to doesn't seem to be here in Westward ho!, so it is as yet undiscovered.
[Electronic Version]

Lossing, Benson J. The Marriage of Pocahontas. New York, 1855. This pamphlet, say Rasmussen and Tilton 1994, was meant to accompany Brueckner's painting (see this year) of the Rolfe-Pocahontas wedding. It even contains a key to the people represented as present. Rolfe "was the personification of manly beauty in form and carriage; she of womanly modesty and lovely simplicity; and as they came and stood before the man of God, history dipped her pen in the indestructible fountain of truth, and recorded a prophecy of mighty empires in the New World."
[illustrated; painting]
[Electronic Version]

Lossing, Benson J. [New York] "The Marriage of Pocahontas." [New York] Home Journal 52.516 (December 29, 1855): 1. See the Lossing pamphlet on the Brueckner painting in the previous entry.
[painting]

Lossing, Benson John. Our Countrymen, or, Brief Memoirs of Eminent Americans. New York, 1855. 16-17. An excerpt from Byron describes "the sweet little Indian girl" and one from Simms describes her effect on her father over killing Smith in this encyclopedia-type sketch in which she lies nestled between Canonicus and John Eliot.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

M. M. "Milly Francis--The Indian Maiden." The Independent ... Devoted to the Consideration of Politics, Social and Economic Tendencies, History, Literature, and the Arts 7.365 (November 29, 1855): 382. See 1818 and 1843; now the full, full story. Soon after the American soldier was freed, Milly's father was captured and executed without mercy. So much for reciprocation for Milly's Pocahontas-like act. And Milly didn't want to marry the American soldier not only because she did her duty and would have done so for any other, but she did not want to become the wife of a people who had murdered her father in cold blood. "So the mother and daughter turned mournfully away, and sought again the solitude of the wilderness, where their names have gone out in darkness, like so many that should have been preserved in brightness, besides those whose only glory was gained by their destruction, and who have grown rich on the soil watered by their blood."
[Pocahontas-like]

Miller, Alfred Jacob. "Pocahontas and John Smith." 1855? Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Murray, Henry A. Lands of the Slave and the Free, or, Cuba, the United States, and Canada. Vol. 1. London, 1855. 387-90. (London, 1857. 217-19.) As English traveller Murray visits the Richmond area, he finds "Powhattans Tree," "a spot clothed with the deepest and most romantic interest," and which "no sacrilegious hand has yet dared to apply the axe." "Callous indeed must that man's heart be, who can gaze upon the spot where the noble Pocahontas -- reared among savages, 'mid the solemn grandeur of the forest, and beneath the broad canopy of heaven, with no Gospel light to guide and soften -- received the holy impulses of love and mercy fresh from her Maker's hands; and how gratifying to remember, that she who had thus early imbibed these sacred feelings, became soon after a convert to Christianity."
[Electronic Version]

Review of John Brougham's Po-Ca-Hon-Tas. New York Daily Times 24 December 1855: 2. The reviewer likes the play. It's an "extravaganza," that is, the idea is to take a subject, and burlesque it in a "mock-heroic style, introducing as many local hits as possible, and a variety of songs, choruses, &c., arranged to popular music." Part of the purpose is to parody the Song of Hiawatha and Indian plays in general.The play has "sense and wit, as well as sound and humor."

1856

"A Lesson from a Red Skin." Boston Investigator 2 July 1856.

Arrington, Alfred W. [Charles Summerfield] The Rangers and Regulators of the Tanaha, or, Life among the Lawless. New York, 1856. 19, 44, 48, 51, 88, 90, etc. The hero is William Bolling, "he's of the first family in old Virginny. . . . of the true grit, and no mistake, a great, great granson, or sumthen of the sort, of old Pocahontas." Bolling saves a woman twice from a fate worse than death in the first few pages, "beats the very devil with his pistol," and makes three foes ask for quarter though he uses only his fists and they have pistols. J. Frank Dobie describes the novel simply as an "East Texas bloodletting," and it seems to have some historical acclaim as the first novel to use "y'all."
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

"Bishop Meade's Reflections." The Protestant Episcopal Quarterly Review 3 (1856): 521-24, 672-79. Standard rendering prefaced by: "The History of Rolph and Pocahontas is so identified with that of Virginia and the Church of Virginia, that it deserves more than a passing notice. The account usually given of it is too often considered as an interesting and highly exaggerated romance, though founded on the fact of the first marriage of an Englishman with an Indian. From an accurate examination of all the early statements concerning the two persons, and the circumstances of their marriage, we are persuaded that there is as little of romance or exaggeration about it, as can well be."
[Electronic Version]

Carroll, Anna Ella. The Great American Battle, or, The Contest between Christianity and Political Romanism. New York, 1856. 27, 239-40. "There is an eternal hostility between the principles of Washington and the principles of Popery," Carroll says, "between the spirit of Romish priests and prelates, and that of the fathers of our Republic. . . . There were no surpliced traitors, no perfidious prelates in that great Convention which formed the eternal code of our liberties." Rousing American women to fight against Catholicism, she invokes Pocahontas: "Where is the spirit of Pocahontas, who saved Virginia by her heavenly heroism?" And in a lush description of her saving of Smith, we find that "linking her noble race with the children of God, the bosom of this American woman became the first sanctuary of American liberty."
[Electronic Version]

Duffey, John B. [New York] "Life and Adventures of John Smith." Godey's Lady's Book 52 (January-May 1856): 41-47, 149-56, 244-51, 334-40, 438-44. Admits relying chiefly on Smith's own work and even own words. Lots of direct quotes. But references Belknap and especially Hillard too, a writer to whom, he says, he is much indebted. Focus is directly on Smith in Virginia, so there is no reference to Pocahontas's abduction or trip to England.
[Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

F. "Editorial. Sketches of American History. No. 5. Pocahontas." [Boston] The Youth's Companion 29.46 (March 6, 1856): 184. "Among the Indians there have been found a few, whose noble conduct has made us regard with more charity the savage conduct of those who delighted in blood and carnage." And guess who is one of them, kiddies -- Pocahontas! "One of the noblest examples of our aboriginal tribes." F. makes Pocahontas seventeen for his audience and gives her "a heart of greater benevolence than usually inhabits an Indian breast." "While there is much that we remember in sadness in Indian character, how pleasant to think of Pocahontas."
[juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Hopkins, Samuel. The Youth of the Old Dominion. Boston, 1856. 77-91, 109-22, 142-57, 199-216, 234-50. Very interesting version. Tipping his hat to a dozen sources, Hopkins admits to admitting "fancy" but disclaims "fiction": "Any one familiar with the annals of youthful Virginia will here recognize . . . a scrupulous regard to historic truth." What this means is that he has stuck to the "facts" but at all key points created dialogue to dramatize the story. And often with a religious tinge. For instance, "the boar out of the woods would have wasted, the wild-beast would have devoured, the vine which [God] was planting. To save it -- for the life of Smith was the life of Virginia -- He interposed an unbaptized infant. By the dumb eloquence of a tearful girl, He brought to nought the counsels of princes. And now the vine filleth the land." The religion, in fact, even comes from "the little ambassadress" herself, who reminds Smith as she is negotiating for the release of prisoners that his God says to "forgive those who do wrong." Surprisingly successful retelling, though inevitably saccharine. "Her name, like a drop of dew, or a perpetual flower, on a hoary ruin, is yet fresh and refreshing on the page of history; and the memory of her unpretending life is like the memory of a heavenly vision."
[Electronic Version]

"The Indian Girl Saving Howard." [New York] United States Magazine of Science, Art, Manufactures, Agriculture, Commerce and Trade 2.9 (February 1856): 279-80. Two episodes of Pocahontas-like activity, little known probably because they involved ordinary men not epic heroes like Smith. The name of one -- Oo-na-le-tah -- should be "ranked with the brightest on history's pages, and associated with Pocahontas and others, whose deeds have proved that the finest feelings of woman's nature are sometimes found among the forest wilds, as well as in the hearts of cities."
[illustrated; Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Lossing, Benson J. "The Marriage of Pocahontas." New Hampshire Statesman 5 January 1856. See 1855.

Parker, H. F. "John Smith." Discoverers and Pioneers of America. New York, 1856. 249-74. Same as Parker 1854.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas, Saving the Life of Capt. Smith." [New York] Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper 28 June 1856: 35. Short sketch accompanying an illustration. "The subsequent marriage of the parties, their arrival and courtly reception in England, the boastful assertion of John Randolph and many of the F.F.V.'s of Virginia, that the best blood of Pocahontas flowed in their veins, is as familiar to every child as household words." Yes, marriage of Smith and Pocahontas -- could this be the first representation of that coupling? (On this point, see P.S. 1849, Brougham 1855, and Cooke 1858.) This event "forcibly shows that love overleaps all barriers and levels all distinctions."
[illustrated]

Rich, Elihu. "Pocahontas." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of Biography. American ed. Edited by Francis L. Hawkes. New York, 1856. 718. Very short and standard encyclopedia entry.
[Electronic Version]

"The Indians in American Art." The Crayon 3 (January 1856): 28. The Indian is "fast passing away" and has not "received justice in American art." "Chapman's marriage [sic, i.e. Baptism] of Pocahontas, in the Rotunda at Washington" is "the most ambitious attempt we now remember" to be considered authoritative about Indians by posterity.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

[Swan, William Draper.] First Lessons in the History of the United States. Boston, 1856. 15-24. The kids are told that Pocahontas "was, indeed, a very interesting woman -- simple, innocent, and beautiful."
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 19]

1857

Allen, William. The American Biographical Dictionary. Boston, 1857. 668-69. The entry notes as its sources Beverley, Keith, Stith.
[Electronic Version]

"Celebration at Jamestown." Richmond Daily Dispatch 11.117 (May 15, 1857). Complete coverage of the 250th anniversary events. At the ruins of the Jamestown church, the reporter remarks that "a further stretch of the fancy might bring to the mind of the observer a vision of Pocahontas, the queenly daughter of a noble king, and of the sturdy Captain John Smith, kneeling at the chancel and pledging their faith to the service of the Most High God."

Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the English Settlement at Jamestown. May 13, 1857. Washington, 1857. 7, 25, 28, 30. (Also printed in the Southern Literary Messenger this year -- see below and see link.) A report on the big doings in this special celebration, part of which took place on the steamboat Powhatan off Jamestown. Scattered references to Pocahontas in a speech ("lovely forest maiden . . . personification of romance"), a James Barron Hope poem ("Her name shall linger, nor with age grow faint; / Its simplest sound -- the image of a saint"), and in several toasts ("The forest Queen of America, who stayed the up-lifted war-club, and saved Smith and his brave companions from savage butchery. Virginia will ever cherish her memory with filial fondness and veneration").
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Eliot, Samuel. Manual Of United States History from 1492 to 1850. Boston, 1857. 112. "There are few passages in human history more indicative of native nobleness in man than those which bring before us the trustful and generous dealings of the red men with the early adventurers to their shores." For instance, against the anger of Powhatan, "there was still the maiden Pocahontas to plead for mercy and for peace." The same can't be said for "the spirit of the English."
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Hill, George Canning. Capt. John Smith: A Biography. New York, 1857. 121-56, 271-86. Hill was a journalist and editor of the Boston Daily Ledger when this book came out. The work is substantial but adds nothing substantially new in either content or style. Though the story itself "is always the same," it "never fails to touch the feelings of the listener profoundly." Link is to 1858 edition.
[juvenile; Smith biography]
[Electronic Version]

Hope, James Barron. "Poem." Southern Literary Messenger 24.6 (June 1857): 455-62. Known as Virginia's "Poet Laureate," Hope delivered this poem at the 250th anniversary celebration (see entries on the report both above and below), and this is the first of several Hope entries in the archive. In the poem Pocahontas is a "dove of mercy," "the pearl of all her tribe," "the image of a saint," who dies in England, but "her name shall linger, nor with age grow faint."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Jamestown Celebration of 1857; Including a Prayer, Oration, Poem, and Speech." Southern Literary Messenger 24.6 (June 1857): 434-66. See the entry above for Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the English Settlement at Jamestown. May 13, 1857.
[Electronic Version]

Lossing, Benson J. History of the United States for Families and Libraries. New York, 1857. 61-71. Same as 1854.
[illustrated; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 61, page 66]

Lossing, Benson John. Eminent Americans: Comprising Brief Biographies of Leading Statesmen, Patriots, Orators and Others, Men and Women, Who Have Made American History. New York, 1857. 16-17. Same as Lossing 1855.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Meade, Bishop. Old Churches, Ministers and Familes of Virginia. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1857. 62-88. A usual account. Link is to the 1872 edition.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Meek, A. B. "To a Fair Virginian." Songs and Poems of the South. 3rd ed. Mobile, 1857. 110-12. Birth-day verses the sub-title says. Does Meek know something nobody else does? "I love thee for thy beauty, thine innocence and truth, / Thy frank, confiding spirit, thy mind so bright in youth. / For though a lonely stranger, from friends and home afar, / Thy smiles have lit my pathway, like the beauty of a star! / Then long as memory liveth, I shall recall with pride, / The fond and joyous moments I've lingered by thy side; / And ever on thy birth-day, my heart and harp would twine / The roses of affection to decorate thy shrine!"
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Melville, Herman. The Confidence Man: His Masquerade. New York, 1857. 196-97. (Chapter 25) In the context of a discussion on Indian hating by the CM, this passage contains one of the most telling comments about Pocahontas ever. "Hate Indians? Why should he or anybody else hate Indians? I admire Indians. Indians I have always heard to be one of the finest of the primitive races, possessed of many heroic virtues. Some noble women, too. When I think of Pocahontas, I am ready to love Indians." When I think of Pocahontas, I am ready to love Indians!
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas in London." [Chambersburg, Pa.] German Reformed Messenger 22.22 (January 28, 1857): 3. Reprints a section from Hopkins 1856 in which Smith and Pocahontas talk at Brentford, or, perhaps, is it better to say when Pocahontas chastizes Smith.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas Saving the Life of Smith." [Boston] Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion 12.1 (January 3, 1857): 8-10, 13. Illustrated by Billings. Short sketch accompanying the "vivid picture" by Billings. "Even in civilized communities he must be a man of heroic mould who dares to plead the cause of an enemy against the united voice of his countrymen. Let us then accord full honor to the gentle Virginian maid, who, at the peril of her life, and in opposition to her father and her whole people, interposed successfully to save the life of a wounded captive of a strange race of men." Wounded? In any event, the concluding line harkens back to Burk: "Had Pocahontas wedded Captain Smith the romance of this historical episode would have been complete."
[illustrated; engraving]
[View Images: page 8, page 9]

"Pocahontas Warning Captain Smith." [Boston] The Youth's Companion 31.7 (February 12, 1857): 25. An illustration plus descriptive text of Pocahontas's second rescue of Smith, warning him of her father's murder plot after traveling alone in the dark night through the irksome woods. Interestingly, the text balances the motivation of Powhatan and Smith, each fearing the destruction of his people, and the episode ends with "both disappointed." The second of two back-to-back sketches of Pocahontas in this monthly magazine for children.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Randolph, Miss. "Pocahontas, Remonstrance of Miss Randolph, Addressed to the Author of Amyas Leigh." [Boston] Historical Magazine, and Notes and Queries Concerning the Antiquities, History, and Biography of America 1.9 (September 1857): 270-71. "A descendant of Pocahontas ventures to address" Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! or the voyages and adventures of Sir Amyas Leigh, Knight, of Burrough, in the county of Devon, in the reign of her most glorious majesty Queen Elizabeth (1855), "a remonstrance against the cruel slur" he cast against Pocahontas as "the reputed ancestress of more then one ancient Virginian family," and who "ended her days in wretchedness in some Wapping garrett." The remonstrance is actually a defense of Indian character against "Mr. Kingsley's theory respecting the virtues of the savages." The "divine influence" Pocahontas's auditors responded to "was not strangled at its birth, as it would have been in civilized life, by forms and conventionalities, and fears and calculations"; their virtues are not the imitations and shams that abound in civilized life.
[Electronic Version]

"Reviews and Book Notices." [Boston] The Historical Magazine 1.2 (February 1857): 61-62. Notes that the Second Annual Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, for the Year 1855 contains "an account of a portrait of Pocahontas, copied by [Robert Matthew] Sully, the original of which has now utterly crumbled to pieces." The 1616 original was given to Ryland Randolph by an Englishman, and it passed to Thomas Bolling. Sully made two copies, one for the Virginia Historical Society, one for the Wisconsin.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

"Scene in the Life of Pocahontas." [Boston] The Youth's Companion 31.5 (January 29, 1857): 17. The first of illustrations and sketches in two successive issues of the magazine. Pocahontas, though a "mere child," was "beautiful in person, even to a European eye; graceful in all her movements; gifted with a ready intelligence and tact, which made her a pleasant companion for the colonists, and enabled her afterwards to mingle in good society in England." She was, however, "badly treated by the whites in return for her strong friendship." To wit: "Captain Smith, whom she loved and saved from death, did not return her love." So far, so good, not so far from usual representations. But then the kids are told "she was not very happy in her married life" and was "carried" to England by Rolfe. Moreover, the scene in the illustration is a complete novelty, purporting to record a peaceful meeting between Powhatan and Smith (Smith waves a tree branch as a sign of peace) before the rescue, in which Pocahontas provides him with "a refreshing draught made by her own hand," from which time she "cherished an unfortunate love for the kind Englishman, never destined to be returned."
[illustrated; juvenile]

Windle, Mary J. "Pocahontas: A Legend of Virginia." Life at the White Sulphur Springs; or, Pictures of a Pleasant Summer. Philadelphia, 1857. 229-75. Smith and Rolfe are the leaders of the English expedition. Pocahontas volunteers to Rolfe to be a hostage so that the English can obtain food, and, "gentle and timid on ordinary occasions" but "intrepid in the cause of humanity," she rescues Smith. But Windle's contributions to widening the range of Pocahontas representation include detailed scenes of Powhatan giving Pocahontas away at her marriage to Rolfe (Smith has little prominence in the story at all), her baptism in England, and her death in Jamestown, before which she enjoins her father to read the Bible with Rolfe. Hand in hand, in fact, Powhatan and Rolfe mourn at her death. And then there is the powerful ending: "It seemd as if a peculiar blessing was attached to [Pocahontas's] love, her voice, her glance, her smile. Wherever they fell, flowers as to the soft rain of spring, were destined to shoot up." And to her influence is to be "attributed, perhaps, the number of Virginians distinguished by the vigor of their judgment, the soundness of their views, the steadiness of their principles, the force of their eloquence, the loftiness of their conceptions, the purity of their lives, the warmth, and truth, and strength of their patriotism; of such were Washington, Randolph, Jefferson, Clay, Marshall, and a host of other immortal names. May these not have been formed, humanly speaking, by the gentle, undying influence of their quiet, retiring, simply educated ancestors, who were the descendants of Pocahontas?"
[short story]
[Electronic Version]

1858

Balmanno, Mrs. [Mary] "Pocahontas." In Mary Cowden Clarke. World-Noted Women; or, Types of Womanly Attributes of All Lands and Ages. New York, 1858. 283-308. Engravings by Charles Staal. Also contains two poems: "Song of Pocahontas" ["Come to the forest, warrior fair"] and "Dirge of Pocahontas" ["The graceful Mondamin lies shatter'd and broken"]. See Staal entry this year to view image. Clarke, daughter of a famous musician -- and who as a child knew Keats, Shelley, the Lambs, Leigh Hunt, and other prominent artists -- is now best remembered for her work on the Shakespeare concordance. This beautifully appointed collection (similar to other works on model women in the archive by Hays, Knapp, Child, Sarah Hale, Frank Goodrich, S. W. Williams, etc.) places Pocahontas in the company of Joan of Arc, Lady Jane Grey, Margaret of Anjou, Cleopatra, and many, many others. In her introduction (4), Clarke mentions that the Pocahontas essay was done by Mrs. Balmanno of New York. "The heart of every woman is a romance," begins Balmanno, "and its master-chord is Love. Of all the passions, it is that which exercises the strongest controul over female character. . . . Its purity and ennobling strength are beautifully exemplified in the history of the Indian Princess Pocahontas, in whose guileless and untutored heart a passion for one of the most chivalrous adventurers of America's early history, has rendered her the heroine of one of the most simple and touching stories of its golden time." "Bred in the seclusion of the forest," Pocahontas "must have turned as naturally to the commanding and chivalrous soldier as the lowly marigold to the sun." Humorous is Balmanno's description of Pocahontas from the van de Passe portrait as "bearing the same resemblance to her former self as does the airy blue-bell when pressed, dried, and pasted down in a lady's album, to its wild sisters, nodding gaily in the sunshine between the fern and fox-glove."
[illustrated; poetry; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Balmanno, Mrs. [Mary] "Dirge of Pocahontas" ["The graceful Mondamin lies shatter'd and broken"]. In Mary Cowden Clarke. World-Noted Women; or, Types of Womanly Attributes of All Lands and Ages. New York, 1858. 305. This short, sad poem closes Balmanno's account of "the lovely and benign Pocahontas," "whose whole life was a pure and refreshing stream of love and goodness," perishing "in the bloom of life": "In the land of the stranger, her grave the sole token, / The Flower of Windagua is withered away."
[poetry; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Balmanno, Mrs. [Mary] "Song of Pocahontas" ["Come to the forest, warrior fair"]. In Mary Cowden Clarke. World-Noted Women; or, Types of Womanly Attributes of All Lands and Ages. New York, 1858. 294-95. Balmanno, in distancing her a bit from the Virginia Maske episode, imagines this as the kind of "simple ditty" that Pocahontas might have sung.
[poetry; gender]
[Electronic Version]

Belater-Adime. "The Indian Princess Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 2nd series, 6.146 (October 16, 1858): 316. Directs Mrs. Rogers below to Gravesend for information.
[Electronic Version]

J. E. C. [John Esten Cooke]. "Wandering on the Banks of the York." Southern Literary Messenger 26.6 (June 1858): 457-65. This series of dream-like sketches is the first of several entries in the archive by Cooke, one of Virginia's most important writers in the second half of the century. And the one on Pocahontas (Matoax here) is a doozy, showing a compelling fantasy image of her. "Behold again the maiden as she lived and loved," conjures Cooke, "semi-nude, but chaste as a statue of modesty, which, clothed in its own purity thinks not of prying eyes -- slight, slender, graceful -- as straight as an arrow -- and in every moment as supple and undulating, as a young willow swaying to and fro in the breezes of spring." In short -- and here's where it really gets good -- she is not "fat"! That is, like some have painted her. And the court picture will not pass muster for fantasy purposes either: "We do not want Mrs. Rolfe of England, we want Pocahontas of Virginia. Let us not have a matron in ruffles, and farthingales, and a hideous masculine hat, about as appropriate on the damsel as a sunbonnet would be on the head of the Medicean Venus. . . . Let us see . . . the warm glowing cheeks of our warm slender little fawn of the forest . . . her figure half-nude, and draped with the plumage of gay colored birds. . . . Such was Pocahontas -- not a heavily formed woman at all: a fairy of the old romances!" And, though this element has not yet really become a substantial part of the Pocahontas lore (see P.S. 1849, Brougham 1855, and the Frank Leslie's piece 1856), "Captain Smith loved her always" -- well, and no wonder. Revealing essay, I think, in regard to the hold a specific "version" of Pocahontas had on the southern imagination.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

"A Monument at Jamestown to Captain John Smith." Southern Literary Messenger 27.2 (August 1858): 112-15. "Virginia surely owes a column or statue to a man who protected her infancy with such singleness of heart and consummate ability." A real knight errant, the Columbus of Virginia, the model of a true Virginia gentleman, his "magic charm" worked almost instantaneously on Pocahontas.
[Electronic Version]

Palfrey, John Gorham. History of New England. Vol. 1. Boston, 1858. 85-97. Perhaps the beginning of the 19th century debunking of Smith as historian. A footnote casts doubt on the veracity of Smith's account of his early life and thus foreshadows the controversy over the Pocahontas episode that Charles Deane and Henry Adams (on Palfrey's influence, see Adams 1861) will soon ignite. "So long a journey within the time specified cannot be called impossible. But it argues marvelous despatch. . . . On the whole, the reader perhaps inclines to the opinion that John Smith was not the sole author of his books, but that they passed, for embellishment, at least, through the hands of some craftsman, who was not perfectly possessed either of Smith's own story, or of the geography or public history to which it related." Other main contestants in the debunking controversy are William Wirt Henry, Edward D. Neill, and Alexander Brown.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

"'Pocahontas Stock' -- Value of the Blood in a Court of Law." [San Francisco] Daily Evening Bulletin 10 May 1858: 1. The testimony of a key witness in a murder case was objected to on the grounds that he had negro blood. He testified that his "mother was a full blood Pocahontas Indian" -- what is called "Pocahontas stock" -- and he was deemed competent to testify.
[slavery]

Rogers, Mrs. H. S. "The Indian Princess Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 2nd series, 6.144 (October 2, 1858): 267. Asks where Pocahontas is buried.
[Electronic Version]

Spencer, J. A. History of the United States. Vol. 1. New York, 1858. 32-43. Standard account.
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

Staal, Charles. "Pocahontas." World-Noted Women; or, Types of Womanly Attributes of All Lands and Ages. Ed. Mary Cowden Clarke. New York, 1858. 283.
[engraving]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: engraving]

Straubenmüller, Johann. Pocahontas, oder, Die Gründung von Virginien. Poetische Erzählung. Baltimore: W. R. Schmidt, 1858.
[poetry; foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Thackeray, William Makepeace. ""From Pocahontas." ("Pocahontas" chapter: chapter number varies depending on number of volumes in edition.) The Virginians: A Tale of the Last Century. London, 1858-59. The narrator's wife consoles him after the play flops, playing Pocahontas: "Why seek, my love, your wounds to hide? / Or deem your English girl afraid / To emulate the Indian maid?"
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Thackeray, William Makepeace. "Pocahontas." ("Pocahontas" chapter: chapter number varies depending on number of volumes in edition.) The Virginians: A Tale of the Last Century. London, 1858-59. (Ballads. London, 1880. 102-4.) (My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Ed. Burton Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 18-19.) The ballad used as "ground-bait" for the narrator's play: "Who will shield the captive knight? . . . . Who will shield the fearless heart? . . . . See there springs an Indian maid. . . . 'Loose the chain, unbind the ring! / I am daughter of the king, / And I claim the Indian right!'"
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Thackeray, William Makepeace. Chapter: "Pocahontas." (Chapter number varies depending on number of volumes in edition.) The Virginians: A Tale of the Last Century. London, 1858-59. Also contains poems "Pocahontas" and "From Pocahontas." The narrator writes a flop of a play (a "tragedy") described thusly: "An Indian king; a loving princess, and her attendant, in love with the British captain's servant; a traitor in the English fort; a brave Indian warrior, himself entertaining an unhappy passion for Pocahontas; a medicine-man and priest of the Indians (very well played by Palmer), capable of every treason, stratagem, and crime, and bent upon the torture and death of the English prisoner; -- these, with the accidents of the wilderness, the war dances and cries (which Gumbo had learned to mimic very accurately from the red people at home), and the arrival of the English fleet, with allusions to the late glorious victories in Canada, and the determination of the Britons ever to rule and conquer in America . . . ."
[illustrated; poetry; novel]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 843]

"The Monuments of Lost Races." The Protestant Episcopal Quarterly Review 4 (October 1858): 451.
[Electronic Version]

1859

"A Noble Virginia Woman." [Boston] The Liberator 11 November 1859: 179. "Let Virginia no more boast of her Pocahontas, or at least let her admit to an equal honor the name of Miss Fluke, who so nobly interposed in behalf of the prisoner Thompson, who was so brutally murdered by the slave holders of Harper's Ferry."
[Pocahontas-like; slavery]

An American Lady. "The Grave of Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 2nd series, 7.163 (Feb 12, 1859): 131. Brief note looking for information about Pocahontas, who threw "herself upon [Smith's] body just as the tomahawk was raised to behead him": "I have learned that she was buried at Gravesend, but can obtain no information respecting the precise spot. Can you inform me?
[Electronic Version]

Brumidi, Constantino. "Captain Smith and Pocahontas." 1859-1888. (Vivien Green Fryd, Art and Empire: The Politics of Ethnicity in the United States Capitol, 1815-1860. Athens: Ohio UP, 2001. 146.) As one source says, "Constantino Brumidi painted scores of frescoes in the United States Capitol. . . . One cannot tour the United States Capitol without being inundated with the work of Brumidi."
[sculpture]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 146]

The Chief's Daughter; or, The Settlers in Virginia. London, 1859. Despite the title and the provocative opening image, Pocahontas does not play much of a role in this anonymous novel, which is rather loosely based on the historical record, and, though Pocahontas is drawn to Smith and does rescue him, there is not even much of a relationship. Chaplain Hunt is pretty much the central character, and he is interested in converting Pocahontas. When she comes to Jamestown willingly as a hostage in peace negotiations, he teaches her, and she returns to her people with the hope that she has "enough of the spirit of Christianity to be a blessing to her people" and to be "ever afterwards . . . on the side of peace." There is no baptism, Rolfe, marriage, England visit -- the story ends with Hunt's death and Smith's return home.
[illustrated; novel]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece]

Cooke, John Esten. Henry St. John, Gentleman, of "Flower of Hundreds" in the County of Prince George, Virginia: A Tale of 1774-’75. New York, 1859. 117-18, 124. Cooke's second Pocahontas entry in the archive. Central character Henry, descendant of Pocahontas, visits Jamestown on a pleasant excursion with loved one Bonnybel: "Few spots on earth possess the interest of Jamestown island. It was here that the New World was born and cradled, in storm and blood." And here lives the memory of Pocahontas, "the impersonation of the highest, truest womanhood, of love, pity, a devotion which counted life as nothing if she might save from death a poor, unknown, disarmed captive! The monumental pride of kings in hard marble or the stubborn bronze will go to decay, lapse back to earth, and they and their actions be forgotten. But the story of Pocahontas shall be known and remembered by a mighty host of unborn millions, who will love and honor her." Bonnybel is pensive: "We lead but poor, cold lives compared with her . . . we are nothing but butterflies. . . . [picking a flower] As this bud to the artificial flower of the dressmaker, so does Pocahontas compare with us."
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

"Editor's Table." Southern Literary Messenger 28.5 (May 1859): 395-96. On a trip of august personages to visit the ruins of Jamestown, a trip that elicits a call to memorialize the spot, the steamer Pocahontas passes, "as if by a happy coincidence to call up the image of the tender Indian maiden amid the scenes of her girlish life."
[Electronic Version]

G. A. C. "Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 2nd series, 7.171 (Apr 9, 1859): 307. Responding to the query from the American Lady above, G.A.C. provides different information: "Her portrait remains" with her "numerous family" in Norfolk, descendant from the marriage of Anne Rolfe and Peter Elwyn.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Grattan, Thomas Colley. Civilized America. 2nd ed. Volume 2. London, 1859. 132. Colley served as British consul at Boston for a number of years, and this book has been described as "an important contemporary record combining contempt for U.S. social standards with praise for the country's independence, order, and energy." This section on Indians is pretty nasty. There is no national interest in the Indians, though they "are gradually fading from the earth, dissolving like shadows in a distant obscurity." It is evident "that they are truly an inferior race" and inspire a "sort of compassionate curiosity in the observer, whose only wish is that they may quietly become extinct, and escape the fate of a violent extermination." The discovery of the New World exaggerated everything: "Pocahontas on the one hand, and King Philip on the other, were magnified into miracles of sentiment and courage." But these were imaginary attributes. "A degraded independence, sloth, dirt, and licentiousness form the sum total of their characteristics." "It would, perhaps, have been better for the Indian tribes had the white men made slaves of them." At least there would have been care to encourage propagation.
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Hay, G. J. "The Grave of Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 2nd series, 7.176 (May 14, 1859): 403. Answers the American Lady above.
[Electronic Version]

J. C. W. "Pocahontas." [Louisville] Christian Observer 38.9 (March 3, 1859): 36. The headnote indicates that the poem will not be "in vain" if it may "awaken genuine sympathy in other hearts in behalf of our red-faced brethren." "And she, of all the wild and free, / Came with a tender grace. / Jesus! to bow the tender knee to thee -- / First Christian of her race: / A noble heart was all her own -- / The god-like and the true! / When 'neath the forest shadows lone / A lovely child she grew."
[poetry; Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

"Levee, at the Town Hall in Amherst." [Amherst NH] Farmer's Cabinet 16 February 1859: 3. One of the sixteen events on the program to raise money for charity by the Ladies of Amherst is a tableau of Pocahontas and Capt. Smith.

Morgan, Henry. "Broken Hearted." Music Hall Discourses, Miscellaneous Sketches, Ministerial Notes, and Prison Incidents. Boston, 1859. 241. Morgan, sometime itinerant minister but later organizer of the Boston union mission and chaplain of the state senate, tells the sad story of a man saved by an Indian girl, precipitating "years of rapturous delight" living free with her in nature. But a visit home presents the color-barrier problem: "Can he leave that pure, transparent face of love, never veiled from the sun's warm kisses, that has lit up his soul with feelings divine? In heart she is an angel, but in color and name she is an Indian. This must forever bar her from the whites, though the children of Pocahontas be the first of Virginia blood." He doesn't take her with him. However, the "dull, dead drudgery of civilization" is "intolerable," and he returns only to find that his love-sick Indian lover has committed suicide. He then loses touch with reality, wastes away, and dies.
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

Quackenbos, G. P. Illustrated School History of the United States. New York, 1859. 66-76. Lean, factual account by an author of many textbooks -- serviceable but not remarkable.
[illustrated; school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

"Scenes in Washington Territory." [San Francisco] Daily Evening Bulletin 21 October 1859: 3. "The Pocahontases of this territory, by the way, are giving evidence of doing as much in their humble way of populating the Territory, as did the celebrated daughter of the great Powhattan, and there is no reason to doubt that their descendants may become as talented as some of those who, tracing back their pedigree to Indian stock, have become illustrious in the annals of the Old Dominion."

"The Shooting of Thompson." [Jamestown NY] Jamestown Journal 18 November 1859: 1. Elaboration of the Harper's Ferry story in the Liberator on November 11 entitled "A Noble Virginia Woman." The woman -- now called Miss Foulke -- "protected [Thompson's] head with her body, as much in the spirit of heroism as when Pocahontas defended Capt Smith." But they pushed her aside, slung Thompson outside, and shot him.
[Pocahontas-like; slavery]

"The Truth of History." [Columbus] Daily Ohio Statesman 1 May 1859: 2. Corrects another newspaper account that Smith married Pocahontas, and then goes on: "Now we are ready to admit that if Pocahontas had married Capt Smith, it would have been eminently in harmony with the poetical requisitions of the case, and made a proper close to the drama in which her saving his life was a leading incident. It may have been very improper in Pocahontas not to have married him. But the stubborn fact is that she did not marry him, and probably never thought of him for a moment as a lover or a husband."

1860

Campbell, Charles. History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia. Philadelphia, 1860. 30-84, 112-23. (Spartanburg: The Reprint Company, 1965.) This is not an exact reprinting of Campbell's 1847 work, but I cannot see that the sections on Pocahontas are materially any different, though there is the interesting new claim that "the sculptor's art ought to present a fitting memorial of [Smith] and of Pocahontas, in the metropolis of Virginia."
[Virginia history]
[Electronic Version]

"Dramatic." [New Orleans] Daily Delta 11 April 1860: 1. Brougham's Pocahontas play "went off with eclat last night to a large and brilliant house." But the reviewer was bothered by the "unseemly antics" and vulgarizations of the actress playing Pocahontas: "We can see no necessity for making Pocahontas funny by giving the simple Indian the manners of the nymphs who grace sailors' dancing saloons on Gallitin street."
[play]

"Fine Arts -- The Bashful Girl." New York Herald 20 October 1860: 3. Reports that sculptor David Richards "contemplates, should his patronage justify it, commencing a life size statue of Pocahontas, of whom nothing of the kind deserving the name has yet appeared, whereas no character involves more of the ideality of romance."
[sculpture]

"Guard of the Daughters of Powhatan." 1860. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 40.) The insignia [Flag] of a militia unit that became a Confederate army unit. Rasmussen and Tilton note that the figure is derived from Thomas Sully, and that "the soldiers who followed this image would be inspired to display the courage that had been exhibited by Pocahontas during a potentially life-threatening crisis."
[artifact]

Howitt, Mary Botham. A Popular History of the United States of America. Volume 1. New York, 1860. 46-63. Strays from the time-honored program by having Smith make hatchets and string beads for Pocahontas before she obeyed "an impulse of mercy" at the execution event and by failing to mention any tension in their re-union in England. Where she did well, though, for "the daughter of the wilderness possessed the mild elements of female loveliness, rendered still more beautiful by the child-like simplicity with which her education in the savannahs of the New World had invested her."
[illustrated; U.S. history]

Lossing, Benson John. The Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution. Volume 2. New York, 1860. 239-56. Much of the Pocahontas part of the story is relegated to footnotes, but the text is adorned with quotes from Simms's "Pocahontas; A Legend of Virginia" and contains this description of Pocahontas at the moment of truth: "Her heart beat quick with sympathy the moment she saw the manly form of Smith, and in her young bosom glowed intense desire to save his life."
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Old Dominion Society of the City of New York. First Celebration of the Anniversary of the Settlement at Jamestown, Va., on the 13th of May, 1607. Hon. George W. Summers, Orator. New York, 1860. 15-17. "The colony," says Summers (Virginia congressman and jurist) toward the beginning of his oration on this patriotic occasion, "was only preserved by the patience, courage, and good sense of Smith," who was rescued by Pocahontas, "the young and beautiful daughter of Powhattan," a "gentle maiden" who "seems to have been a guardian angel to the colony." "The story of this Indian princess . . . constitute[s] a romantic episode in the history of Virginia." But Summers wastes no "mawkish sentimentalism" on the Indians as a whole. They are a "barbaric people," subject to God's "great law of periodic succession and subordination," who have fulfilled their purpose as a link from lower forms of life: "nor is there more reason to invoke our sympathy in their fate than with the Hittite and the Amorite, who fell before the conquering march of Joshua."
[Indian problem]
[Electronic Version]

Phillips, Wendell. "On the Puritan Principle." Echoes of Harpers Ferry. Ed. James Redpath. Boston, 1860. 111-12. (New York: Arno, 1969.) This collection of essays (containing Thoreau's famous "Plea") by vigorous abolitionist Redpath marking the rebellious, "traitorous" actions of John Brown, "an heroic old man, who dared to defy the Slave Power in its oldest stronghold," hoped "to fan holy flame" that would burn up "every vestige of the crime of American Slavery." Look how "barbarous" the slave system is, says Phillips -- a southern girl tries to save a northern boy "from the Christian rifles of Virginia," but is torn off, and the boy killed. "That is the Christian Virginia of 1859. In 1608, an Indian girl flung herself before her father's tomahawk on the bosom of an English gentleman, and the Indian refrained from touching the traveller whom his daughter's affection protected. Pocahontas lives today, the ideal beauty of Virginia, and her proudest names strive to trace their lineage to the brave Indian girl. That was Pagan Virginia two centuries and a half ago. What has dragged her down from Pocahontas in 1608 to John Brown in 1859, when humanity is disgraceful and despotism treads it out under its iron heel?"
[slavery]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas Fan." c. 1860. (Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994. 167. This fan depicts incidents in Pocahontas's life but not the rescue, the veracity of which was just coming under attack.
[artifact]

"Pocahontas." [Broadside] c. 1860. New York: H. De Marsan. A beautiful rendition of George P. Morris's 1840 "The Chieftain's Daughter."
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Powhatan Brand." New York: Lith. of Sarony, Major & Knapp, 1860. (tobacco package label)
[lithograph; artifact]
[Electronic Version]

Review of Charles Campbell, History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia. Southern Literary Messenger 30.3 (March 1860): 209-20, esp. 210. "Throughout the narrative Pocahontas appears in all her grace and sweetness and purity -- a being so beautiful and so pure, that, if she had appeared in the pages of Herodotus, or even in those of Livy, we might have deemed her the twin sister of Egeria, the counsellor of Numa, or the creation of genius in its finest aspirations. We wish our author had stated that her descendants still survive, and are to be numbered by thousands, and that some of our people, most distinguished for the graces of eloquence, for personal beauty, and for intrinsic moral worth, are proud that her blood courses in their veins."
[Electronic Version]

Robertson, Wyndham. "The Marriage of Pocahontas. Notes of the Date of Pocahontas' Marriage, and Some Other Incidents of Her Life." [Richmond] Virginia Historical Reporter 2.1 (1860): 65-87. See entry below.
[Electronic Version]

Robertson, Wyndham. "The Marriage of Pocahontas." Southern Literary Messenger 31.2 (August 1860): 81-91. Robertson, governor of Virginia and descendant of Pocahontas, is an early major figure in her genealogy research. This, however, is a paper read before the Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society in which Robertson, with exhaustive and exhausting detail, fixes the date of Pocahontas's marriage and addresses the statement made by Strachey that Pocahontas was married to Kocoum. Then, however, Robertson asks "leave to insert a few observations on the doubt" about the rescue recently brought forward (Palfrey 1858, Wingfield/Deane 1860). He meets the debunkers with a six-point argument, then, climactically, confronts the question of why Smith didn't disclose the rescue earlier, admittedly "a question easier asked than answered." The answer, though, may be to avoid exactly the kind of suspicion of gaining power through an alliance with Pocahontas that King James was in a snit with Rolfe about.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Robertson, Wyndham. "The Marriage of Pocahontas: Notes of the Date of Pocahontas' Marriage, and Some Other Incidents of Her Life." [Boston] Historical Magazine 4.10 (October 1860): 289-96. Same as entry above.
[Electronic Version]

Stephens, Ann S. Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter. 1860. Ed. Frank P. O'Brien. New York: John Day, 1929. The very first of the famous Beadle "dime novel" series deals with the intermarriage of white and red that is at the core of Pocahontas representations. A story of a "life permeated by heroic self sacrifice and unrequited mother love."
[Pocahontas-like]
[Electronic Version]

The city of Pocahontas, Virginia, founded in the 1860s. See 1882 for link to the famous coal mine.
[homage]
[Electronic Version]

Wingfield, Edward Maria. "A Discourse of Virginia." 1608. Ed. Charles Deane. Archaeologica Americana: Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society 4 (1860): 67-103; esp. ft. nt. 8, 92-95. The door for debunking of Smith as historian is now open. This account by the first president of the Virginia council, here first printed, mentions Smith's captivity and freedom but not the Pocahontas rescue episode -- another piece of evidence for those who question Smith's veracity (see Palfrey 1858, an account Deane was aware of). Deane, a rather prolific editor of early American texts, for instance, determines the rescue an "embellishment" that never happened: "No one can doubt that the earlier narrative [Smith's 1608 True Relation] contains the truer statement" and that the Pocahontas rescue "is one of the few or many embellishments with which Smith, with his strong love of the marvellous, was disposed to garnish the stories of his early adventures." The temptation to bring Pocahontas "on the stage as a heroine in a new character in connection with Smith, always the hero of his chronicles . . . appears to have been too great for him to withstand." "This marvellous story finds no proper place in any other adventure; and the introduction of it into" the Generall Historie "is equivalent to setting aside the whole of the earlier account." "Without designing to impeach the general trustworthiness of Smith's original narrations. . . it must be admitted that the tendency to exaggeration and over-statement in his later publications is evident."
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

1861

Abbott, Jacob. American History. Volume 3. New York, 1861. 185-217.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Adams, Henry. Letters to John Gorham Palfrey, 1861-1862. J. C. Levenson, et al., eds., The Letters of Henry Adams. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 1982. 258-59, 279-81, 287. The birth of the most famous Smith debunking. Letters of Oct. 23, 1861, Feb. 12 and March 20, 1862, to Palfrey (see 1858) show Adams trying to pick up on Palfrey's intuition of "historic doubts" about the Pocahontas rescue. Adams is skeptical about a "sentimental attachment" to Smith: "Perhaps it was some wild-Indian semi-lunacy that drove her to it, for I confess I am very skeptical about any pure philanthropy in an Indian child that would drive her through a forest in mid-winter many miles in order to betray her father." "Unless someone else proves luckier than I, we must yield that the chances are in favor of Smith's turning out as powerful a liar as he was seaman. I fully expect that the ghost of John Randolf [Randolph] will haunt you and Mr. Deane [see 1860] and me for this impiety, but it wasn't my fault." "I hardly know whether I ought not to be ashamed of myself for devoting myself to a literary toy like this. . . . perhaps the thing is excusable, especially as it is in some sort a flank, or rather a rear attack, on the Virginia aristocracy. . . . if it weren't for you and Mr. Deane behind me, I hardly think I should dare to attack an article of American religious creed, so vital as this." The ultimate result is Adams' 1867 North American Review article that starts a controversy over the truthfulness of Pocahontas's famous rescue that lasted nearly half a century.
[debunking]

"Benefit of the Soldiers." Macon Daily Telegraph 7 October 1861: 1. Pocahontas rescuing John Smith is one of the tableau vivants in this Confederate Army benefit -- the two parts of the show "to be interspersed with [15 minutes of] laughter"!
[U.S. history; slavery]

The Boys' Book of Indian Battles and Adventures. New York, 1861. 99-102.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Chappel, Alonzo. "Pocahontas Saving the Life of Capt. John Smith." 1861. (J. A. Spencer, History of the United States. New York, 1866.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 16.)
[engraving]
[View Images: engraving]

Cooke, John Esten. "A Dream of the Cavaliers." Harper's New Monthly Magazine 21 (January 1861): 252-54.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Deane, Charles. Letter to John Gorham Palfrey. Henry Adams and His Friends. Ed. Harold Dean Cater. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1947. 11-12. Palfrey had passed on to Deane Adams' letter of October 23, 1861, and Deane replies here on November 17, 1861. Deane, perceiving that Adams is "not yet possessed of all the facts," corrects him in a few matters and is "very glad" that Adams is interested in the matter.
[debunking]

Ferland, Jean Baptiste Antoine. Cours d’histoire du Canada. Volume 1. Québec, 1861. 75-77.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Owen, Mrs. Octavius Freire [Emily]. "Pocahontas." The Heroines of Domestic Life. London, 1861. 137-51.
[Electronic Version]

Quackenbos, G. P. "Captain John Smith." Primary History of the United States. New York, 1861. 31-37.
[illustrated; school book]
[View Images: page 33]

Reid, James. "Natoaca [sic], Princess of Virginia." Notes and Queries 2nd series, 12 (November 2, 1861): 348.
[Electronic Version]

Sigourney, Mrs. L. H. "Seceding Virginia." Littell's Living Age (December 21, 1861): 530.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Workard, Job J. Bardwell. "Natoaca [sic], Princess of Virginia." Notes and Queries 2nd series, 12.307 (November 16, 1861): 406.
[Electronic Version]

1862

Bogart, W. S. "Pocahontas: or, The Lady Rebecca." Southern Literary Messenger 34.12 (November & December 1862): 641-47.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Brownell, Henry Howard. North and South America Illustrated: From Its First Discovery to the Present Administration. Volume 2. Hartford, 1862. 51-80.
[illustrated]

Daniel, Louis. La guerre aux États-Unis. Paris, 1862. 92-100.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

F. C. B. "Natoaca" [sic]. Notes and Queries 3rd series, 1.7 (February 15, 1862): 135-36.
[Electronic Version]

Gilmore, James R. [Edmund Kirke] Among the Pines, or, South in Secession-Time. New York, 1862. 123.
[Electronic Version]

Knight, Charles. A History of England. Volume 3. London, 1862. 344-45.

Martin, Joseph. H. Smith and Pocahontas. A Poem. Richmond, 1862.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Morris, George P. "The Chieftain's Daughter." Sanders' High School Reader: Embracing a Comprehensive Course of Instruction in the Principles of Rhetorical Reading: with a Choice Collection of Exercises in Reading, both in Prose and Poetry, for the Use of the Higher Classes in Schools of Every Grade. Ed. Charles W. Sanders. New York, 1862. 407-8.
[poetry; school book]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas and John Smith." New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette 15 October 1862: 4. The writer is grumpy over the the lack of true romance in their story: "one feels very ill natured at Rolfe and company for the cruel deception which [telling Pocahontas Smith was dead], we must believe, was all that kept them asunder, and gave the story of the lovely maiden its almost tragic close."

"Smith's Rescue by Pocahontas." Southern Literary Messenger 34.12 (November & December 1862): 626-31.
[Electronic Version]

"Something about Pocahontas." Ballou's Dollar Monthly Magazine 16.3 (September 1862): 209-10.
[Electronic Version]

"Then and Now in the Old Dominion." Atlantic Monthly 9.54 (April 1862): 493-502.
[Electronic Version]

"True Founder of Virginia." St. James Magazine 4 (1862): 199-210.
[Electronic Version]

1863

E. G. B. "Ancient Church at Jamestown" and "Pocahontas." Historical, Poetical and Pictorial American Scenes. Ed. John Warner Barber. New Haven, 1863. 10-12, 13.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Early Annals of the American Church." The Church Review 15.2, 15.4 (1863): 219-34, 585-607.

"Indian Warrior." The Pictorial Primer; Designed for the Use of Schools and Families. Embellished with Fine Engravings. Richmond, 1863. 14.
[illustrated; engraving; school book]
[View Images: page 14]

Peale, Sarah Miriam. "Pocahontas." 1863. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Willson, Marcius. Primary American History for Primary Schools. New York, 1863. 36-45. Same as Willson, Juvenile, 1847.
[school book; U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]

1864

Carlier, Auguste. Histoire du peuple américain, États-Unis. Volume 1. Paris, 1864. 61-79.
[foreign language]
[Electronic Version]

Hay, G. J. "Grave of Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 3rd series, 5.110 (February 6, 1864): 123. In the Gravesend Parish register: "1616 May 2j Rebecca Wrothe / wyff of Thomas Wroth gent / a Virginia lady borne, here was buried / in ye chauncell."
[Electronic Version]

Lossing, Benson J. A Common-School History of the United States. New York, 1864. 24-31.
[illustrated; school book]
[View Images: page 31]

"The City: Chapter of Horrors." [Columbus] Daily Ohio Statesman 9 July 1864: 3. A negro hackman takes an impoverished widow to "the disreputable house of the notorious 'Pocahontas,'" from which she falls into the clutches of a "hideous and villainous negro named Henry Burns." Burns, "who is as black, hideous and ferocious a monster as could be found in the country," imprisons, tortures, and debauches the woman, subjecting her to an abortion as well. It is "one of the most horrible cases of crime and brutality that has ever transpired in Columbus." The shamed woman reported that "her parents were abolitionists, but would revolt at the idea of amalgamation."
[slavery]

Tracy, Henry R. "The Death Council of the Oneidas. Or, The Second Pocahontas. A true Story of the Early Settlement of New. York." Friends' Intelligencer 21.19 (July 16, 1864): 297-99; 21.20 (July 23, 1864): 317-18.

1865

Goodrich, Samuel G. The American Child's Pictorial History of the United States. Philadelphia, 1865. 50-72.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[View Images: page 68]

Hiller, Rev. O. Prescott. Pocahontas; or the Founding of Virginia. London, 1865.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Spurious National Bank Currency." Philadelphia Inquirer 19 August 1865: 2. An article about counterfeit money indicates that pictures of Columbus and Pocahontas are on the true five-dollar notes.
[homage]

Stone, William L. Life of Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea). Volume 2. Albany, 1865. 60, 444.
[Electronic Version]

Taylor, George Lansing. [G L T.] "Pocahontas and Virginia." Zion's Herald and Wesleyan Journal 36.46 (November 15, 1865): 1.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"The Spirit of Caste." New Orleans Times 19 July 1865: 4. "A spirit of caste everywhere presents itself . . . . Occasionally claims to social and political pre-eminence are based on mere accidents. . . . In Virginia, 'first families' used to be regarded with excessive favor, albeit some of those first families had a penal taint. Another Virginian taint of caste was drawn from the blood of Pocahontas. But poor Pocahontas is now overthrown. Dinah has taken her place in the social and political pantheon, and Norman blood -- once a passport to all honor -- must now give way to currents of a less ruddy hue."

1866

Adams, Henry. Letter to John Gorham Palfrey. Henry Adams and His Friends. Ed. Harold Dean Cater. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1947. 29-30. Letter of July 5, 1866, in which Adams says he is "waiting in some doubt what to do about that ancient liar Smith" in the matter of the veracity of the Pocahontas story.
[debunking.]

"American Trotting Stud: Ethan Allen, Pocahontas." New York: Currier & Ives, 1866.
[homage; lithograph]
[Electronic Version]

Bancroft, George. History of the United States. 21st ed. Vol. 1. Boston, 1866. 117-58. Cf. Bancroft 1837, 1853, 1876. The description of the rescue is the same here as previously, but, certainly showing knowledge of the debunking controversy, the footnote has changed: "The True Relation, &c., printed in 1608, was published without the knowledge of Smith who was then in Virginia, and was first attributed to Thomas Watson. The rescue of Smith by Pocahontas was told, with authority, in 1617, in Smith's 'Relation to Queen Anne'; Historie 127. It is confirmed in his New England's trials, printed in 1622; and the full narrative is to be found in the Historie, printed in 1624. In 1625, Purchas, who had many manuscripts on Virginia, gives the narrative a place in his Pilgrims, as unquestionably authentic. Compare Deane's note in Wingfield, 81, 32." Bancroft, gamely holding on here to belief in the rescue, capitulates to the debunkers in the 1876 edition.
[U.S. history; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Burke, John. "Chivalry and Slavery." Chivalry, Slavery, and Young America. New York, 1866. 93-183, esp. 140.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Cooke, John Esten. "Along the James. A Journey into Dreamland." The Galaxy. A Magazine of Entertaining Reading (September 15, 1866): 175-80.
[Electronic Version]

"General Lee Again before the Reconstruction Committee." 21 April 1866: 1. Bitingly witty piece poses a series of questions for Lee. For example, "Do the people of Virginia read the writings of R. W. Emerson? and if so do they understand them?" And "Do the colored race in Virginia generally go in when it rains? and if not why not?" And "Do the colored people in Virginia usually sleep with their heads under the bed clothes? and how far will emancipation modify this habit?" For our our purposes we find, "Do you believe the story of Captain Smith and Pocahontas? or do you think it was made up by Captain Smith after its supposed date?"
[slavery; debunking]

Palfrey, John Gorham. A History of New England, from the Discovery by Europeans to the Revolution of the Seventeenth Century. Volume 1. New York, 1866. 13.

Sigourney, L. H. Letters of Life. New York, 1866. 347-48.
[Electronic Version]

Smith, John. A True Relation of Virginia. 1608. Ed. Charles Deane. Boston: 1866. 24-40, 72-73. See esp. footnote 3, pp. 38-40, for Deane's comments on the discrepancy in Smith's accounts of his captivity: "The most indifferent reader cannot fail to notice the marked discrepancy between Smith's original account" in True Relation and the one in the Generall Historie. "I suppose Smith must be held responsible for all this: for, although he had probably fallen into the hands of Michael Sparks, the publisher, still the work is issued in his own name." "It is safer, I think, to follow the simple original narrative, written on the spot" by this "true knight errant" with no other motives "to embellish it which were subsequently furnished." This note by debunking Deane, who also questioned Smith's veracity in 1860, is an important step in the simmering questioning that Adams will bring to a boil next year.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

1867

"A Magnificent New Year's Gift." [Concord] New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette 25 December 1867: 3. "Do a good act." Purchase certificates accompanied by an engraving of "The Marriage of Pocahontas" for the benefit of the Washington Library Company of Philadelphia.
[homage]

Adams, Henry. "Captain John Smith." North American Review 104.214 (January 1867): 1-30. (Revised Chapters of Erie, and Other Essays. Boston, 1871.) (Revised again Historical Essays. New York, 1891.) [See Lemay 1992, 107, for omissions from Adams' original manuscript.] Building on Deane and spurred both by personal ambition to make a name for himself as well as conscious New England brahmin desire to attack the South in this Civil War era, Adams calls into question the Pocahontas rescue episode and through it the veracity of the Generall Historie and Southern history founded on it. Putting sections from the True Relation and the Generall Historie side by side, Adams states that "it is still perfectly clear that the statements of the Generall Historie, if proved to be untrue, are falsehoods of an effrontery seldom equaled in modern times" and accuses Smith of manipulating the history to increase his own reputation. This article touches off a debunking controversy that was especially hot in the late 19th century but still the subject of debate much later (see Lemay 1992) and never has quite disappeared from American consciousness.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Adams, Henry. Letter to Charles Francis Adams, Jr., February 23, 1867. J. C. Levenson, et al., eds., The Letters of Henry Adams. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 1982. 520-21. In a letter of February 23, 1867, Adams relates that his debunking article on Smith-Pocahontas has received a notice in the Pall Mall Gazette. "I shall have made my mark on London as Sam Weller said when Mr. Pickwick threw the inkstand at the wall."
[debunking]

"Authentic Injun History—Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." (Bangor, ME) Bangor Daily Whig & Courier 6 February 1867. Satire -- Seba Smith?

"Captain John Smith." Cincinnati Daily Gazette 2 February 1867: 2. Aimed at the debunking work of Charles Deane. "When insatiable criticism invades Virginia history . . . we cannot refrain from a special lament of a progress of intelligence which threatens to leave the world as barren as the progress of Tamerlane." "There was nothing so romantic in all American history as the story of the intervention of this gushing Indian maiden to save a white captive. . . . Who has not the picture indelibly painted on the imagination?" The human heart found a reason for her "heroic devotion" and "endowed her with the personal graces becoming to such a heroic nature." The reality of Indian women was "suspended to make this ideal being." "We need not weep if the whole cargo of the Mayflower Puritans should be cut. . . . But we are unwilling to lose the most romantic episode in American history . . . . If we give up this, what shall be believed?" "There ought to be a supreme infallible council in historical affairs, with power to fix into facts the things that have come to be generally believed and held in reverence, and that have ramified into other considerations. History has acquired a right in the Pocahontas adventure, which two centuries of possession ought to make a quiet title." "We shall cling to the rescue scene . . . which is ineffaceably impressed on every American mind."
[debunking]

"Captain John Smith." Pall Mall Gazette 18 February 1867: 2-3.

Cooke, J. E. "A Dream of the Cavaliers." Holmes’ Southern Fifth Reader for Schools and Families. Ed. George F. Holmes. New York, 1867. 331-40, esp. 333.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Hohenstein, Anton. [Hohenstern?] "The Wedding of Pocahontas." 1867. (Ann Uhry Abrams, The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999. 173.) (Same as Spohne, 1867?) For another marriage image, see Brueckner 1855.
[lithograph]
[View Images: page 173]

Howell, John Edward. "Pocahontas." Poems. New York: the author, 1867.
[poetry]

"Lydia Huntley Sigourney." American Quarterly Church Review, and Ecclesiastical Register 18.4 (January 1867): 546-65.
[Electronic Version]

"Notes." The Nation 4 (January 17, 1867): 44-48. The author, spurred by Adams' recent debunking article, summarizes the argument of Deane, finding that "the silence of all these books leads us inevitably to suppose that no one in Virginia then knew of the noble act of Pocahontas. . . . [and] the reasoning of Mr. Deane seems to show conclusively the falsity of the legend."
[debunking]

"Pocahontas and Capt. Smith--A Romance Rudely Dispelled." New York Times 19 January 1867: 4. News story picks up on the Adams debunking this year, noting "The remorselessness with which modern criticism is sweeping away some of the most popular historical traditions." Ends quoting Strachey's description of Pocahontas as a "wanton young girl" as unfamiliar to the public and "not the attitude which has generally been selected by the artists who have employed their genius in illustrating her history and character."
[debunking]

"Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." Arizona Weekly Journal [published as Arizona Miner] [Prescott, Arizona] 15 June 1867: 1.

"Pocahontas." [Prescott] Arizona Weekly Journal [published as Arizona Miner] 23 March 1867: 2. Another response to the Adams debunking, which "undertakes to prove [Smith] to be a sort of Munchausenish adventurer." Like the New York Times, this article also quotes Strachey, finding that his "wanton young girle" description "knocks all the poetry out of the Capt. Smith and Pocahontas romance, but for what we in Arizona know of the Indian maiden as she is, lewd, lousy and lazy, we are disposed to believe it . . . as a truthful, if to many a novel and unpalateable statement. Pocahontas was probably one of Poston's 'dusky maidens,' such as hang about the store at Mojave, La Paz and Arizona City, and earn a livelihood -- well, we won't say how."
[debunking]

"Poetry of Indian Love." Flag of Our Union 22.33 (August 17, 1867): 526.

Powers, Hiram. The Last of the Tribes. 1867. Pocahontas-like sculpture.
[sculpture]

Quincy, Edmund. Life of Josiah Quincy of Massachusetts. Boston, 1867. 459. Edward Randolph as his savage ancestress, Pocahontas.
[Electronic Version]

Spohne, George. [Spohni?] "The Wedding of Pocahontas with John Rolfe." 1867. (Vivien Green Fryd, Art and Empire: The Politics of Ethnicity in the United States Capitol, 1815-1860. Athens: Ohio UP, 2001. 50.) (Same as Hohenstein, 1867? See Hohenstein to view image.)
[lithograph]

"The Story of Pocahontas." The Friend; A Religious and Literary Journal 40.24 (February 9, 1867): 190.
[Electronic Version]

"The Indian War." Cincinnati Daily Gazette 2 May 1867: 1. Decidedly and brutally unromantic description of an Indian camp in Kansas. "There have been poems sung on the heavenly beauties of Pocahontas and Hiawatha, but we have not seen an Indian girl yet that we could compose an ode upon."

"The Legend of Pocahontas." [Galveston] Flake's Bulletin 17 January 1867: 1. Watching Brougham's Pocahontas play and reading Adams' North American Review article leads to a lamentation that soon "we shall have to unlearn all that we learned in youth and begin as the lawyers say de novo." Some such reversals are not unwelcome. "But to shake our faith in the devoted love, and in the romantic attachment of the Indian maiden for the erratic Smith, whose surname was John, is too bad. It fills the poetic mind with sensations far from pleasant, and akin to those we may surmise are experienced by the ardent youth just entering the seventh heaven of requited love, when he suddenly discovers that the lovely idol of his heart dips snuff." But Adams' argument makes a "fair showing" and "considerably shatters our faith in Pocahontas."
[debunking]

"The Miss Bolling." Daily Memphis Avalanche 14 December 1867: 1. "The Miss Bolling, whom General W. H. F. Lee married, is a lineal descendant of Pocahontas, who seems to have been second only to the late Anneke Japs in point of fecundity." That's the entire notice. Must be an in joke.

"Want of Power." [Galveston] Flake's Bulletin 11 August 1867: 4. When the Indians were strong, they were respected. "In fact, John Randolph, of Roanoke, rather gloried in a very problematical descent from the dusky Pocahontas." But now the Indian is "meaner than a negro."

1868

"A certain clerk." [Harrisburg] Weekly Patriot and Union 2 April 1868: 3. A comic anecdote reprinted many times. A certain clerk said, "Pocahontas was a great man. Pocahontas was a noble, kind-hearted and true man." "Hold on," cried his companion, "Pocahontas was a woman." "She was, eh!" said the clerk, "well, that's just my luck; how am I expected to know. I never read the bible."

Anderson, John J. A Grammar School History of the United States. New York, 1868. 18-23.
[school book]
[Electronic Version]

Howitt, Mary Botham. "Pocahontas Interceding for John Smith." Vignettes of American History. London, 1868. 15-21.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Peck, Jesse Truesdell. The History of the Great Republic, Considered from a Christian Stand-point. New York, 1868. 51.
[Electronic Version]

"The Pocahontas Chewing Tobacco." Harris, Beebe & Co. New York: The Hatch Lith. Co., 1868. (tobacco package label)
[lithograph; artifact]
[Electronic Version]

1869

Brock, Sallie A. "The Story of Powhatan." The Southern Amaranth: A Carefully Selected Collection of Poems Growing Out of and in Reference to the Late War. Ed. Miss Sallie A. Brock. New York, 1869. 46-60.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Darling, N. P. "How I Was Scalped." Ballou's Monthly Magazine 30.6 (December 1869): 545-49.
[short story]
[Electronic Version]

Doyle, John Andrew. The American Colonies previous to the Declaration of Independence. London, 1869. 26-27.

Ellet, E. F. The Court Circles of the Republic. Hartford, 1869. 272. Dressing up as Pocahontas and greeting guests in a royal wigwam at a fancy ball.
[Electronic Version]

Howell, John Edward. Pocahontas. New York: the author, 1869.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Lossing, Benson John. "Pocahontas." Lives of Celebrated Americans. Hartford, 1869. 16-17.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Neill, Edward D. History of the Virginia Company of London. Albany, 1869. 83-105, 211. Another debunking of Smith as historian as we've seen in Palfrey, Deane, Adams. William Wirt Henry calls Neill, founder and first President of Macalester College, "the bitterest assailant": "[Smith's] writings are those of a gascon and beggar. He seemed to be always in the attitude of one craving recognition or remuneration for alleged services, and Fuller's description of his writings and character in the Worthies of England is probably not far from the truth."
[illustrated; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Peet, Harvey Prindle. History of the United States of America. New York, 1869. 33-34.
[Electronic Version]

Quackenbos, G. P. Elementary History of the United States. New York, 1869. 29-32.
[illustrated; school book]

Review of A Discourse of Virginia by Edward Maria Wingfield and A True Relation of Virginia by Capt. John Smith. Southern Review 6.11 (July 1869): 160-81. The two debunking editions by Charles Deane are attacked here, though not in very specific terms. The story of Pocahontas is made "merely fabulous. . . . Her critics wield their most deadly blades, dipped in poison. . . . she is so changed by omissions and insinuations, that what was once accepted as the rarest and most beautiful specimen of Indian womanhood, an honor to her race and to her sex, becomes a mere myth." Editor Deane's researches have been accomplished with "great cold-heartedness and unfairness," and the Wingfield whom he holds up as an authority for Virginia history over Smith was a "pampered poltroon."
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Semallé, René de. Les Indiens des États-Unis. Paris, 1869. 17.
[foreign language]

"True Story of Pocahontas: Romantic Legend of the Virginian Princess—The Illusion Dispelled." [San Francisco] Daily Evening Bulletin 29 December 1869. Stimulated by the debunking work of Edward Neill. "It is the habit of the English people . . . to forget the very names of the races whom, in the course of their destiny as God Almighty's plowshare, they plow up into the soil," but "a sort of legendary halo has, however, preserved the word 'Pocahontas.'" But Neill is putting an end to the illusions surrounding her name. She was "just a savage of the ordinary kind, the effort to exult her was a "well-planned fraud" against the government, and Rolfe was a man of "some ambition and few scruples," who used her for financial purposes. "No trace whatever of her conversation or her character can be recovered, nor is there any evidence that she was regarded in any other light than a converted Tasmanian or Maori would now be, that is, as a subject of intellectual curiosity, but little admiration." (Reprinted from the London Spectator.
[debunking]

1870

Brougham, John. La belle sauvage: Burlesque in Five Scenes. London, 1870. Adapted from his 1855 play.
[play; music]

"Captain Smith Teaching Pocahontas to Read." New York: Kimmel & Forster, c. 1870.
[lithograph]

"Firemen's Procession March 4, 1870." [New Orleans] Daily Picayune 6 March 1870:15. In this report of the annual celebration of the city's fire companies, American Hook and Ladder No. 2 is decorated with a "statue of Pocahontas holding a wreath of white flowers, with a pair of horns in front, with large wreath; motto: "Raised to save.'"

George, H. M. Jack o' the Feather; or, The Daughter of Powhattan. A Story of Jamestown and its Environs. New York, 1870.
[novel]

Goodenow, Martha Augusta Fairbank. "Pocahantas." 1870. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Inger, Christian. "Smith Rescued by Pocahontas." New York: H. Schile, 1870. After Edward Corbould. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 16.) See Corbould 1850.
[lithograph]
[View Images: page 16]

Nehlig, Victor. "Pocahontas Saving John Smith." 1870. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 17.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 17]

"Pocahontas saving the life of Capt. John Smith." Boston: New Eng. Chromo. Lith. Co., 1870.
[lithograph]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." Saturday Evening Post (January 8, 1870): 8.

"Pocahontas." The Youth's Companion 43.9 (March 3, 1870): 69.
[juvenile]

"The Romance of Pocahontas." The Albion, A Journal of News, Politics and Literature 68.24 (June 11, 1870): 373.

Sherwood, John D. "John Smith." The Comic History of the United States. Boston, 1870. 113-14.
[Electronic Version]

1871

Adams, Henry. "Captain John Smith." Chapters of Erie and Other Essays. Charles F. Adams, Jr., and Henry Adams. Boston, 1871. 192-224.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Article on the painting by Victor Nehlig. New York Herald 9 November: 1871. (Reprinted in Victor Nehligs Great Historical Painting, Pocahontas, Reproduced on Stone by the Artist Himself. Cincinnati, 1874.)

Dewey, Mary E., ed. Life and Letters of Catharine M. Sedgwick. New York, 1871. 187. Regarding Lydia Maria Child.

"Macaronic Poetry." The Literary World; A Monthly Review of Current Literature 2.7 (December 1, 1871): 101-2.

Neill, Edward D. "Pocahontas and Her Companions." The English Colonization of America during the Seventeenth Century. London, 1871. 68-89.
[Electronic Version]

Sala, George Augustus. "A Pilgrimage in Quest of Pocahontas." Belgravia 15 (1871): 39-49.
[Electronic Version]

Sargent, Epes, and Amasa May. "Captain John Smith." The New American Fourth Reader. Philadelphia, 1871. 200-3.
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

1872

"All Sorts of Items." [San Francisco] Evening Bulletin 28 October 1872: 4. In a series of one-liners, we find: "The Indians in Washington attended a representation of 'Pocahontas,' and exploded in roars of laughter."

Davis, Francis. "Pocahontas: A Tale of Old Virginie." The Royal Illuminated Book of Legends. Second Series. Ed. Marcus Ward. Edinburgh, 1872.
[illustrated; music; poetry]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 10, page 11, page 12, page 13]

Drake, Francis S. Dictionary of American Biography. Supplement. Boston, 1872. 724.
[Electronic Version]

"The Indian Troubles." Galveston News [published as The Galveston Tri-Weekly News] [Galveston, Texas] 5 July 1872: 1.

Lossing, Benson J. A Grammar-School History of the United States. 21-28. New York, 1872.
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Noque, Oro [Bessie Blakeman]. "Pocahontas." Historicals for the Young Folks. New Haven, 1872. 14, 18-22.
[juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Schele de Vere, M. The Romance of American History. New York, 1872. 69-100.
[Electronic Version]

Shea, John Gilmary. A Child’s History of the United States. Volume 1. New York, 1872. 74-85.
[juvenile; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Swinton, William. First Lessons in Our Country's History: Bringing Out its Salient Points, and Aiming to Combine Simplicity with Sense. New York, 1872. 38. (Revised edition, 1894, 43-44.)
[school book; illustrated]

Taft, Stephen H. A Discourse on the Character and Death of John Brown. Des Moines, 1872. 15.
[Electronic Version]

"The Pi-utes." [Jamestown NY] Jamestown Journal 6 December 1872: 2. "Possibly future statesmen of Nevada will boast of their Pi-Ute blood, much in the same manner that the Virginia politicians and Virginia gentlemen of our day boast of having the blood of Pocahontas in their veins."

"The Smiths had a dinner." [Pittsfield MA] Pittsfield Sun 22 February 1872: 3. "The Smiths had a dinner at Pittsburg, on New Year's day. The first toast was: 'Pocahontas -- heaven bless her for saving the Smiths to this country.'"
[homage]

Venable, W. H. A School History of the United States. Cincinnati, 1872. 31-32.
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

"Victor Nehlig." Old and New 5.4 (April 1872): 503-4.
[Electronic Version]

1873

Anderson, John J. The United States Reader Embracing Selections from Eminent American Historians, Orators, Statesmen and Poets. New York: 1873. 50-52. (Excerpt from a poem by Felicia Hemans.)
[poetry; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Carlton, A. L. "John Smith." [Vermillion, South Dakota] Dakota Republican 3 July 1873: 1. The picture of Pocahontas -- "dusky maid" -- rescuing John Smith has "lost its charm." There are too many John Smith's these days.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Frost, John. Frost's Pictorial History of Indian Wars and Captivities. New York, 1873. 25-39. Illustrations by W. Croome.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"In General." [Middletown CT] Daily Constitution 26 August 1873: 4. In a string of one-liners, we find: "John Brougham says Pocahontas invented the game of poker. It is remembered distinctly that Smith called her on a bluff."

Magill, Mary Tucker. History of Virginia for the Use of Schools. Baltimore, 1873. Chapters 4, 7, 9.
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 39]

"Our Washington Letter." Little Rock Daily Republican 31 December 1873: 1. The author is quite grumpy about the quality of the art supported by the government. "It is not that there is no national taste. It is not that there are no competent artists in the country. The fault has been the want of judgment and taste in those who have been entrusted with the power to make contracts and give commissions." Chapman's Baptism of Pocahontas gets blasted. It's "a daub of the first water. It is execrable in drawing and color, and a gross libel on historical truth."
[painting]

Pryor, Paul [pseud.]. Pocahontas; or, The Indian Maiden. New York, 1873.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[View Images: page 12, page 16, page 5, page 8, page 9, title page]

"Random Biographies." [San Francisco] Daily Evening Bulletin 3 May 1873: suppl 1. In a series of wacky biographies, Pocahontas saves Columbus and is called "a lovely maiden romantically fond of distressed travelers."

Stephens, Alexander H. Review of A Compendium of the History of the United States from the Earliest Settlements to 1872. Historical Magazine 3rd series, 2.3 (September 1873): 187-88.

1874

"Civilization a Failure." [Chicago] Sunday Times 1March 1874: 1. A diatribe against the supposed benefits of civilization. Do we think we have progressed? "No! toothache and neuralgia are the elements of civilization. Who ever heard of Chingachgook using Buntner's nervine? Who could picture Pocahontas with a poultice of camomile and poppy-heads?"

Ollier, Edmund. Cassell’s History of the United States. Vol. 1. London & New York: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1874. 31, 34-38. Illustration on page 31 has Powhatan wearing a horned headdress. [Illustrated]
[U.S. history]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 31]

Pryor, Paul. "Pocahontas, or, The Indian Maiden." Aunt Louisa's Child's Delight: Comprising Rip Van Winkle, Yankee Doodle, Pocahontas, Putnam: With twenty-four pages of illustrations. Printed in colors. New York: McLoughlin Bros., 1874.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Victor Nehlig's Great Historical Painting, Pocahontas, Reproduced on Stone by the Artist Himself. Cincinnati, 1874.
[View Images: engraving]

1875

"A Souvenir of Capt. Smith and Pocahontas." [New Orleans] Daily Picayune 27 March 1875: 12. A report from the Richmond Enquirer about a flag with a reclining figure of Pocahontas, with an eagle above her head holding a flag with the inscription "Premia Victori et Nobis Exempla," and in the background an escutcheon with three Turks' heads -- Smith's coat-of-arms. The flag is thought to be one presented by Col. Scott of Powhatan to the first cavalry regiment raised in South Virginia during the Civil War.
[homage]

Abbott, John Stevens Cabot. The History of the State of Ohio. Detroit, 1875. 449.
[Electronic Version]

Article on the Booton Hall portrait. Boston Evening Transcript 48.14 (October 19, 1875): 874.
[painting]

Byers, S. H. M. Pocahontas. A Melo-Drama in Five Acts. [n.p.], 1875. (New York: Readex Microprint, 1970.)
[play]

French, S. Bassett. "Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 5th series, 4 (Aug 7, 1875): 104. Wants to obtain for Virginia the original painting that de Passe engraved or an authentic copy.
[Electronic Version]

Grigsby, Hugh. Letters to Charles Deane of March 6, March 25, April 17, 1875. Cited by Abrams 1994 (p. 301) as containing information about the Turkey Hill portrait of Pocahontas (see 1842 and etc.)
[painting]

Henry, William Wirt. "The Rescue of Captain John Smith by Pocahontas." Potter's American Monthly 4 (1875): 523-28, 591-97. William Wirt Henry (not to be confused with William Wirt; see 1803 and etc.), who was later president of the American Historical Association and the Virginia Historical Society, was a consistent defender of Smith and the Pocahontas rescue from the debunkers (see other entries up to 1893). Here he takes on Adams (Henry mentions both the North American Review and Chapters of Erie versions) in point-by-point fashion: arguing the possibility of omissions in the publication of the True Relation as well as reasons for silences; examining other works from Wingfield to Purchas; confronting seeming inconsistencies within Smith's accounts; and adducing the reliability of external evidence. Henry recognizes the seriousness of the attack: "If [Adams's] side be triumphant, then indeed we must blot out from the page of Virginia history this most beautiful instance of female devotion, doubly interesting because it was the act of a savage girl, who in thus saving the life of the master spirit of the Colony, at the risk of her own, saved the Colony." His conclusion: "It may be confidently claimed that the world will hereafter, as in the age he lived, recognize in Captain John Smith a hero, distinguished alike for valor and for virtue." So much for debunking.
[illustrated; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Young Folks' History of the United States. Boston, 1875. 114-16.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

"Is There a Portrait of Pocahontas?" Cincinnati Daily Gazette 21 June 1875: 6. From the Richmond Whig. The portrait of Pocahontas presented by Dr. Beale to the Virginia State Library is so different from the portrait in McKenney and Hall 1844 that they cannot be from the same original as they purport to be. The Beale portrait is by Sully from the copy descended to Dr. T. Robertson from the Randolph family -- such copy made from the original done of Pocahontas in England in 1616. The McKenney and Hall is an engraving of a copy by Sully from the portrait in Robertson's possession. Since the original (?) portrait in the picture gallery at Cobbs, the seat of the Bollings and Randolphs, was in "utter decay," it is possible that the artist used "his imagination" in the various pictures and this accounts for the differences between them. "The fact is, there have been some doubts as to the genuineness of the original portrait itself, from which that in the possession of Dr. Robertson was copied. When this ancient picture was hanging in the gallery at Cobbs, we have the authority of a writer in the Southern Literary Messenger for April, 1838, for saying that one of the lineal descendants of Pocahontas sneered at it as 'a tawny mulatto.'"
[painting]

"John Smith." [Jamestown NY] Jamestown Journal 8 January 1875: 2. Comic piece on the curse of being named John Smith. It were better that the original had been clubbed to death by Powhatan. "Pocahontas (if she did have black eyes and wear a bustle) was the wickedest woman. No maiden with any principle would have saved John's life."

Kerney, M. J. The First Class Book of History. Baltimore, 1875. 123-33.
[illustrated; school book]

"Pocahountas (The Indian Princess)." London Times 16 August 1875: 7.

A Popular History of the United States of America. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1875. 35-37.
[illustrated]
[View Images: page 36]

"Portrait of Pocahontas." (San Francisco, CA) Daily Evening Bulletin 28 May 1875. News about a copy of a Sully painting.
[painting]

1876

"All Sorts of Items." [San Francisco] Daily Evening Bulletin 21 October 1876: 4. "One of the guides at the Capitol yesterday showed a party of Centennial visitors the sculpture of Pocahontas saving the life of Captain John Smith, with the remark that 'there is a picture of Daniel Boone saving the life of John Quincy Adams.'"

Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America. Thoroughly Revised Edition. Vol. 1. Boston, 1876. 93-125. Cf. Bancroft 1837, 1853, and 1866. Bancroft by this time has sided with the debunkers. The account of Smith's captivity finds Smith treated with good words, fine food, and assurances of a "speedy restoration to liberty." But Bancroft craftily brings Pocahontas in at this point by quoting the "nonpariel" description of her from True Relation and calling her "the child, to whom in later days [Smith] attributed his rescue from death," and who brought food to Jamestown. The abduction is treated a bit differently in this edition as well. Previously, Bancroft had curtly described Pocahontas as "stolen" by a "foraging party," with the result that Powhatan is preparing for hostilities. In this edition, Argall "persuades" a chief to "betray" her, the result is "better relations," and her reception in England is described differently and toned down a bit.
[U.S. history; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

[Bryant, William Cullen, and Sydney Howard Gay.] "The True Pocahontas." Scribner's Monthly 12 (1876): 7-13. Excerpt from their new United States history accepting the debunking of Smith, with this editorial introduction: "But there is a process which every conspicuous passage of history encounters in due course: it is often mourned over as the image-breaking tendency of modern criticism; but, in reality, it is only the correcting and clarifying influence of time. . . . We may mourn the loss of a sentiment, but, as a rule, we have gained in better knowledge, where broad scholars and not men with hobbies have done the work."
[illustrated; debunking]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 12]

Bryant, William Cullen, and Sydney Howard Gay. A Popular History of the United States. Vol. 1. New York, 1876. 262-307. Expansively told account of early Virginia continues the debunking of Smith, pitting his version of the events against the "other side," especially Wingfield: "It is difficult to reconcile such discrepancies in any other way than to suppose a determination . . . to justify Smith and to magnify his services." In regard to Pocahontas, "the authority for this romantic story" has been Smith: "Obscurer authors were either not consulted or were unknown . . . . But Wingfield, who records with such accuracy all the essential facts of Smith's capture . . . says nothing of Pocahontas." Nor does Strachey in this regard.
[illustrated; debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Bullard, O.A. "Capt. Smith's Visit to Pocahontas." 1876. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

"Congress Saturday." [San Francisco] Daily Evening Bulletin 5 June 1876: 4. Discussion of an amendment to the Indian Appropriations bill by Seelye of Massachusetts to "forbid furnishing rations to white men living with Indian women." Harrison opposed, saying that when he looked at the baptism of Pocahontas (one of his ancestors) picture in the rotunda, "he felt that amalgamation with the Indians should be encouraged. It was the true method for carrying civilization among the Indians. Among the best citizens of the Northwestern frontier were half-breeds and three-quarter bloods. Some of the proudest families of Chicago had Indian blood in their veins." The amendment was rejected.

Ellis, George. "Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 5th series, 6 (Aug 5, 1876): 106. Copy of Gravesend burial register.

"Light!" New Orleans Times 7 February 1876: 2. A poem as advertisement for Enterprise Cigar Co. "Indian maid, Pocahontas / Cried to her royal Pa-- / 'Let me give ye rash intruder / Light for his Cigar.'"
[homage; poetry]

Myers, W. B. "Pocahontas." 1876. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

"Personal." [Middletown CT] Daily Constitution 14 March 1876: 2. "A Mr. Rolfe in England has sent to Colonel French of Richmond, Va., a framed portrait of Pocahontas."
[painting]

Ridpath, John Clark. A Popular History of the United States from Aboriginal Times to the Present Day. Cincinnati, 1876. 101-9.
[illustrated]

Sheirr, Rodman J. "Joseph Mozier and His Handiwork." Potter's American Monthly 6.49 (January 1876): 24-28.
[Electronic Version]

"WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT’S History of the United States Does Pocahontas Great Injustice, and Anna Dickinson Will Write a Play on Pocahontas, and Play it, as a Vindication of the Indiana Maiden." St. Louis Globe-Democrat 24 May 1876: 2.

1877

Henry, William Wirt. "Reply to Mr. Neill's Account of Captain John Smith: Showing the Great Injustice Done to Our Virginia Hero." Richmond Daily Dispatch 18 July 1877. The debunking controversy comes to your local newspaper! Here's Henry responding to charges by Neill in the entry below. "Mr. Neill's fault is not lack of Industry or material, but a lack of impartiality, and that to such a degree that he can never be safely followed when he attempts history." In regard to discrepancies in Smith's accounts, Henry finds Neill's attempt "equally unjustifiable" and poses his own side by side comparison.
[debunking]

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. A Book of American Explorers. Boston, 1877. 230-65.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Historical Pictures." Ballou's Monthly Magazine 46.1 (July 1877): 98.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 98]

Neill, Edward. "Captain John Smith, President of Virginia Council A. D. 1608-9." Richmond Daily Dispatch 13 July 1877: 12. Neill, champion debunker of Smith, calls him "notoriously untruthful," and part of his strategy is to pose excerpts from True Relation and Generall Historie side by side to show the discrepancies.
[debunking]

Neill, Edward. "Rev. Edward D. Neill's Farewell to W. W. H. and Captain John Smith." Richmond Daily Dispatch 27 August 1877. Neill responds to Henry's response to his earlier article, giving more side by side comparisons, then bidding "Farewell to John Smith and his surviving friends."
[debunking]

"Puck's History of the United States. Chapter IV. The Settlements." Puck 1.24 (August 22, 1877): 6-7.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 8]

"The Kind of Girl Pocahontas Was." Cincinnati Daily Gazette 26 December 1877: 6. Quotes or paraphrases, without comment, Strachey's description of the naked, cartwheeling Pocahontas. The last word, the answer to the implied question in the title, is "wanton." Hmmm.

"Washington's Whims." [San Francisco] Daily Evening Bulletin 16 June 1877: 4. A trip to Mount Vernon is the occasion for thoughts on preventing "the rapid advance of that social, personal and political iconoclasm which is tearing down so many popular idols." For instance, "the charming story of Pocahontas and John Smith is proved a myth. This innocent idyl of our childhood days has no more substantial basis that the dreaming of a romancist. The grotesque woodcuts in our school histories, representing the affectionate devotion of the beautiful Indian maiden, are barbarous lies."
[debunking]

1878

Goodrich, Charles. "John Smith and Pocahontas." The Child's History of the United States. Rev. A. B. Berard. Philadelphia, 1878. 20-22.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

"The Kind of Girl Pocahontas Was." Denison Daily News [Denison, Texas] 9 January 1878: 1.

Tyler, Moses Coit. A History of American Literature. New York, 1878. 20-27, 27-30.
[Electronic Version]

1879

Brock, R. A. "Pocahontas: A Tablet to Her Memory at Gravesend, England." Richmond Standard 25 October 1879.

Cooke, John Esten. "The Adventures of Captain John Smith." Stories of the Old Dominion: From the Settlement to the End of the Revolution. New York, 1879. 17-55.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 44]

Ellis, George. "Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 5th series, 11 (Apr 19, 1879): 318. Says he has engraved portraits.

I. G. R. "Capt John Smith and Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 5th series, 11 (May 10, 1879): 378. Original portrait is in Yarmouth. Recommends Howe's history.

"Proposal to Erect a Monument to the Memory of Pocahontas." London Times 1 February 1879: 6.
[sculpture]

Seelye, Elizabeth Eggleston, assisted by Edward Eggleston. Pocahontas. Chicago, 1879.
[juvenile]

Sheppard, William Ludwell. "Captain John Smith Making Toys for Pocahontas." 1879. (John Esten Cooke, Stories of the Old Dominion: From the Settlement to the End of the Revolution. New York, 1879. Frontispiece.)
[illustrated; engraving]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: engraving]

Slaughter, Philip. A History of Bristol Parish, Va.: With Genealogies of Families Connected Therewith, and Historical Illustrations. 2nd ed. Richmond, 1879. passim.
[genealogy]
[Electronic Version]

Virginiensis. "Capt John Smith and Pocahontas." Notes and Queries 5th series, 11 (Apr 12, 1879): 287-88. Looking for info on the charge that Smith made up the rescue story and looking for the original portrait.

1880

Cozans, Philip J. Pocahontas the Indian Princess. With Eight Lithograph Illustrations. [Golden Picture Book] New York: Philip J. Cozans, 1880.
[illustrated; lithograph; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Drake, Samuel G. The Aboriginal Races of North America. 15th ed. New York, 1880. 347-59.
[Electronic Version]

Goodrich, Frank B. "Pocahontas." World-famous Women: Types of Female Heroism, Beauty, and Influence, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time. Philadelphia, 1880. 237-60. Illustrations by Champagne, Wanderforde, and Staal.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 236]

Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell. "Pocahontas." Lessons from Women's Lives. Edinburgh, 1880. 41-45.

Staal, Charles. "Pocahontas." World-famous Women: Types of Female Heroism, Beauty, and Influence, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time. Ed. Frank B. Goodrich. Philadelphia, 1880. 237. See Staal, 1858, to view image.
[engraving]

Thackeray, William Makepeace. "Pocahontas" and "From Pocahontas." Ballads. London, 1880.
[illustrated; poetry]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 102]

1881

"The Admiral of New England." New York Times 5 December 1881: 3.

Belden, Emanuel. "The Story of Pocahontas." (Chicago) The Daily Inter Ocean 24 December 1881: 11. Looks like a regular feature of the paper is a column in which readers send in questions. Belden of Mequon River, Wisconsin, asks, "Is the story of Pocahontas based upon fact or not?" The answer is that there are those that deny the story, so "therefore," the paper cites a few and quotes two historians (Bancroft and Higginson) "who give it as an actual occurrence."
[debunking]

Bill Nye’s Boomerang. "A Relic of Pocahontes." (Little Rock) Daily Arkansas Gazette 26 June 1881. Satirical letter from Pocahontas to Powhatan.

"Boomerang." Tombstone Epitaph Prospector [Tombstone, Arizona] 26 June 1881: 3.

Deane, Charles. "The Burial-Place of Pocahontas." Richmond Standard 24 September 1881.

"An Indian Question Solved. Pocahontas Tells Why She Was so Sweet on Smith." The National Police Gazette 38.200 (July 23, 1881): 11.

"John Smith Play." By Pamunkey Indians. 1881-1915. Cited in Christian F. Feest, "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey." European Review of Native American Studies 1.1 (1987): 5-12. (The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. Ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick: Transaction, 1990. 49-71.)
[play]

"Old Yorktown." Scribner's Monthly 22.6 (October 1881): 801-16.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Pamunkey Tribe, Jno Smith Play," "Unidentified Virginia Indians at the Yorktown Centennial in 1881." Virginia Historical Society. Cited in Christian F. Feest, "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey." European Review of Native American Studies 1.1 (1987): 5-12. (The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. Ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick: Transaction, 1990. 49-71.)
[photograph]

"Pocahontas Attacked." New York Times 12 September 1881: 2. Reprinted from the London Standard. An example of debunking now going wild. "History has, indeed, been rather hard on the conventional heroines of romance. . . . The first American romancer has not even been spared evisceration. . . . . It now turns out that so far from being the innocent young barbarian of the novelist, [Pocahontas] was an impish and not very well-behaved little squaw." Smith barely knew her in Virginia and never saw here in England. The story was trumped up by "penniless" Smith. Rolfe was a bigamist, "more rogue than fool." "There threatens to be no end to this cruel awakening from the dreams of our youth."
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas Attacked." St. Louis Globe-Democrat 15 September 1881: 10.

Scott, David B. A Smaller School History of the United States. New York, 1881. 20-25.
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Stevens, Henry. Stevens's Historical Collections. Part I. London, 1881. 102-3.
[Electronic Version]

Warner, Charles Dudley. Captain John Smith: A Study of His Life and Writings. New York, 1881. 100-246 passim, 265, 285-88.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

1882

Eggleston, Edward. "The Beginning of a Nation." Century Illustrated Magazine 25.1 (November 1882): 61-83.
[illustrated]

Henry, William Wirt. "The Settlement at Jamestown, with Particular Reference to the Late Attacks upon Captain John Smith, Pocahontas, and John Rolfe." Proceedings of the Virginia Historical Society (February 24, 1882): 10-63. This speech expands on the material in his 1875 article aimed specifically at the debunking of Deane and Adams but adds rebuttals to the subsequent attacks on the veracity of Smith as historian and thus on the reality of the Pocahontas story by Neill 1869 ("the bitterest of the assailants"), as well as citing the attacks by Bryant and Gay 1876 and Warner 1881.
[debunking]

Hope, James Barron. Arms and the Man: A Metrical Address Recited on the One Hundreth Anniversary (October 19th, 1881) of the Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. Norfolk, 1882. 95.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas The True Romance of the Indian Princess." St. Louis Globe-Democrat 30 November, 1882: 3. From an Edward Eggleston Century article.

The Pocahontas Mine. Famous coal mine that began operations in the 1880's.
[homage]
[Electronic Version]

True, Charles K. Life of Captain John Smith, First Planter of Virginia. New York, 1882. 93-99, 243-56.
[illustrated; juvenile]

1883

Ashton, John. The Adventures and Discourses of Captain John Smith, Sometime President of Virginia and Admiral of New England. London, 1883. 105-16, 187-98, 247-54, 274-85.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Gardiner, Samuel R. History of England from the Accession of James I. to the Outbreak of the Civil War 1603-1642. Vol. 3. London, 1883. 156-58.

"The Last Meeting of Pocahontas and the Great Captain." (Montpelier) Vermont Watchman and State Journal 3 January 1883. Poem from the January Harpers Magazine.
[poetry]

Thompson, Charles M. "Pocahontas." (Denver) Rocky Mountain News 1 January 1883: 4. Poem: "Wert thou a myth?"
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1884

Doyle, J. A. Title unknown. Academy 26 (4 Oct. 1884): c. 211-12.
[Electronic Version]

Palfrey, John Gorham. Compendious History of New England. Vol. 1. Boston, 1884. 8.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas in England: The Indian Girl’s Burial and Accidental Cremation." The Milwaukee Sentinel 6 April 1884: 9.

Solomon, Edward. Thee Alone: Serenade from the Comic Opera Pocahontas. Words by Sydney Grundy; the music by Edward Solomon. London: Boosey & Co., 1884.
[play; music]

Winsor, Justin, ed. Narrative and Critical History of America. Vol. 3. Boston, 1884-1889. 141-44.
[Electronic Version]

1885

Buttre, J. C. "Pocahontas." Queenly Women, Crowned and Uncrowned. Ed. Prof. S. W. Williams, A. M. Cincinnati, 1885. 183.
[engraving]
[View Images: engraving]

Cooke, John Esten. "Did Pocahontas Really Rescue Captain Smith?" Magazine of American History 13 (April 1885): 398-403. Cooke takes an interesting approach to the debunking controversy, purporting to proceed not by argument but by presenting, more objectively, a series of more or less ascertained statements (38 of them) on both sides of the issue, to present the pros and cons "as candidly as possible." Though we might recognize that he is not exactly non-partisan (see Cooke 1861), his reasoned conclusion, "after a full and careful study," is that the objections to Smith's account are "untenable": "Laying aside all other arguments, there is the moral argument which is irresistible -- that the account in the "General Historie" bears on its face every mark of truthfulness." Smith "was a very great man; and probably nothing would have more surprised him than to have been told that he had never been 'rescued'!"
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Cooke, John Esten. My Lady Pokahontas. Boston, 1885.
[illustrated; novel]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: cover]

Deane, Charles. "Pocahontus [sic] and Captain Smith: A Reminiscence." Magazine of American History 13 (May 1885): 492-94. Deane reflects on the debunking controversy that he started twenty-five years ago, quoting some of the Southern abuse he's taken ("Will he not rest until he has rifled our very history of its choicest traditions?") and answering some of the arguments put forth. Contrary to an episode of Indian savagery in the True Relation hurting the image of the colony, the rescue "would have been the richest incident to be made public for promoting colonization. All the idle and romantic young men about London would have rushed for the colony. Shakespeare would have had a new plot for a drama more fascinating than the play of the Tempest." But the True Relation itself proves that the rescue was not originally present but edited out, for if the story had been in the earlier part of the book, the elaborate description of Pocahontas in the latter part "would have been as unnecessary as it would have been unnatural to the most unpracticed writer."
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

"In this day of doubt." [Raleigh] The News and Observer 28 May 1885. On the take on the rescue controversy by John Esten Cooke.

Jones, H. "The Princess Pocahontas." Art Journal 37 (1885): 299-300.

Neill, Edward D. Virginia Vetusta, During the Reign of James the First. Albany, 1885. 9-18, 98-100.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." The Musical Visitor, a Magazine of Musical Literature and Music 14.2 (February 1885): 43.

Poole, W. F. "The Pocahontas Story." The Dial; a Semi-monthly Journal of Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 5.60 (April 1885): 318-22. Poole, eminent librarian and president of the American Historical Association, contributes to the debunking controversy while reviewing Cooke's book and magazine article of this year. Both quite negatively, but with a surprising twist. The Smith-Pocahontas rescue "is the only romantic incident in the dark and disgraceful record of early Virginia," but though it has been shown to be a myth, Virginians "perpetuate in fiction and art, as well as in sober history, this most precious incident." Smith's writings "in the main, were truthful" according to the (lax) standard of his day, in which everybody lied and expanded, "provided no one else was seriously injured." "The Pocahontas story was as innocuous as one of Mother Goose's legends," injured no one, and has been the occasion of Virginia pride. So, in effect, Poole says, instead of stretching to prove its truth as Cooke does, let's just accept that Smith's character was boastful and not "censure the gallant Captain for indulging in this harmless way his personal vanity, and conforming to a custom of his day."
[debunking]

Robb, Samuel Anderson. Cigar Store Indian in the Guise of Pocohontas [sic]. 1885-1890. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[sculpture]
[Electronic Version]

Williams, Prof. S. W., A. M. "The Indian Maiden -- Pocahontas." Queenly Women, Crowned and Uncrowned. Cincinnati, 1885. 183-90. Engraving by J. C. Buttre. See Buttre entry this year to view image.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

1886

Blathwayt, Mrs. Raymond. "The Story of Two Names." Wide Awake 23 (1886): 379-92.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Errett, Russell. "Pocahontas." Magazine of Western History 4.6 (October 1886): 732-43.
[Electronic Version]

Hart, C. B., and A. Pauli. Pocahontas, the Indian Queen: A Comic Opera in Two Acts. Raleigh: Edwards, Broughton, 1886.
[play; music]

Hendrick, Welland. Pocahontas, A Burlesque Operetta. Chicago, 1886.
[play; music]
[Electronic Version]

1887

Brooks, E. S. "Ma-Ta-Oka of Pow-Ha-Tan. The Girl of the Virginia Forests." St. Nicholas; An Illustrated Magazine for Young Folks 15.1 (November 1887): 26-31.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[View Images: page 26]

Cooke, John Esten. "My Lady Pokahontas." Cosmopolitan 2 (1887): 209-12.
[Electronic Version]

Preston, Margaret J. "The Last Meeting of Pocahontas and the Great Captain." Colonial Ballads, Sonnets and Other Verses. Boston, 1887. 44-47.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Robertson, Wyndham. Pocahontas, Alias Matoaka, and Her Descendants. Richmond, 1887. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1968.)
[genealogy]
[Electronic Version]

1888

"A Modern Pocahontas." (San Francisco) Daily Evening Bulletin 26 July 1888: 4. Pocahontas-like behavior.

Bandelier, Adolphe F. Letter to Thomas Janvier of September 2, 1888. The Unpublished Letters of Adolphe F. Bandelier. El Paso: Hertzog, 1942. 3.

"Ben’s Indian Blood: General Harrison is the Eighth Great Grandson of Pocahontas." (Denver, CO) Rocky Mountain News 16 July 1888.

Palfrey, John Gorham. History of New England. Vol. 1. Boston, 1888. 89.

Wilson, James Grant, and John Fiske, eds. "John Smith." Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Vol. 5. New York, 1885. 569-72.
[Electronic Version]

1889

Chambers, Henry E. A Higher History of the United States. New Orleans, 1889. 110-24.
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Doyle, J. A. English Colonies in America. Vol. 1. New York, 1889. 119-54, 407-11.

Eggleston, Edward. "The Story of Pocahontas." A First Book in American History: with Special Reference to the Lives and Deeds of Great Americans. New York, 1889. 35-41.
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 36, page 38, page 39]

Monroe, Mrs. Lewis B. The Story of Our Country. Boston, 1889. 55-78.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page frontispiece]

"An Open Question. Is Harrison a Descendant of Pocahontas?" Dallas Morning News [Dallas, Texas] 9 March 1883: 3.

1890

Brown, Alexander. The Genesis of the United States. Vol. 2. Boston, 1890. 1006-10. (New York: Russell & Russell, 1964.) A Smith debunking in the Palfrey, Deane, Adams, Neill mode, Brown's mission was to correct what he considered misconceptions and misjudgments about early history. His short biography of Pocahontas doesn't mention the rescue or any active involvement with Smith, focusing, rather, on her relationship with Rolfe and her time in England. The longer sketch of Smith is remarkable for its negative slant. Smith was probably released by the Indians to serve as a decoy to make later invaders more vulnerable; he was a failure as a leader of the colony; his positive image in the Map and the Proceedings gained him favor among those who "knew no better." Smith was "vain," and "we can easily forgive him for compiling a romance, with himself as his hero, without accepting his story as a trustworthy history." Smith was "a mere adventurer," in no way qualified to write a "disinterested and accurate history; in fact, his "history is not a history at all; but chiefly an eulogy of Smith and a lampoon of his peers."
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Kropf, Lewis L. Notes and Queries 7th series, xxxx (January-June, 1890): 1-2, 41-43, 102-4, 161-62, 223-24, 281-82. Not focused on Pocahontas, but debunking of Smith's version of his pre-Virginia life provides more evidence not to trust him as an historian there as well.
[Electronic Version]

Morris, Charles. "Pocahontas." An Elementary History of the United States. Philadelphia, 1890. 41-42. (Philadelphia, 1907. 35-36.)
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Neill, Edward D. "Captain John Smith, Adventurer and Romancer." Macalester College Contributions 2(1890): 241-51.
[Electronic Version]

Shindler, Antonio Zeno . "Pocahontas." 1890. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

1891

"Another Pocahontas: She Had a Happy Family, but Longed for Her People." (Houston, TX) The Galveston Daily News 24 May 1891: 10.

"A Canadian Pocahontas." The Youth's Companion 64.28 (July 9, 1891): III.
[juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Hall, J. L. Introductory Address Delivered by J. L. Hall . . . at the Jamestown Celebration, May 13th, 1891. Richmond, 1891.

Henry, William Wirt. "A Defense of Captain John Smith." Magazine of American History 25 (1891): 300-13. Ever diligent in his anti-debunking duty, Henry returns to the lists supporting Smith as an historian for the third time, now confronting Alexander Brown with a sledgehammer rebuttal, even ending with a testimonial to the truth of Smith's work by an ancestor of Brown!
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Hutton, Laurence. Section on John Brougham. Curiosities of the American Stage. New York, 1891. 163.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 163]

Jameson, J. Franklin. The History of Historical Writing in America. Boston, 1891. 8-13. (Rpt. New York: Antiquarian Press, 1961.)
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Robinson, A. E. and C. W. Pocahontas: Libretto of an Opera in Five Acts. Detroit, 1891.
[play; music]

1892

Cooke, John Esten. Virginia: A History of the People. Boston, 1892. 35-57, 68-84, 93-106.
[Electronic Version]

Hamby, J. W. Pokahontas: A Comic Opera. 1892. (Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in the United States, 1870 to 1916. Ed. Henry S. Parsons. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918. )
[play; music]

"A Modern Pocahontas." Tacoma Daily News 12 August 1892: 1.

"Pocahontas and Virginia Dare." Dallas Morning News 20 November 1892: 8.

"Pocahontas and Virginia Dare." New York Times 10 November 1892: 4.

[Shackleford, E. A. B.] E. A. B. S. Virginia Dare: A Romance of the Sixteenth Century. New York, 1892. 143ff.
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

"The Richmond Dispatch is calling upon the descendants of Pocahontas to raise a fund for a monument." (Portland) Morning Oregonian 18 November 1892: 4.

"World's Fair Doings." Albuquerque Morning Democrat 7 February 1892: 2.

"World's Fair Notes." Tacoma Daily News 15 June 1892: 5.

1893

Brown, Alexander. "Capture, Conversion, and Marriage of Pocahontas." New Peterson Magazine 2.6 (December 1893): 1237-39.

Henry, William Wirt. “Did Percy Denounce Smith’s History of Virginia?” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 1 (1893-94): 473-76.

"John Smith's Pipe of Peace." Tacoma Daily News 18 May 1893: 2.

Poindexter, Charles. Captain John Smith and His Critics. Richmond, 1893. Finally Henry gets some help in the anti-debunking business. But in a strange way. Poindexter sees the True Relation as the problem, exactly the reverse of the debunkers. It is "fradulent," "a stock jobbing trick to boom the Virginia Company's shares" -- and may not even be by Smith. The Indians would never have treated a captive the way Smith describes in the True Relation. So how was he freed: "A woman's pity! Was it a savage girl's love? We do not say, but if so, it was a love not dishonoring her and not dishonored by him. She had never before seen such a man, of Godlike power, armed with the thunder and lightning of heaven, as the Indians believed, and of the prowess and bearing that more than realized the barbarian ideal of heroism." In the final analysis, though, the argument is a type of ad hominem: "men like Smith do not lie. They may have a streak of vanity, or what looks like it, and may be so headstrong in convictions as to incur charges of being conceited, but they do not lie."
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

Robinson, A. E. and C. W. Pocahontas, or, Homestead Life in the New World. Detroit, 1893.
[play; music]

1894

Drake, Samuel Adams. The Making of Virginia and the Middle Colonies. London, 1894. 42-65.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 58]

Goodwin, Maud Wilder. The Colonial Cavalier or Southern Life before the Revolution. New York, 1894. 45-47. Illustrations by Harry Edwards. (Boston, 1897. 47-49.)
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Harland, Marion. "Our Lady of the James." Cosmopolitan; A Monthly Illustrated Magazine 16.3 (January 1894): 307-17.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Historical Inaccuracy Corrected." Tacoma Daily News 23 February 1894: 2.

"History's Fibs." Dallas Morning News 28 January 1894: 4.

Newton, Mary Mann Page. "The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities." American Historical Register (September 1894): 8-21.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Nye, Bill. Bill Nye's History of the United States. Philadelphia, 1894. 38-46. Illustrations by F. Opper. (Upper Saddle River: Literature House, 1969.)
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 39]

Phillips, Wendell. "The Puritan Principle and John Brown." Speeches, Lectures, and Letters. 2nd series. Boston, 1894. 301.

Twain, Mark. The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson and the Comedy of Those Extraordinary Twins. Hartford: American Publishing Company, 1894. 192. (Chapter 14)
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

Tyler, Jessica Gilbert. "The Mythical and the Real John Smith." The National Magazine; A Monthly Journal of American History 19.8-9 (September/October 1894): 457-61.

1895

"A Modern Pocahontas." (New Orleans) The Daily Picayune 10 February 1895: 20. Pocahontas-like actions.

"Fifty-Two Lies of History." Current Literature 18.1 (July-December 1895): 77-78.
[Electronic Version]

Fiske, John. "John Smith in Virginia." Atlantic Monthly 76 (September 1895): 350-64.
[Electronic Version]

Hall, J. Lesslie. Introductory Address Delivered by J. Lesslie Hall at the Jamestown Celebration, Held May 13th, 1895. [n. p.], 1895.

Hope, James Barron. "Jamestown Anniversary Ode." A Wreath of Virginia Bay Leaves. Richmond, 1895. 64-67.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Hope, James Barron. "Three Names." A Wreath of Virginia Bay Leaves. Richmond, 1895. 139-41.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Knots to Untie. Charade. Detroit, 1763." Dallas Morning News [Dallas, Texas] 17 February 1895: 3.
[poetry]

Lossing, Benson J. Our Country. A Household History of the United States. New York, 1895. 179-99. Illustrations by Felix O. C. Darley.
[illustrated]
[View Images: page 192, page 196]

Lossing, Benson John. Description of the Marriage of Pocahontas (with key plate,) at Jamestown, Va., April 1613: From the Original Painting: Painted by H. Brueckner. New York, c. 1895. See Brueckner to view image.
[painting; illustrated]

Manly, Louise. Southern Literature from 1579-1895. Richmond, 1895. 33-38.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 36]

Musick, John R. Pocahontas: A Story of Virginia. New York, 1895. Illustrations by Freeland A. Carter.
[illustrated; novel]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece, page 1, page 268]

"Nye is Profound. His Humor Takes on a Serious and Subtle Vein." State [Columbia, South Carolina] 28 April 1895: 3.

Thomas, Charles Ap. Ye true narrative of ye Princess "Pocahontas" (Matoaka): with other diver matters concernynge ye olde and ye new worlde. Gravesend, 1895.
[illustrated]

1896

Baldwin, James. "Pocahontas." Fifty Famous Stories Retold. New York, 1896. 58-59. (Filiquarian, 2007.)
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Maury, Dabney Herndon. A Young People's History of Virginia and Virginians. Richmond, 1896. 31-57. (Richmond, 1904. 33-61.)
[illustrated; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Murphy, Dawsey Cope. "Pocahontas." Flash-Lights on American History: A Supplementary Reader for Use in Public and Private Schools. Harrisburg, 1896. 6-10.
[school book; poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas and John Smith." New York Times 17 February 1896: 2.
[debunking]

1897

Dawes, S. E. The Story of Pocahontas. Boston, 1897.
[juvenile]

Fiske, John. Old Virginia and Her Neighbours. Vol. 1. Boston, 1897.
[Electronic Version]

Hazelton, George C., Jr. The National Capitol: Its Architecture, Art, and History. New York, 1897. 122. Description of Chapman's 1840 Baptism of Pocahontas painting in the Capitol rotunda: "Though the light-effect on the two principal figures pleasingly catches the passing eye, and though the picture is most sympathetic to popular fancy, the whole as a work of art is unworthy of serious criticism. The subject too is not sufficiently important to warrant the conspicuous hanging."
[illustrated; painting]
[Electronic Version]

"Knots to Untie. The Modern Version." Dallas Morning News [Dallas, Texas] 9 May 1897: 15.

"Modern Pocahontas: Lives Saved Every Day by Indian Sagacity, in a Way That Rivals the Bravery of the Indian Girl of Old." The Milwaukee Journal 20 April 1897: 5. Advertisement for a book entitled The Kickapoo Doctor.
[illustrated]

Partridge, Abbie Nelsia. "Round the Werowocomoco." Round the Werowocomoco and Other Poems. Cincinnati, 1897. 7-36.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas." National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Vol. VII. New York, 1897. 102.
[Electronic Version]

"Pocahontas’ Sharp Retort." (Denver) The Daily Mining Record 3 February 1897. Pocahontas gets the last word.

"Popular American Women." Dallas Morning News 2 August 1897: 6.

1898

Brown, Alexander. The First Republic in America. Boston, 1898.
[debunking]
[Electronic Version]

"Captain John Smith; Alexander Brown's Attack Upon Him -- Pocahontas, Rolfe, and Tobacco." New York Times 18 June 1898: BR398. The "decidedly vindictive" Brown is engaging in a debunking "onslaught." "That industrious person, the historical iconoclast, is still at work. . . . demolishing the memory and fame of Capt. John Smith." "Are we really to abandon under Mr. Brown's influence that most charming and romantic story of the princess Pocahontas?" "The story of Capt. Smith and Pocahontas rests upon the imperishable pillars of a romance that appeals to all time, and so long as 'human hearts are human,' the story of Pocahontas will remain indissolubly interwoven with the earliest history of the United States."
[debunking]

Chambers, Henry E. A Higher History of the United States for Schools and Academies. New York, 1898. 83.
[illustrated; school book]

"Florida's Pocahontas." Dallas Morning News 20 February 1898: 10.

"Florida's Pocahontas; The Romantic Story of the Daughter of an Indian Chief Told by Gov. Bloxham." New York Times 24 January 1898: 2.

Henry, William Wirt. Review of The First Republic in America by Alexander Brown. Virginia Historical Magazine (1898): 209-22. Blisteringly long and negative review of the debunking Brown: "He displays an intense hatred to Smith, whose character as a man and a writer he endeavors to destroy." Brown never mentions Smith but to sneer at him and alludes to him contemptuously as "the Historian." Not much specifically about Pocahontas here, but this essay speaks in general to the controversy over Smith's accuracy. As a historian, Brown "is a lamentable failure."
[debunking]

Report by the Committee of Seven to the American Historical Association. "The Study of History in Schools." Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1898. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1898. 483. The use of sources in secondary work is important, but the use of the "source method," in which students have little more than a series of extracts, is not recommended. A good text book is needed to see relationships. So sources should be limited, and not all are of equal value, and those chosen must have authenticity beyond dispute. Thus, "It is not worth while to introduce children to the controversies over the voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot; or to the arguments for and against the truthfulness of John Smith's account of his rescue by Pocahontas."
[debunking]

1899

Brown, Neal. Critical Confessions. Wausau: Philosopher Press, 1899. 116-18.
[Electronic Version]

Cyr, Ellen M. "Pocahontas." Cyr's Fourth Reader. Boston, 1899. 227-29. (William Makepeace Thackeray)
[poetry; school book]
[Electronic Version]

Eggleston, Edward. The Beginners of a Nation. New York, 1899. 31-52.
[Electronic Version]

Finck, Henry T. Primitive Love and Love-Stories. New York, 1899. 632-33.
[Electronic Version]

"Pamunkey Indians dressed for the Pocahontas-Smith Play." National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, 1899.
[photograph]

"A Portrait of Pocahontas for Senate." Dallas Morning News 9 April 1899: 14.

Rowland, Kate Mason. “Captain John Smith, Soldier and Historian.” Conservative Review 1.1 (Feb. 1899): 112-26.
[Electronic Version]

1900

Johnston, Mary. To Have and Hold. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1900. 4, 106, 321, 351, 354
[novel; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Winston, Annie Steger. "America as a Field for Fiction." The Arena 23.6 (June 1900): 654-60.
[Electronic Version]

1901

Brown, Alexander. English Politics in Early Virginia History. Boston, 1901.
[Electronic Version]

Brown, W. I., and J. A. Kent. Captain John Smith and Pocahontas; A Melodrama in Four Acts. 1901. (Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in the United States, 1870 to 1916. Ed. Henry S. Parsons. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918.)
[play]

Chadwick, John White. "Colonial Virginia; Alexander Brown's Book on its Politics." New York Times 4 May 1901: BR 15. Negative review of A. Brown 1901, in which the doctored history of Smith calls into question the credibility of the "club story," the Smith-Pocahontas incident.

King, Maj. E. "Pocahontas." A New Southron Poem. Richmond: Ware & Duke, 1901.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Robins, Edward. A Boy in Early Virginia, or Adventures with Captain John Smith. Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co, 1901.
[juvenile]

Smith, Helen Ainslie. The Thirteen Colonies. Part 1. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1901. 55-93.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Wiley, Sara King. "Pocahontas in England." Outlook 67.1 (January 5, 1901): 30-31. (Alcestis and Other Poems. New York, 1905. 55-57.)
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Woods, Katherine Pearson. The True Story of Captain John Smith. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1901. 167-83, 345-53.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

1902

Browne, Raymond A. Pocahontas: Indian Dance and Two-Step. New York: Mayo Music Co, 1902.
[music]

"Kin to Pocahontas. One of Her Descendants Talks Interestingly of the Indians." United Service; A Quarterly Review of Military and Naval Affairs 1.1 (January 1902): 106-8.

Roberts, E. P. The Adventures of John Smith, Captain of Two Hundred and Fifty Horse, and Sometime President of Virginia. London, 1902. 170-76, 177-91, 219-24.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Romance of 17th Century." Dallas Morning News 1 June 1902: 22.

"Women's Faces on Stamps." Dallas Morning News 7 April 1902: 5.

1903

Hoyt, Richmond F. Princess Pocahontas. March and two-step. New York, Chicago: Windsor Music Co, [1903].
[music]

Manson, Theodore. Pocahontas march and two-step. Chicago: 20th Century Music Co., 1903.
[music]

Parsons, Harold G. "Knight of the Sun." Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine. 174 (July 1903): 28-40.

Trahern, Al, and Richmond F. Hoyt. Princess Pocahontas March and Two-Step. Chicago: Windsor Music Co., 1903.
[illustrated; music]
[View Images: cover]

1904

Chandler, J. A. C., and O. P. Chitwood. Makers of American History: A Beginner's Book in the History of Our Country. Boston: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1904. 51-60.
[illustrated]

Hillard, George. S. Makers of American History: Captain John Smith. New York: University Society, 1904.
[Electronic Version]

Jenks, Tudor. Captain John Smith. New York: The Century Co., 1904. 124-70, 239-52.
[illustrated]

Osgood, Herbert L. The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. 3 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1904-7.

Tyler, Lyon Gardiner. England in America, 1580-1652. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1904. 45-49, 74-75. (New York: J. & J. Harper Editions, 1968.)
[Electronic Version]

Williams, Henry Smith, ed. The Historians' History of the World. Vol. 22. New York: The Outlook Company, 1904. 567-82.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

"Women for the Hall of Fame." Massachusetts Ploughman and New England Journal of Agriculture 63.24 (March 5, 1904): 4.

1905

Avery, Elroy McKendree. A History of the United States and Its People. Vol. 2. Cleveland: Burrows Brothers, 1905. 32-79.
[illustrated]

Black, Violet. Pocahontas: A Play in One Act. New York, [1905].
[play]

Blow, Jennie Matteson Goodell. An address [on John Smith] delivered before the Daughters of the American Revolution at their congress held in Washington, D.C., April, 1905. Richmond?, 1905.

Bradley, A. G. Captain John Smith. London: MacMillan and Co., 1905. 83-104, 194-200.

Brooke, Richard Norris. "Pocahontas." 1905. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 34.)
[painting]
[View Images: painting]

Bryan, Vincent, and Gus Edwards. Pocahontas: Tammany's Sister. New York: Gus Edwards Music Pub Co, 1905.
[illustrated; music]
[View Images: cover]

Colvin, Sidney. Early Engraving and Engravers in England. London, 1905. 79, 99-106. Absolutely beautiful book -- copious large illustrations to give a context for early engravings. No images of Pocahontas, but info on Simon van de Passe, who did the 1616 engraving, and images of other work in his project.
[illustrated; engraving]

Molbech, Oluf Christian. Pocahontas: Et Nutidsbillede fra det gamle Indianerland. København og Kristiania, 1905.
[foreign language]

"Monument to Pocahontas." Dallas Morning News 16 November 1905: 5.

Mowry, William A., and Blanche S. Mowry. American Pioneers. New York: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1905. 34-46.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Slaughter, R. A. Pocahontas: intermezzo, march and two step. Richmond and Norfolk: R.A. Slaughter, 1905.
[music]

Walke, Mrs. Frank Anthony. "Pocahontas and Her Descendants." Jamestown Bulletin (July 1905): 5; (September 1905): 3.
[genealogy]

1906

Austin, W. L. Pocahontas, A Spectacular Play. Richmond, 1906.
[play]

Bagby, Mrs. Thomas P. "Memorial to Pocahontas." Jamestown Bulletin (April 1906): 7.

Bagby, Mrs. Thomas P. "Memorial to Pocahontas." Southern Magazine 1.3 (November 1906): 13. The gift of a recent memorial to Smith makes Bagby wonder, "Those who call themselves true Virginians born and bred; who love the Mother State and cherish her great men as jewels, have they, all this long time, forgotten the greatness of Virginia's early princess, Pocahontas?" "It is astonishing that three hundred years have passed in this hero-worshiping country, and there has been no memorial erected to this remarkable woman." What is more fitting than that in 1907 a memorial to her should be erected, and money is being raised right now.

Bagby, Mrs. Thomas P. "Virginia Dare." Southern Magazine 1.2 (October 1906): 13-14. "At this time, when Pocahontas has become a household word in home, and a theme in schools for composition of boys and girls, and when gray-haired man and women are searching history to prove this and that about Pocahontas, it is passing strange that someone has not undertaken to prove that Pocahontas, the Indian princess, was no other than 'Virginia Dare'. . . . the first Christian child born on United States soil," during the first Roanoke colony in 1587. Among suggestive supporting evidence are Pocahontas's lack of desire to return to the Indians once abducted, the civilized character of her progeny, reasons for the dark color of her skin, and poise and self-possession uncharacteristic of a 10-12 year old. In any event, she should have "a monument erected to her memory, as the woman who did all that she could to save this great nation."

Bosher, Kate Langley. "The Jamestown Commemoration 1607-1907." Outlook 84.9 (October 27, 1906): 489-99.

Bright, Robert S. Pocahontas and Other Colonial Dames of Virginia: An Address by Robert S. Bright Delivered at Geneva, New York February 22, 1906. Richmond, 1942.

Dorsey, Ella Loraine. Pocahontas. Washington: George E. Howard, 1906. 21-30.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: cover]

Garber, Virginia Armistead. Pocahontas. New York: Broadway Publishing Co., 1906. Illustrations by the author.
[illustrated; poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Holliday, Carl. A History of Southern Literature. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1906. 20-26.
[Electronic Version]

"The Jamestown Exposition and the Event Which it Commemorates." The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal 28.6 (November/December 1906): 325-29.
[Electronic Version]

Keimer, Randolph. Pocahontas, A Comedy of Sylvan Love and Tragedy of A Broken Heart. Wedington, 1906. (Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in the United States, 1870 to 1916. Ed. Henry S. Parsons. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918.)
[play]

Koogle, Effie Louise. Royalty in Old Virginia; An Historical Play. Lebanon: March Brothers, Pub., 1906.
[play; music]

Lane, Melvin Arthur. "The Story of Pocahontas." Strand 187 (August 1906): 17-21.
[illustrated]

Mack, Flora Lapham. Old Jamestown: An Historical Poem. Richmond: Dietz, 1906.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"The Noble Red Man as a Stage Figure; It Is Not So Easy to Be an Indian Now as It Was in Olden Days---Creating an Atmosphere---Some Amusing Mishaps." New York Times 4 March 1906: X4 .

Pocahontas Memorial Association. Washington: G. H. Howard, 1906.

"Pocahontas." Southern Planter 67.10 (October 1906): 811-13.

Smith, E. Boyd. The Story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1906. Illustrations by E. Boyd Smith.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 11, page 12, page 14, page 16, page 17, page 18, page 19, page 1, page 20, page 22, page 23, page 24, page 25, page 26]

Sullivan, Daniel J. Miss Pocahontas. An Indian War-Whoop in Two Whoops. [Comic opera.] Book by R.A. Barnet and R. M. Baker ... Additional musical numbers by H. H. Luther and C.Wilmore. [Vocal score.] Boston: White-Smith Music Publishing Co, 1906.
[play; music]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: cover]

Tappan, Eva March. "John Smith, The Father of Virginia." American Hero Stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1906. 38-49.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Tecumtha [Edwin Oliver Ropp]. Pocahontas. Normal: Universal Publishing Co., 1906.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

"To Pocahontas Descendants." New York Times 11 March 1906: 9.
[genealogy]

Viett, George Frederic. Pocahontas, The Virginia Nonpareil. A Drama of the 17th Century. [Richmond?]: The C. W. Rex Co.,[1906]. (Rpt. The Birth of Our Nation: A Drama of America. Norfolk: Galaxy Pub. Co., 1916.)
[play]
[Electronic Version]

1907

Bagby, Mrs. Thomas P. "Tuckahoe." Tuckahoe: A Collection of Indian Stories and Legends. New York: Broadway Publishing, 1907. 1-51.
[short story]

Bitzer, Geo L. "Pocahontas and the Higher Criticism. Radical Criticism. Reverent Criticism." Christian Observer 95.46 (November 13, 1907): 4.

Bruce, Philip Alexander. Social Life of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, 1907. 138-39, 229-30.
[Electronic Version]

Bullard, Julia Wyatt. Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907.
[poetry; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece]

"Capt. John Smith's Own Account of His Rescue by Pocahontas; Daye ye Fyrstte. Daye ye Seconde. Daye ye Thirde. Daye ye Fourthe. Daye ye Fifthe." New York Times 28 April 1907: SM9.

Carey, Charles M. Return of Capt. John Smith. Hampton: Carey & Edwards, 1907.
[music]

Castleman, Virginia Carter. Pocahontas, A Poem. New York: Broadway Publishing, 1907.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Chandler, J. A. C., and T. B. Thames. Colonial Virginia. Richmond: Times-Dispatch Company, 1907. 43-86.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Chesterman, Evan R. "To Pocahontas." Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Ed. Julia Wyatt Bullard. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907. 35.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Cole, Anna Cunningham. The Jamestown Princess: Pocahontas Legends. Norfolk, 1907.
[illustrated; poetry]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece]

Early, R. H. By-ways of Virginia History: A Jamestown Memorial, Embracing a Sketch of Pocahontas. Richmond: Everett Waddey Company, 1907. 385-401.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Ellis, Edward S. Pocahontas: A Princess of the Woods. New York: McLoughlin Bros., 1907. Illustrations by E. B. Comstock.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[View Images: page 19, page 34, page 101, page 125]

Forbes-Lindsay, C. H. John Smith, Gentleman Adventurer. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott, 1907. 204-61.
[illustrated]

Furth, Seymour J. My Pocahontas. Words by Edgar Selden. New York: Maurice Shapiro, [1907].
[music]

Glackens, Louis M. "Appropriate Group for the Jamestown Exposition." Puck 61.1573 (April 24, 1907): cover.
[cartoon]
[View Images: cover]

Goode, Kate Tucker. "A Princess of Virginia: A Drama." Lippincott's Monthly Magazine 79 (June 1907): 817-48.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Green, Anne Sanford. Pokahuntas: Maid of Jamestown. Culpeper: Exponent Press, 1907. Illustrations by J. W. Foster.
[illustrated; novel]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 16, page 23, page 41, page 64, page 73, page 76, page 94, page 118]

Hampton Roads Naval Museum [Tom Costa, et al.]. An Illustrated History of the [1907] Jamestown Exhibition. Norfolk: The Museum, 1907.

Hope, James Barron. "Pocahontas." Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Ed. Julia Wyatt Bullard. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907. 30.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

"Jamestown: Wingo, Ellett & Crump Shoe Co." 1907. Advertising postcard at 1907 Jamestown Exposition. Picture Postcards in the United States, 1893-1918. Ed. George and Dorothy Miller. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1976. 216ff.
[artifact]

"John Smith and Pocahontas. Although the Indian Maiden Saved His Life She Married John Rolfe." New York Observer and Chronicle 85.43 (October 24, 1907): 534.

Johnson, Eleanor H. Boys' Life of Captain John Smith. New York: Thomas Crowell & Co., 1907. 133-47, 257-87.
[illustrated; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Kester, Vaughan. John O'Jamestown. New York: The McClure Company, 1907. Illustrations by M. Leone Bracker.
[novel; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Kiralfy, Bolossy. Norfolk's Gigantic Exposition Attraction: The Colossal Operatic, Aquatic, Spectacular Production of Kiralfy's Pocahontas: Founded on the History of Virginia: A Proloque and Three Acts. 1907. Typescript in Library of Congress.
[play]

"The Lady Pocahontas." Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Ed. Julia Wyatt Bullard. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907. 28. (quote from John Smith's True Relation)
[Electronic Version]

Lee, Sidney. "The American Indian in Elizabethan England." Scribner's 42 (1907): 313-30. (Elizabethan and Other Essays by Sir Sidney Lee. Ed. Frederick S. Boas. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929.)

Leyendecker, J. C. "Jamestown, 1607." 1907. (Collier's: The National Weekly 27 April 1907:cover). (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 42.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 42]

Littleton, J(esse). T(albot). The Story of Captain Smith and Pocahontas: A Souvenir of the Jamestown Exposition. Nashville: Publishing House of the M. E. Church, South, 1907.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Ludlow, Helen Wilhelmina. Pocahontas: "Bright stream that runs between the hills." [Hampton]: Hampton Institute Press, 1907. Illustrations by Laban Baird (Te-yu-stel-la-te).
[illustrated; poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Maginnis, John T. "Matoaca." Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Ed. Julia Wyatt Bullard. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907. 37.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Maginnis, John T. "Opening of the Jamestown Exposition." Scientific American 96.17 (April 27, 1907): 351-53.

McDavid, Mittie Owen. Princess Pocahontas. New York: Neale Publishing Co., 1907.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece]

McDonald, James J. Life in Old Virginia. Norfolk: Old Virginia Publishing Company, 1907. 64-77.
[Electronic Version]

"On a Portraiture of Pocahontas." Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Ed. Julia Wyatt Bullard. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907. 25. (See "On a Portraicture of Pocahontas," 1851.)
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Page, Thomas Nelson. "Jamestown and What Happened There." Collier's: The National Weekly 27 April 1907.

Pocahontas stamp. Part of the Jamestown Exposition issue, May 3, 1907.
[homage]
[Electronic Version]

"'Pocahontas' Is Produced." New York Times 7 June 1907: 9.

Portor, Laura Spencer. "The Love Story of the First American Girl." Ladies' Home Journal 24.6 (May 1907): 10.

Pratt, Helen Marshall. "Newly Discovered Portrait of Pocahontas." Harper's Weekly 51 (June 29, 1907): 958.

Pryor, Mrs. Roger A. The Birth of the Nation: Jamestown, 1607. New York: MacMillan, 1907.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Robertson, N. Brent. Pocahontas: A Song of Old Jamestown. Baltimore: F. P. Robertson, 1907.
[illustrated; music]
[View Images: cover]

Rummels, Richard. "Pocahontas at the Court of King James." 1907. Postcard. American Colortype Co., N.Y. Norfolk, Va.: published by the Concessionaire, The Jamestown Amusement & Vending Co., Inc. 1907. Library of Congress control number: 2002719456.
[artifact]
[Electronic Version]

Rutherford, Mildred Lewis. The South in History and Literature. Atlanta: Franklin-Turner Co., 1907. 57-60.
[Electronic Version]

Schlesinger Alexander. Pocahontas or Virginians in New York. A Historical Comedy in Three Acts and Eleven Scenes. Arranged as a libretto for comic opera including German lyrics. New York: A. Schlesinger, 1907.
[play; music]

Scott, Nora L. C. "Pocahontas." Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Ed. Julia Wyatt Bullard. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907. 40.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Selden, Edgar, and Seymour Furth. My Pocahontas. New York: Maurice Shapiro, 1907.
[music]

Sheets, Catherine Randolph. Love Will Find the Way: The Marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas. Washington: Gibson Brothers, 1907.
[illustrated]

Sheffey, Miriam. "Pocahontas." Jamestown Tributes and Toasts. Ed. Julia Wyatt Bullard. Lynchburg: J. P. Bell, 1907. 42.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Sheppard, William L. The Princess Pocahontas: Her Story. Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, 1907.
[illustrated]

Thomas, C. E. John Smith and Pocahontas: A Play. 1907. (Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in the United States, 1870 to 1916. Ed. Henry S. Parsons. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918. )
[play]

Turner, Lillian. The American Princess Pocahontas. [Norfolk]: The Cable Company, 1907.
[music]

"Two Versions of the Story of Pocahontas; Latest Researches Vindicate the Probability of the Romantic Exploits of Capt. John Smith -- The Pocahontas Story One of Many Incidents in an Unparalleled Career." New York Times 28 April 1907: SM9.

Tyler, Lyon Gardiner, ed. Narratives of Early Virginia, 1606-1625. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1907. 25-72. Smith's True Relation.
[Electronic Version]

Viett, George Frederic. "Virginia's Welcome, 1907." 1907. The Birth of Our Nation: A Drama of America. Norfolk: Galaxy Pub. Co., 1916. 119.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1908

"Great Clambake of the Huckleberry Indians." Mention of a play entitled "Pocahontas: or, Ye Gentle Savage Discovered." Theatre Magazine 8 (January 1908): 29-31.
[play]

Greene, Clay M. Review of "Pocahontas: or, Ye Gentle Savage Discovered." Theatre Magazine 8 (January 1908): 29-31.
[play]

Littleton, J(esse). T(albot). "Pocahontas." (from The Story of Captain Smith and Pocahontas) Library of Southern Literature, vol. 14. Ed. Edwin Anderson Alderman et al. New Orleans: Martin and Hoyt, 1908. 6174.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Mabie, Hamilton Wright, and Kate Stephens. "Pocahontas." Heroines That Every Child Should Know: Tales for Young People of the World's Heroines of all Ages. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1908. 146-73. Adapted from Elizabeth Eggleston Seelye 1879.
[juvenile; gender]

McGlone, Susie G. A Virginia Heroine: A Comedy in Three Acts. Boston: W. H. Baker, 1908.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Page, Thomas Nelson. The Old Dominion: Her Making and Her Manners. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. 109-16.
[Electronic Version]

Pocahantas [sic] -- A Child of the Forest. Dir. Edwin S. Porter. Distributed by Edison Mfg., 1908. (photos of four scenes are available from the Library of Congress: reproduction numbers LC-USZ6-213 to LC-USZ6-216)
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Sargeant, William Henry. "A Believer In Pocahontas." New York Times 22 August 1908: BR464.

Story, Alfred T. American Shrines in England. New York: Macmillan Company, 1908. 308-9.
[Electronic Version]

Tappan, Eva March. Letters from Colonial Children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1908. 20-39.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Wall, Mary Virginia. The Daughter of Virginia Dare. New York: Neale Publishing Co., 1908.
[novel]
[Electronic Version]

1909

Ball, Charles W. A. Daughters of Pocahontas: intermezzo and two-step. Syracuse: Leiter Bros., 1909.
[music]

Halsey, Don. A History of the Pokahuntas Bell Moulded for Jamestown Exposition. Culpeper: Culpeper Exponent Power Presses, 1909.

"Illustrated History: Pocahontas Saving the Life of John Smith." Puck 66.1701 (October 6, 1909). 07.
[cartoon]
[View Images: page 7]

Keiley, Charles Russel, ed. The Official Blue Book of the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, A.D. 1907. Norfolk: Colonial Publishing, 1909. 10-19, 103, 138, 149.

Philip, Alex J. "The Princess Pocahontas." Home Counties Magazine 11 (1909):161-66.

Stevenson, Augusta. "Pocahontas and Captain Smith." Children's Classics in Dramatic Form. Vol. 2. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1909. 99-106.
[play; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Stevenson, Augusta. "Pocahontas Saves Jamestown." Children's Classics in Dramatic Form. Vol. 2. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1909. 107-14.
[play; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

1910

Arber, Edward, ed. Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1910.

Ferris, Jean Leon Gerome. "The Abduction of Pocahontas." 1910. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 22.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 22]

Patten, Willard. Pocahontas, An Opera in Three Acts. 1910. (Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in the United States, 1870 to 1916. Ed. Henry S. Parsons. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918.)
[play; music]

Pocahontas. Perf. Anna Rosemond, Frank H. Crane, George Barnes. Thanhouser Film Corp, 1910.
[film]

Tyler, G. Vere, and Max Saher. Pokahuntus; A Play in Four Acts. 1910. (Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in the United States, 1870 to 1916. Ed. Henry S. Parsons. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918.)
[play]

1911

Christy, Howard Chandler. "Pocahontas." 1911. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 45.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 45]

Glackens, Louis M. "Pocahontas Perkins: In His Famous Act of Saving the Life of Captain John Smith." Puck 70.1808 (October 18, 1911): 02.
[cartoon]
[View Images: page 2]

Halleck, Reuben Post. History of American Literature. New York: American Book Company, 1911. 17-20.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Holden, John Jarvis. "A Woman's Pity." American History by American Poets. Ed. Nellie U. Wallington. New York: Duffield, 1911. 42-43. (Freeport: Books for Libraries, 1972.)
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1912

Bird, Grace E., and Maud Starling. "John Smith." Historical Plays for Children. New York: Macmillan, 1912. 128-42. Illustrations by K. Jordan.
[play; juvenile; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 128]

Bruce, Philip Alexander. "Pocahontas." Pocahontas and Other Sonnets. Norfolk, 1912.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Gilman, Wenona [pseud.]. The Curse of Pocahontas. Cleveland: Arthur Westbrook Co., 1912.
[novel]

Graybill, Rev. J. M. "History of the Ages." Herald of Gospel Liberty 104.5 (February 1, 1912): 13.

"A Japanese Pocahontas." The Youth's Companion 86.40 (October 3, 1912): 520.
[juvenile]

MacKay, Constance D'Arcy. "Princess Pocahontas." Patriotic Plays and Pageants for Young People. New York: Henry Holt, 1912. 12-26.
[juvenile; play]
[Electronic Version]

Odell, Edson Kenny. The Romance of Pocahontas. New York: Cosmopolitan Press, 1912.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: cover]

Sale, Edith Tunis. "Pocahontas: Mistress John Rolfe." Old Time Belles and Cavaliers. Philadelphia and London: J. P. Lippincott, 1912. 11-20.
[Electronic Version]

Tucker, Louise E., and Estelle L. Ryan. "Narrow Escape: A Story of John Smith and Pocahontas." Historical Plays of Colonial Days. New York: Longmans, Green, 1912. 131-36.
[play; juvenile; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: frontispiece]

Tucker, Louise E., and Estelle L. Ryan. "Pocahontas in London: A Story of how the Lords and Ladies of the Court Treated Pocahontas as the Princess Daughter of the Emperor Powhatan." Historical Plays of Colonial Days. New York: Longmans, Green, 1912. 68-74.
[play; juvenile; illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Ullmann, Margaret. Pocahontas: A Pageant. Boston: Poet Lore Company, 1912.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

1913

Russell, Charles M. "Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." 1913. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

"The Ancestors and Descendants of John Rolfe with Notices of Some Connected Families." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 21 (1913): 208-211.
[genealogy]

1914

Bradley, A. G. "Captain John Smith." Fortnightly 101 (January 1914): 69-82.

Hammond, Otis Grant, ed. Dedication of a Memorial to Reverend John Tucke 1701-1773 . . . With an Address on Captain John Smith by Justin Harvey Smith. New Hampshire Historical Society, 1914. 53-68.

Wayland, John W. How to Teach American History. New York: Macmillan Company, 1914.

1915

Eastman, Charles A. "Historic Indian Women." The Indian To-day: The Past and Future of the First American. Garden City: Doubleday, 1915. 173-75.
[Electronic Version]

"Expurgated Heroines; Anecdotes Revised for the Comprehension of the Anti-Suffragist." Puck 78.2016 (October 23, 1915): 8.

Hart, Albert Bushnell. "American Historical Liars." Harper's 131 (October 1915): 35.

Johnson, Rossiter. Captain John Smith (1579-1631). New York: MacMillan Company, 1915.
[illustrated]

Lovell, Mrs. W. S. "Pocahontas." Plays for Amateurs. Ed. John. M. Clapp. Chicago: Drama League of America, 1915. 39.
[play; juvenile]

Streubel, Ernest J. "The Pocahontas Story in Early American Drama." Colonnade (September 1915): 68-77.

Sweetser, Kate Dickinson. "Captain John Smith: Adventurer in Many Lands." Ten Great Adventurers. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1915. 66-92.
[Electronic Version]

"The President's Fiancee A Descendant of Pocahontas." New York Times 10 October 1915: 98. Mrs. Woodrow Wilson.

Tyler, Lyon G. Pocahontas: Peace and Truth. Richmond: Valentine Museum, 1915.

1916

Blachert, Jennie Helmes. America's Princess, Pocahontas. [Fairbury, Neb., Printed by the Fairbury Journal Co., 1916].

Edmonds, Fred, and Edward Johnson. Pocahontas: A Comic Operetta. New York: J. Fischer and Bro., 1916.
[play; music]
[Electronic Version]

"In the Current Week." New York Times 27 February 1916: 6. National Pocahontas Society meeting.

Stevenson, Augusta. "Dream of Gold." Dramatized Scenes from American History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1929. 1-52.
[play; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Viett, George Frederic. The Birth of Our Nation: A Drama of America. Norfolk: Galaxy Pub. Co., 1916. (Rpt. of Pocahontas, The Virginia Nonpareil. A Drama of the 17th Century. [Richmond?]: The C. W. Rex Co.,[1906].)
[illustrated; play]

Watson, Virginia. The Princess Pocahontas. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company, 1916. Illustrations by George Wharton Edwards. (Rpt. as Karla Dougherty, The Legend of Pocahontas. New York: Children's Classics, 1995.) 300th anniversary of the death of Pocahontas, part of a series on early history for children. Focus on "Pocahontas," even "Matoaka," rather than the "Lady Rebecca" persona. And a perspective sympathetic to the Indian: "The earlier histories and stories dealing with the Indians . . . made the red man a devil incarnate. . . . Now, however, there is a new spirit of understanding. We are finding out how often it was the Indian who was wronged and the white man who wronged him. . . . Virginia was the first permanent English settlement on this continent, and if not the most important, at least equally as important to our future development as that of New England. . . . But for one girl's aid—as far as man may judge—it would have been uprooted and destroyed. In truth, when I look over the whole world history, I can find no other child of thirteen, boy or girl, who wielded such a far-reaching influence over the future of a nation. . . . And the importance of this Colony to the future United States was so great that we owe to Pocahontas somewhat the same gratitude, though in a lesser degree, that France owes to her Joan of Arc." Pocahontas adopts Smith at the rescue, she meets with the wounded Smith departing to England, there's an Indian-lover sub-plot involving Claw-of-the-Eagle and his foster-mother, who kidnaps baby Thomas. (Several editions, not clear which one is linked.)
[illustrated; novel; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page ii, page iii, page 114, page 158, page 212, page 274, page 302]

1917

Lindsay, Vachel. "Our Mother Pocahontas." The Chinese Nightingale, and Other Poems. New York: Macmillan, 1917. 39-42.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Succombe, Thomas. "Rolfe, John." The Dictionary of National Biography. Eds. Sir Leslie Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee. Vol. 17. London: Oxford UP, 1917. 157-58.

USS Pocahontas. Served in World War I.
[homage]
[Electronic Version]

1918

Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1918.
[Electronic Version]

Moeller, Philip. "Pokey or The Beautiful Legend of the Amorous Indian: A Cartoon Comedy." Five Somewhat Historical Plays. New York: Knopf, 1918. 127-57.
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Sandburg, Carl. "Cool Tombs." Cornhuskers. New York: Henry Holt, 1918. 120.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

1919

Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Yearbook of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities 1919. Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, 1919.

Lewis, Sam M., Joe Young, and Fred Ahlert. Who Played Poker with Pocahontas. New York: Waterson, Berlin, & Snyder Co, 1919.
[music]

1920

Imbert, Leon F. Pocahontas, a Play-cinema, Founded Upon the Most Reliable Historic Authorities of the First English Settlers in America. Newport News: Leon F. Imbert, 1920.
[play]

Mac Meekin, Cyril J., and J.A. Mac Meekin. Pocohontas [sic]: Season's greatest hit. New York: J.A. Mac Meekin, 1920.
[illustrated; music]
[View Images: cover]

1921

Bedle, Althea Fitz Randolph. "Scenes from the Life of the Indian Princess Pocahontas." Charles Davis Platt, Pocahontas and the Dawn of Our Nation. Dover: C. D. Platt, 1921. 1-3.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Ferris, Jean Leon Gerome. "Matoax." 1921. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 46.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 46]

Marquis, Don. Noah an' Jonah an' Cap'n John Smith. New York: Appleton, 1921.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Platt, Charles Davis. Pocahontas and the Dawn of Our Nation. Dover: C. D. Platt, 1921.
[poetry; play]
[Electronic Version]

1922

Hubbell, Jay Broadus. Virginia Life in Fiction. Dallas, 1922.
[Electronic Version]

Lightfoot, Nan Maury Lemon [Mrs. John B.]. "Statue of Pocahontas Unveiled after 16 Years of Splendid Effort." Sons of the Revolution in State of Virginia Quarterly Magazine 1.3 (1922): 22-25.
[illustrated; sculpture]

Partridge, William Ordway. "Pocahontas." 1922. (Mary Newton Stanard, The Story of Virginia's First Century. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1928. 49.) (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 43.)
[sculpture]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 43]

Poe, Elisabeth Ellicott. "The Lady Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." Half-Forgotten Romances of American History. Washington: Privately printed, 1922. 5-17.

Stanard, W. G. "Pocahontas." Richmond News Leader 2 June 1922.
[genealogy]

Tucker, Beverly Randolph. "Pocahontas." Cited in Nan Maury Lemon Lightfoot, "Statue of Pocahontas Unveiled after 16 Years of Splendid Effort." Sons of the Revolution in State of Virginia Quarterly Magazine 1.3 (1922): 22-25.
[poetry]

1923

Chronicles of America: Jamestown. Yale University Press Film Service. Distributed by Pathe Exchange, 1923.
[film]
[View Images: photograph]

Gaston, Edward Page. "Pocahontas's Last Resting Place." Landmark 5 (1923): 255-58.

Quinn, Arthur Hobson. A History of the American Drama. New York: Harper, 1923. 138-40. James Nelson Barker's The Indian Princess is the first Indian play by an American to be performed and the first well authenticated instance of an original American play being produced in London.

1924

Bruce, Philip Alexander. History of Virginia. Vol. 1. Chicago: American Historical Society, 1924. 52-53, 101-3.

Gibbs, Henry. "Pocahontas, A Historical Poem of Early Virginia." The Poems of John Yaller Cat. Colony: H. P. Gibbs, 1924. 144-305.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Kellogg, Thelma Louise. The Life and Works of John Davis. Orono: University Press, 1924. Writer of novels and poems about Pocahontas.

Murray, William H. "Pocahontas." Murray's Essays on Pocahontas and Pushmataha, Historical and Biographical, with Copious Notes on Oklahoma History. Ardmore: Priv. print., Paine Printing Company, 1924. 1-27.

Pocahontas and John Smith. 1-reel Universal comedy. Hysterical History Comedies. Universal, 1924.
[film]

Price, Andrew. The Princess Pocahontas. Marlinton: Times Book Company, 1924.

1925

Bissell, Benjamin. The American Indian in English Literature of the Eighteenth Century. New Haven: Yale UP, 1925. 6, 57. (New York: Archon, 1968.)

"A Green River Pocahontas." McClure's Magazine 2.2 (December 1925): 300-2.

"Pocahontas the Tomboy." Herald of Gospel Liberty 117.33 (August 13, 1925): 801.

Price, Olive M. "Around the Blue Wigwam." Short Plays from American History and Literature for Classroom Use. Vol. 1. New York: French, 1925. 143-69.
[play; school book]

Smith, Nora Archibald. Kate Douglas Wiggin as Her Sister Knew Her. Boston, 1925. 133, 137.
[poetry]

Williams, William Carlos. In the American Grain. Norfolk: New Directions, 1925. The "May-pole" chapter.

1926

Christy, Howard Chandler. "Pocahontas." 1926. (Howard Chandler Christy: Artist/Illustrator of Style. Ed. Mimi C. Miley. Allentown: Allentown Art Museum, 1977. 34.)
[painting]
[View Images: page 34]

Ellyson, Mrs. J. Taylor. The First Permanent English Settlement in America. Richmond: Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, 1926.

Fraser, Georgia. Princess Royal. New York: H. Vinal, 1926.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Jalbert, H. H. "Captain John Smith: Jack of All Trades and Master of Most." The Mentor 14 (July 1926): 39-40.
[illustrated]

1927

"Brasse Without, but Golde Within." Spectator 139 (July 9, 1927): 60-61. Review of Chatterton.

Chatterton, E. Keble. Captain John Smith. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1927. 126-48.
[illustrated]

Crane, Hart. "Powhatan's Daughter." The Dial; A Semi-monthly Journal of Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information (October 1927): 329-32. (See The Bridge, 1930.)
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

F. H. "The Pocahontas Portrait." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 35 (1927): 431-36. Booton Hall portrait.
[painting]

Fairman, Charles E. Art and Artists of the Capitol of the United States. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1927. 52, 118-19, 245, 355.
[painting; sculpture; illustrated]

Fox, Velda. "The Development of the Pocahontas Story in American Literature." M.A. Thesis. State University of Iowa, 1927.
[thesis]

Hemingway, Ernest. "The Banal Story." Men without Women. New York: Scribner, 1927. 214-17. (The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1987. 274-75.)
[short story]

Wyman, Mary Alice. Two American Pioneers: Seba Smith and Elizabeth Oakes Smith. New York, 1927. 153-54.

1928

Fletcher, John Gould. John Smith -- Also Pocahontas. New York: Brentano's, 1928. 118-30, 250-65.
[illustrated]

Harris, John. "The Glorification of American Types in American Literature from 1775-1825." Diss. University of North Carolina, 1928.
[dissertation]

Mason, Hollie Lee. "Great Characters in American History: John Smith." Normal Instructor and Primary Plans 37 (September 1928): 41, 91-93.

Quinn, Vernon. The Exciting Adventures of Captain John Smith. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1928. Illustrations by H. C. Murphy. 114-52, 305-15.
[illustrated]

Stanard, Mary Newton. The Story of Virginia's First Century. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1928. 41-49, 114-29.
[illustrated]
[Electronic Version]

Ward, Christopher. The Saga of Cap'n John Smith. New York: Harper, 1928.
[illustrated; poetry]
[Electronic Version]
[View Images: page 83]

Winter, Ezra. "American: John Smith and Pocahontas." 1928-1929. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

1929

Almus, Russell J. "The Indian in American Literature." Diss. Cornell University, 1929.
[dissertation]

Bruce, Philip Alexander. "The Princess Pocahontas." The Virginia Plutarch. Vol. 1. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1929. 28-42.
[illustrated]

Lee, Sidney. "The American Indian in Elizabethan England." 1907. Elizabethan and Other Essays. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929.

Musser, Paul H. James Nelson Barker: 1784-1858. New York: AMS Press, 1929. 18-23.

Peters, Harry T. Currier & Ives, Printmakers to the American People. Garden City: Doubleday, Doran, 1929-1931. Vol. 2: 336. ("Baptism of Pocahontas" and "Pocahontas Saving the Life of Capt'n John Smith")
[engraving]

Russell, Jason. "The Indian in American Literature (1775-1875)." Diss. Cornell University, 1929.
[dissertation]

Switzer, Marjorie Elizabeth. "The Development of Indian Plays on the American Stage with Special Reference to the Pocahontas Story." Diss. University of Chicago, 1929.
[dissertation]

1930

Browne, G. Waldo, ed. "The New England Pocahontas." Real Legends of New England. Chicago: Whitman, 1930. 28-34. Pocahontas-like story.

Crane, Hart. The Bridge: A Poem. New York: H. Liveright, 1930. (Part II: Powhatan's Daughter)
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Crane, Nathalia. Pocahontas. New York: Dutton, 1930.
[illustrated; poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Fraser, Georgia. The White Captain. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1930. Illustration by Frank Schoonover.
[illustrated; novel]
[View Images: frontispiece]

Haight, Gordon S. Mrs. Sigourney: The Sweet Singer of Hartford. New Haven: Yale UP, 1930. 119-29.

Metcalf, J. C. "Pocahontas." A Memorial Volume of Virginia Historical Portraiture, 1585-1830. Ed. Alexander Wilbourne Weddell. Richmond: William Byrd Press, 1930. 63-65.
[illustrated]

1931

Alexander, W. P., Jr. Pocahontas Saves the Captain. A One-act farce. Dayton: Paine Pub. Co, 1931.
[play]

Llewellyn, K. N. "A Ballad of Jonathan Smith." Put in His Thumb. New York: Century Co., 1931. 28-30.
[music; poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Smyth, Clifford. Captain John Smith and England's First Successful Colony in America. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1931. 96-119, 144-74.

Yardley, Captain J. H. R. Before the Mayflower. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1931. 21-23, 156-64.

1932

Craven, Wesley Frank. The Dissolution of the Virginia Company. New York: Oxford UP, 1932. 1-23.

Loving, Boyce. The Origin of Necking: A Travesty on the Pocahontas-John Smith Episode. Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, 1932.
[play]

Morris, George Pope. "Pocahontas." ["The Chieftain's Daughter"] My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Ed. Burton Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 19-20.
[poetry; juvenile]

Preston, Margaret Junkin. "The Last Meeting of Pocahontas and the Great Captain." My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Ed. Burton Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 21-22.
[poetry; juvenile]
[Electronic Version]

Stevenson, Burton, ed. American History in Verse for Boys and Girls. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932.
[juvenile; poetry]

Stevenson, Burton, ed. My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 16-23.
[juvenile; poetry]

Thackeray, William Makepeace. "Pocahontas." My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Ed. Burton Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 18-19.
[poetry; juvenile]

Webster, Mrs. M. M. "The Marriage of Pocahontas." My Country: Poems of History for Young Americans. Ed. Burton Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932. 20-21.
[poetry; juvenile]

1933

Garnett, David. Pocahontas or the Nonparell of Virginia. London: Chatto and Windus, 1933.
[novel]

Geddes, Virgil. Pocahontas and the Elders. Chapel Hill: M. A. Abernethy, 1933.
[play]

Keiser, Albert. "The Pocahontas Legend." The Indian in American Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 1933. 1-9. (New York: Octagon Books, 1970.)

"Malee -- Pocahontas of Florida." National Republic 31.4 (August 1933): 5-6; 31.5 (September 1933): 21-22, 32. Pocahontas-like behavior.

"Nonpareil of Virginia." Christian Science Monitor 23 January 1933: 5.

"Pocahontas." Times Literary Supplement 5 January 1933: 5.

Roberts, R. Ellis. "The Lady Rebecca Rolfe." New Statesman and Nation 5 (January 7, 1933): 16.

Strong, L. A. G. "Fiction." Spectator 150 (January 6, 1933): 24.

Van Doren, Mark. "The Puzzle of a Princess." Nation 136 (March 8, 1933): 265.

1934

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. 4 vols. New Haven: Yale UP, 1934.

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 1. New Haven: Yale UP, 1934. 141-42.

Cabell, James Branch. "To the Lady Rebecca Rolfe, Called Pocahontas." Ladies and Gentleman: A Parcel of Reconsiderations. New York: R. M. McBride, 1934. 195-209. (Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1934.)

Halleck, Reuben Post. The Romance of American Literature. New York: American Book Company, 1934. 17-19.

1935

Bryant, Loy Y. "The Pocahontas Theme in American Literature." Master's Thesis. U of North Carolina, 1935.
[thesis]

Coatsworth, Elizabeth Jane. The Golden Horseshoe. New York: Macmillan, 1935. 7, 153. Illustrations by Robert Lawson. Tamar suggested by Pocahontas's son according to Curtis Carroll Davis, Chronicler of the Cavaliers (1953, p. 250).
[juvenile; novel; illustrated]

Grussi, Rev. A. M. Pocahontas and Captain Smith. Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1935.
[novel]

Gwathmey, John H. The Love Affairs of Captain John Smith. Richmond: Dietz Printing, 1935. 150-233.

Morse, Jarvis M. "John Smith and His Critics: A Chapter in Colonial Historiography." Journal of Southern History 1.2 (1935): 123-37. Very useful survey of 15 or so of the participants in the debunking controversy started back with Palfrey, Deane, and Adams. "Too much effort," Morse says, " has been expended trying to prove whether the Pocahontas incident did or did not occur," but "whatever mental reservations one may have as to the probability of the incident, by no sound application of the laws of historical testimony can it be disproved, save by the appearance of contrary evidence yet undiscovered."
[debunking]

Pattee, Fred Lewis. "The Discovery of the Indian." The First Century of American Literature, 1770-1870. New York: Appleton-Century, 1935. 351. (New York: Cooper Square, 1966.)

Wertenbaker, Thomas Jefferson. "Pocahontas." Dictionary of American Biography. Ed. Dumas Malone. Vol. 15. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935. 18-19.

1936

Dwight, Allan. The First Virginians. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1936. Illustrations by Nils Hogner.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Erskine, John. "Variation XIII." Young Love: Variations on a Theme. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1936. 275-302.
[short story]

Swem, E.G. Virginia Historical Index. Vol. 2. Roanoke: Stone Printing and Manufacturing, 1936. 455.

"WPA Bars 'Debunking' of American Legends." New York Times 22 February 1936: 17.

1937

Andrews, Matthew Page. Virginia: The Old Dominion. Garden City: Doubleday, Doran, 1937. 35, 66-73. (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1949.)

Engel, Grace M.. "Pocahontas in American Literature." Master's Thesis. Columbia U, 1937.
[thesis]

Harnwell, Anna Jane. "Pocahontas and John Smith." Plays of Story and Legend. Ed. A. P. Sanford. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1937. 43-61.
[play]

Hartzog, Henry S. John Smith and Pocahontas. St. Louis: D'Alroy & Hart, 1937. 85-107, 164-87.
[illustrated]

1938

Cawley, Robert Ralston. The Voyagers and Elizabethan Drama. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1938. 358-61.

Hoben, Alice M. "Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." The Beginner's Puppet Book. New York: Noble and Noble, 1938. 77-87.
[play; juvenile]

Nash, Ogden. "Captain John Smith." I'm a Stranger Here Myself. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1938. 277-78. (Nash, Many Long Years Ago. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1954. 96-97.)
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Pelley, William Dudley. [Little Visits with Great Americans] Captain John Smith. Asheville: Pelley Publishers, 1938.

Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Ed. Morton Luce. London: Arden, 1938. 169.
[play]

1939

Cadmus, Paul. "Pocahontas Saving the Life of John Smith." 1939. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 47.)
[painting]

Carter, Elliott. Pocahontas; ballet-legend in one act. Music by Elliott Carter. Libretto by Lincoln Kirstein and Lew Christensen. Choreography by Lew Christensen. New York, 1939. Thanks to Ellery Foutch for advising that "this ballet, with choreography by Lew Christiansen, and costumes and set design by Karl Free (many inspired by Theodor de Bry/John White images of American Indians), was conceptualized and performed by a company called Ballet Caravan, which was producing several projects based upon American myths in this period. MoMA has some of the preparatory drawings for the costume designs; NYPL has a large collection of Ballet Caravan papers and programs." (http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?object_id=85972)
[music; play]
[Electronic Version]

Quarles, Marguerite Stuart. Pocahontas (Bright Stream Between Two Hills). Richmond: Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, 1939. (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1967.)
[illustrated]

Wilson, Edith Bolling Galt. My Memoir. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1939. 228-30.

1940

Shockley, Martin. "American Plays in the Richmond Theatre, 1819-1838." Studies in Philology 37 (January 1940), 100-19.

1941

Gilliam, Charles Edgar. "His Dearest Daughter's Names." William and Mary Quarterly 2nd. series, 21.3 (1941): 239-42.

Kellogg, Louise Phelps. "Pocahontas and Jamestown." Wisconsin Magazine of History 25 (1941): 38-42.

Wecter, Dixon. "Captain John Smith and the Indians." The Hero in America. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1941. 17-30.
[illustrated]

1942

Bright, Robert S. Pocahontas and Other Colonial Dames of Virginia: An Address by Robert S. Bright Delivered at Geneva, New York February 22, 1906. 1906. Richmond, 1942.

Coleman, Satis N., and Adolph Bregman. "Jonathan Smith." Songs of American Folks. New York: John Day Company, 1942. 124-26.
[music]

Duke, Mary. "The Indian in American Literature since 1920." M.A. thesis. Southern Methodist University, 1942.
[thesis]

Gridley, Marion Eleanor. The Story of Pocahontas. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1942.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Hatch, Charles F., Jr. "Robert Sully at Jamestown, 1854." William and Mary Quarterly 22.4 (October 1942): 342-52.
[painting]

1943

Andrews, Matthew Page. The Soul of a Nation. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1943. 96-97, 188-93, 213-17.

Basso, Hamilton. Mainstream. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1943. 8-9.

Benet, Stephen Vincent. Western Star. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1943. 72-76.
[poetry]

Criss, Mildred. Pocahontas: Young American Princess. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1943.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Foreman, Carolyn Thomas. Indians Abroad, 1493-1938. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1943. 22-28.

Leigh, W.R. "Pocahontas saving Captain John Smith from execution."
[painting]
[Electronic Version]

Marshall, Edison. Great Smith. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc, 1943. 295-99, 311-37, 349-65, 371-83, 396-420, 427-38.
[novel]

Review of Edison Marshall, Great Smith. New York Times Book Review 11 April 1943: 7.

1945

Cadman, Charles Wakefield. Pocahontas likes John Smith (1607). Chicago: McKinley Publishers, 1945.
[music]

Cobb, Mabel. The Story of Pocahontas. Sandusky: The American Crayon Company, 1945.

1946

Andrus, Gertrude. Review of Pocahontas, Brave Girl, by Flora Seymour. Library Journal (November 1, 1946): 1546.
[juvenile]

Anon. Review of Pocahontas, by Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire. Booklist 43 (December 15, 1946): 120.
[juvenile]

D'Aulaire, Ingri, and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire. Pocahontas. Garden City: Doubleday, 1946. Illustrations by the authors. See Holzschuher, 1995. This lavish picture book tells the whole story. The captured Smith was the "handsomest man [Pocahontas] had ever seen," and when she brought food to alleviate the English famine, she "was so happy to see John Smith again that she stood on her head and turned somersaults." In England, Pocahontas "held her head as high as though she had been born in a snow-white palace."
[illustrated; juvenile]

Holberg, Ruth Langland. Captain John Smith: The Lad from Lincolnshire. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1946. 89-109, 139-47, 173-81.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Jarvis, H. Wood. Let the Great Story Be Told: The Truth about British Expansion. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1946. 1-53.

Mooney, N. Pocahantas [sic]. [New York]: 1946.
[play]

Seymour, Flora Warren. Pocahontas: Brave Girl. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1946. Illustrations by Charles V. John.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Southall, James P. C. "Captain John Smith (1580-1631) and Pocahontas (1595?-1617)." Tyler's Quarterly 28 (1946-47): 209-25.

Webb, Marian. Review of Pocahontas, by Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire. Library Journal 71 (December 1, 1946): 1717.
[juvenile]

1947

Cabell, James Branch. "Myths of the Old Dominion." Let Me Lie: Being in the Main an Ethnological Account of the Remarkable Commonwealth of Virginia and the Making of Its History. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Company, 1947. 45-76.

Jordan, Alice M. Review of Pocahontas, by Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire. Horn Book 23.1 (1947): 34.
[juvenile]

Kibler, J. Luther. "More about Smith and Pocahontas." Tyler's Quarterly 29 (1947): 84.

Leitich, Ann Tizia. Unvergleichliche Amonate. Roman einer Indianerin. Graz: Querschnitt Verlag, 1947.
[foreign language]

Peattie, Donald Culcross. "America's First Great Lady." Reader's Digest 50 (April 1947): 91-94.
[illustrated]

1948

Adams, Randolph G. "To Its Logical Confusion." Michigan Alumnus 44 (February 28, 1948): 273-74.

Cigar store Indian. Jean Lipman, American Folk Art in Wood, Metal and Stone. New York: Pantheon, 1948. Figures 60-63.
[artifact]

Lipman, Jean. American Folk Art in Wood, Metal and Stone. New York: Pantheon, 1948.
[illustrated]

Muller-Tannewitz, Anna. Das Indianermadchen Pocahontas. Eine Erzahlung. Berlin: Felguth, 1948.
[foreign language]

"Pocahontas." Caskie Stinnett, "Private Lives of American Heroes: Pocahontas." Saturday Evening Post 220.30 (January 24, 1948): 36.
[cartoon]

Stinnett, Caskie. "Private Lives of American Heroes: Pocahontas." Saturday Evening Post 220.30 (January 24, 1948): 36.
[illustrated]

Waring, Gilchrist. Three Ships Come Sailing: A Child's Story of Our Country's Birthplace. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1948. Illustrations by Elmo Jones.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Weber, Brom. Hart Crane: A Biographical and Critical Study. New York: Bodley Press, 1948.

1949

Craven, Wesley Frank. The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1607-1689. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1949. 72-73, 115-17, 132.

Kennedy, Arthur M. Captain John Smith and His Critics. Philadelphia: Athenaeum of Philadelphia, 1949.

Peden, William. "A Book Peddler Invades Monticello." William and Mary Quarterly 6.4 (Oct. 1949): 631-36. Peden prints Samuel Whitcomb's notes of an 1824 conversation with Thomas Jefferson in which Jefferson recounts proudly that his two daughters married descendants of Pocahontas. Peden says the manuscript is in the Samuel Whitcomb, Jr., Papers at the Massachusetts Historical Society, but see Sheehan 1973.

Pocahontas Club. As I Recollect. Pryor: Byron Smith Print., 1949.

1950

Cuppy, Will. The Decline and Fall of Practically Everybody. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1950. 206-11. Illustrations by William Steig.
[illustrated]

Fishwick, Marshall W. "Virginians on Olympus: I. The Last Great Knight Errant." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 58 (January 1950): 40-57.

Hall-Quest, Olga W. Jamestown Adventure. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1950. 44-56, 85-87, 150-66, 181-83. Illustrations by James MacDonald.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Lawson, Marie. Pocahontas and Captain John Smith: The Story of the Virginia Colony. New York: Random House, 1950. Illustrations by William Sharp.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Nelligen, Murray H. "American Nationalism on the Stage: The Plays of George Washington Custis (1781-1857)." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 58 (1950): 299-324.

Nelligen, Murray H. "American Nationalism on the Stage: The Plays of George Washington Custis (1781-1857)." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 58.3 (1950): 299-324.

1951

Cook, William Victor. Adventure under Arms: A Novel Based upon the Life-story of Captain John ("Pocahontas") Smith. London: Harrap, 1951.
[novel]

Daunton-Fear, Richard. Pocahontas and St. George's Gravesend. Chatham: Parrett & Neves, 1951.
[illustrated]

Leighton, Margaret. The Sword and the Compass: The Far-Flung Adventures of Captain John Smith. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951.
[illustrated; novel]

1952

Christensen, Erwin O. Early American Wood Carving. Cleveland: World Publishing Company, 1952. 42-51.
[illustrated]

Philip, Alexander John. "Princess Pocahontas." Contemporary Review 181 (February 1952): 110-14.

1953

Captain John Smith and Pocahontas. Dir. Lew Landers. Perf. Anthony Dexter, Jody Lawrance, Alan Hale, Jr. United Artists, 1953. Generally referred to as a "B" movie: "Though encouraged by his fellow settlers to oppress the Native Americans and scour the land for gold, Smith has more long-term goals in mind, attempting to befriend the 'naturals' and teaching his men how to conservatively farm the land. Smith's philosophy raises the ire of his rival, Wingfield, who considers himself 'a gentleman, not an adventurer,' but quickly proves himself to be neither. When the settlers are attacked by the locals (in the style of the Hollywood Injun of the wild West), Smith assumes leadership of the settlement and orders the construction of a stockade, and leads a peace-seeking delegation to meet Chief Powhatan. En route, Smith encounters Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas. She befriends the white settler and later--as every elementary school student remembers--saves Smith from execution by offering to marry him. 'Let the white skin's life be spared!' decrees the chief. Pocahontas's independent streak causes her to butt heads with Smith, but she eventually earns his respect and affection. Wingfield's mistreatment of the naturals stirs up tensions between the Native Americans and the settlers, threatening the tentative peace that Smith had so recently forged. After defending the stockade from a devastating attack, Smith contemplates a return to England, raising the dramatic question of whether he and Pocahontas will live together in the New World in happiness, or separate from one another for the sake of the peace between the two nations."
[film]

Cigar store Indian. A. W. Pendergast and W. Porter Ware, Cigar Store Figures in American Folk Art. Chicago: Lightner Publishing Corporation, 1953. 23, 71.
[artifact]

Curtis, Carroll Davis. Chronicler of the Cavaliers: A Life of the Virginia Novelist Dr. William A. Caruthers. Richmond: Dietz, 1953. 167-68. Pocahontas element in Caruthers' Cavaliers of Virginia.

Dixon, Margaret Denny. The Princess of the Old Dominion. New York: Exposition Press, 1953.
[novel]

Graham, Shirley. The Story of Pocahontas. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1953. Illustrations by Mario Cooper.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Pendergast, A. W., and W. Porter Ware. Cigar Store Figures in American Folk Art. Chicago: Lightner Publishing Corporation, 1953. 23, 71.
[illustrated]

Scott, J. M. Captain Smith and Pocahontas. London: Methuen, 1953.

Smith, Bradford. Captain John Smith: His Life and Legend. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1953. 11-14, 98-118, 217-33, 295-306. Well respected modern biography of Smith, and one written at every step with the debunking criticism in full view: "No figure in American history has raised such a ruckus among scholars as Captain John Smith." The "Man or Myth" chapter, in fact, usefully surveys the main creators and debunkings of Smith. Smith comes down on the side of Smith. He's an American hero, and we need the Pocahontas story: "Do we need Pocahontas to ease our consciences? Is she the proof that our treatment of the Indian could not have been altogether bad?" In any event, "American history without Smith and Pocahontas is hard to imagine. If the void were there, something else – yet something similar – would have to fill it."
[debunking]

1954

Fife, Austin E., and Francesca Redden. "The Pseudo-Indian Folksongs of the Anglo-American and French Canadian." Journal of American Folklore 67 (1954): 379-95.

Gilliam, Charles E. "Pocahontas-Matoaka." Names: A Journal of Onomastics 2 (1954): 163-65.

Hubbell, Jay B. The South in American Literature, 1607-1900. Durham: Duke UP, 1954. 17-20.

Morse, Jarvis M. Review of Captain John Smith: His Life and Legend by Bradford Smith. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 40 (1954): 725-26.

Syme, Ronald. John Smith of Virginia. New York: William Morrow, 1954. Illustrations by William Stobbs.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Tooley, Howard, and Marie Lawson. Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. 1954. Dramatized and produced by Howard Tooley. Enrichment Records ERL 107.
[play; juvenile]

Whitehill, Jane. Review of Captain John Smith: His Life and Legend by Bradford Smith. William and Mary Quarterly 11 (1954): 304-6.

1955

Hitchcock, H. Wiley. "An Early American Melodrama: The Indian Princess of J. N. Barker and John Bray." Notes 12.3 (1955): 375-88.
[music]

Muller-Tannewitz, Anna. Die weisen Kundschafter. Die Entdeckung Virginiens. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1955.
[foreign language]

Szabó, László. Pocahontas: indián rege nyolc énekben. Pittsburgh: Expert Printing, [1955?].
[foreign language; poetry]

1956

Ballard, W. C. "Miss Pocahontas." 1956. Not seen. Listed in Smithsonian bibliography.
[sculpture]
[Electronic Version]

Bray, Rose. "Pocahontas Was an Indian." Virginia Record 78.5 (May 1956): 17, 51-54.

Edmunds, Pocahontas Wight. The Pocahontas-John Smith Story. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1956.

Henderson, Brantley. Being the Story of Fabulous John Smith. Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, 1956. 41-43, 73-75, 96-100.

McFall, David. "Pocahontas, La Belle Sauvage." 1956. (Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994. 183.)
[sculpture]

Robertson, Wyndham. Pocahontas, alias Matoaka, and her descendants through her marriage at Jamestown, Virginia, in April 1614 with John Rolfe, gentleman ... with biographical sketches. 1887. Baltimore, Southern Book Co., 1956. (Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1968.)
[genealogy]
[Electronic Version]

Smith, Bradford. With Sword and Pen: The Adventures of Captain John Smith. New York: Aladdin Books, 1956. Illustrations by David Hunt. 86-100, 114-18, 123-25, 180-86.
[illustrated; juvenile]

1957

Carpenter, Frances. Pocahontas and Her World. New York: Knopf, 1957. Illustrations by W. Langdon Kihn.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Cavanah, Frances. Pocahontas, A Little Indian Girl of Jamestown. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1957.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Davis, Richard Beale. "The Gentlest Art in Seventeenth-Century Virginia." Tennessee Studies in Literature 2 (1957): c. 54. (Rpt. Literature and Society in Early Virginia, 1608-1840. Baton Rouge, 1973.)

De Pilis, F. A. Life Story of Matoaka. Richmond: Patterson Brothers Tobacco Corp., 1957.
[illustrated]

Green, Paul. "The Epic of Jamestown." New York Times Magazine 31 March 1957: 15, 42-47.
[illustrated]

Green, Paul. The Founders: A Symphonic Outdoor Drama. New York: Samuel French, 1957.
[play; music]

Hall-Quest, Olga W. Powhatan and Captain Smith. New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1957.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Hallowell, A. Irving. "The Backwash of the Frontier: The Impact of the Indian on American Culture." The Frontier in Perspective. Ed. Walker D. Wyman and Clifton B. Kroeber. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1957. 229-58.

Harris, Billups. The Amazing Adventures of Captain John Smith. Richmond: Whittet and Shepperson, 1957.
[illustrated]

Hubbell, Jay B. "The Smith-Pocahontas Story in Literature." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 65.3 (1957): 275-300. (Expanded version in his South and Southeast: Literary Essays and Reminiscences. Durham: Duke UP, 1965. 175-204.) "The vitality of the Smith-Pocahontas story is abundantly proved by the extraordinary number of poems, plays, novels, short stories, and biographical works that deal with it," says Hubbell in this 350th anniversary very useful historical survey of several dozen of such works in what, in effect, is a preliminary draft for a project such as this Pocahontas Archive.

Jacques, Violet Wilbur. Pocahontas, Indian Princess. A Narrative Poem with Profound Christian Meaning. New York: Greenwich Book Publishers, 1957.
[poetry]

James, Frances. "'La Belle Sauvage' from Virginia; Britain Preserves Sites Linked to Pocahontas' Visit in 1616 Royal Welcome Burial at Gravesend." New York Times 9 June 1957: 359.

Jamestown Foundation. The Story of John Rolfe, Who Saved a Colony and Planted the Seeds of a Nation. Williamsburg: Jamestown Foundation, 1957.
[illustrated]

Jarrell, Randall. "Jamestown." Virginia Quarterly Review 33 (Autumn 1957): 512-13.
[poetry]

Medford, Benjamin. "Pocahontas." Radford Review 11.3 (1957): 18-19.

Moore, Marianne. "Enough: Jamestown, 1607-1957." Virginia Quarterly Review 33 (Autumn 1957): 500-2.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Morse, Samuel French. "John Smith Remembers." Virginia Quarterly Review 33 (Autumn 1957): 514-15.
[poetry]

Shelby, R. Temple. The Ballad of Captain John Smith. R. Temple Shelby, 1957.
[illustrated; music; juvenile]

Simmons, J. Edgar, Junior. "Pocahontas," "The Dream of John Smith," "Dreams Between Battles," "Resurrection," "Red Mother of Flesh." Pocahontas and Other Poems. Williamsburg: Virginia Gazette, 1957.
[poetry]

Smith, Bradford. "Captain Smith of Jamestown." National Geographic 111.5 (1957): 581-620.
[illustrated]

Taylor, Robert T. "The Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition of 1907." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 65.2 (1957): 169-208.
[illustrated]

Wharton, Henry. The Life of John Smith, English Soldier. 1685. Ed. Laura Polanyi Striker. U of North Carolina P, 1957. 72, 89.

1958

Creedman, Theodore. "A History of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities." Master's Thesis. Columbia University, 1958.
[thesis]

Dixon, Margaret Collins Denny. Pocahontas, the Princess of the Old Dominion: A Historical Novel of the First Virginia Colony. Richmond: Garrett & Massie, 1958.

Fishwick, Marshall. "Was John Smith a Liar?" American Heritage 9.6 (1958): 28-33, 110-11. Fishwick provides a history of the Smith debunking, ending with a summary of the recent findings by Laura Polanyi Striker that clear up questions about his version of his pre-Virginia life raised by Kropf. "No one can claim that clearing Smith's name in southeastern Europe necessarily validates all he wrote about Virginia," but at least now that writing cannot be used to discredit the Virginia accounts." "Americans who know nothing else about early American history can recount the dramatic tale of Smith's rescue by the beautiful Indian princess Pocahontas. . . . If he did not owe his life to her on that day in the forest, he did -- in a historical sense -- once he wrote about her years later."
[illustrated; debunking]

Gerson, Noel B. Daughter of Eve. Garden City: Doubleday, 1958.
[illustrated; novel]

Heilbronner, Walter L. "The Earliest Printed Account of the Death of Pocahontas." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 66 (1958): 272-77.

Hiscock, Robert Heath. A History of the Parish Churches of Gravesend and the Burial Place of Princess Pocahontas. Gloucester: British Pub. Co. Limited, 1958.
[illustrated]

Jones, George. "The American Indian in the American Novel (1875-1950)." Diss. New York University, 1958.
[dissertation]

Lee, Peggy, Eddie Cooley, and John Davenport. Fever. Capitol Records 3998. 1958.
[music]

Mason, Miriam E. John Smith: Man of Adventure. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958. 119-33.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Muller-Tannewitz, Anna. Die rote Lady. Stuttgart: Thienemann, 1958.
[foreign language]

Peavy, Charles D. "The American Indian in the Drama of the United States." McNeese Review 10 (1958): 68-86.

Rives, Ralph Hardee. "The Jamestown Celebration of 1857." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 66.3 (1958): 259-71.
[illustrated]

"Statue of Pocahontas Presented to British." New York Times 6 October 1958: 33.

Striker, Laura Polyani. "The Hungarian Historian, Lewis L. Kropf, On Captain John Smith's True Travels: A Reappraisal." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 66 (January 1958): 22-43. Striker dissects and destroys the work of Kropf (see 1890), the man most responsible along with Henry Adams, for questioning and virtually destroying Smith's credibility as an historian.
[debunking]

Troubetzkoy, Ulrich, ed. "Address by Viscount Hailsham." Significant Addresses of the Jamestown Festival. Richmond: United States Jamestown-Williamsburg-Yorktown Celebration Commission, 1958. 14-17.

1959

Foster, Genevieve. The World of Captain John Smith. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1959. Illustrations by Genevieve Foster.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Rowse, A. L. The Elizabethans and America. London: Macmillan and Co., 1959. 214-15.

Thornton, Willis. Fable, Fact and History. Philadelphia: Chilton Company, 1957. 46-54.

1960

Barth, John. The Sot-Weed Factor. New York: Doubleday, 1960. Chapters II.6, II.25, III.21.
[novel]

Dembo, L. S. “Powhatan’s Prodigal Daughter.” Hart Crane’s Sanskrit Charge: A Study of The Bridge. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1960. 63–85.

King, Sydney E. "Pocahontas." 1960. Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation. (Stuart E. Brown, Jr. and Lorraine F. Myers. Third Corrections and Additions to Pocahontas' Descendants. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1997. iii.)
[painting]

McCorvey, Thomas Chalmers. Alabama Historical Sketches. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 1960. 90-94.

Morton, Richard L. Colonial Virginia. Vol. 1. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1960. 36-39.

Muller-Tannewitz, Anna. Virginisches Abenteur. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1960.
[foreign language; illustrated]

1961

Harris, Aurand. Pocahontas. Anchorage: Children's Theatre Press, 1961.
[juvenile; play]

Meadows, Denis. Five Remarkable Englishmen. New York: Devin-Adair Company, 1961. 70-78, 90-91.

Seymour, Flora Warren. Pocahontas: Brave Girl. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1946. Illustrations by William Moyer.
[illustrated]

Tate, Ellalice [Eleanor Hibbert]. This Was a Man. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1961. (Rpt. as Jean Plaidy, The King's Adventurer: Captain John Smith and Pocahontas. Leicester: Ulverscroft, 1997.)
[novel]

1962

John Gadsby Chapman: Painter and Illustrator. December 16, 1962 through January 13, 1963. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1963.
[illustrated]

Rule, Henry B. "Henry Adams's Attack on Two Heroes of the Old South." American Quarterly 14.2 (1962): 174-84.

Striker, Laura Polanyi, and Bradford Smith. "The Rehabilitation of Captain John Smith." Journal of Southern History 28.4 (1962): 474-81.

Towner, Lawrence W. "Ars Poetica et Sculptura: Pocahontas on the Boston Common." Journal of Southern History 28.4 (1962): 482-85.

Young, Philip. "The Mother of Us All: Pocahontas Reconsidered." Kenyon Review 24.3 (1962): 391-415. (Three Bags Full. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1967. 175-203.)

1963

Barbour, Philip L. "Captain John Smith's True Travels." Bulletin of the New York Public Library 67 (1963): 517-28. (Rpt. as "Fact and Fiction in Captain John Smith's True Travels. Literature as a Mode of Travel. Ed. Warner Rice. New York: New York Public Library, 1963. 101-14.) Not specifically about the Pocahontas element, but clears doubt about Smith's veracity in regard to accounts of his early life that have been criticized on the same basis.
[debunking]

Chamberlain, Georgia Stamm. Studies on John Gadsby Chapman. Alexandria: privately printed, 1963.

Davis, Richard Beale. "The 'Virginia Novel' before Swallow Barn." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 71 (1963): 278-93.

Faber, Doris. The Life of Pocahontas. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963. Illustrations by Elinor Jaeger.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Hazo, Samuel. Hart Crane: An Introduction and Interpretation. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1963.

The Princess Pocahontas. Book, lyrics and music by Kermit Goell. 1963.
[play; music]

Quinn, Vincent. Hart Crane. New York: Twayne, 1963.

1964

Barbour, Philip. The Three Worlds of Captain John Smith. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1964.

Davis, Richard Beale. Intellectual Life in Jefferson's Virginia. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1964. 300-2, 314.

Elson, Ruth Miller. Guardians of Tradition: American Schoolbooks of the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1964. 69-71.

Garnett, David. "John's Royal Wife." New York Times 45 April 1964: SM104.
[illustrated]

Goell, Kermit. Pocahontas. Blond, 1964. Illustrations by Pearl Binder.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Jones, Howard Mumford. O Strange New World. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 82-83, 238.

Martin, Patricia Miles. Pocahontas. New York: Putnam, 1964. Illustrations by Portia Takakjian.
[illustrated; juvenile]

"Pocahontas Man." Times Literary Supplement 19 November, 1964: 1036.

1965

Architect of the Capitol. Compilation of Works of Art and Other Objects in the United States Capitol. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1965.
[illustrated; sculpture; painting]

Davis, Richard Beale. Review of The Three Worlds of Captain John Smith by Philip L. Barbour. Journal of American History 51 (1965): 696-98.

Fleming, E. McClung. "The American Image as Indian Princess, 1765-1783." Winterthur Portfolio 2 (1965): 65-81.
[illustrated]

Hall, Michael G. Review of The Three Worlds of Captain John Smith by Philip L. Barbour. American Historical Review 70 (1965): 759-60.

Hubbell, Jay B. "The Smith-Pocahontas Story in Literature." South and Southeast: Literary Essays and Reminiscences. Durham: Duke UP, 1965. 175-204.

Spears, Monroe. Hart Crane. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1965.

Weber, Brom. The Letters of Harte Crane, 1916-1932. Berkeley: U of California P, 1965. 232, 241, 305, 307. Sept 12, 1927: "Powhatan's daughter, or Pocahontas, is the mythological nature symbol chosen to represent the physical body of the continent, or the soil. She here takes on much the same role as the traditional Hertha of ancient Teutonic mythology. The five sub-sections of Part II are mainly concerned with a gradual exploration of this 'body' whose first possessor was the Indian."

1966

Barton, Thomas Frank. John Smith, Jamestown Boy. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966. 164-78.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Lewis, Paul. The Great Rogue: A Biography of Captain John Smith. New York: David McKay Company, 1966. 1-10, 170-78, 267-73, 286-89.

Schmidt, Arno. Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas. Frankfurt: Fischer Bucherei, 1966. 7-49.
[short story; foreign language]

Wadlington, Walter. "The Loving Case: Virginia's Anti-Miscegenation Statute in Historical Perspective." Virginia Law Review 52 (1966): 1189-1223; esp. 1189, 1202-3.

1967

Feest, Christian F. "The Virginia Indian in Pictures." Smithsonian Journal of History 2.1 (1967): 1-30.
[illustrated]

Fleming, E. McClung. "From Indian Princess to Greek Goddess: The American Image, 1783-1815." Winterthur Portfolio 3 (1967): 37-66.
[illustrated]

Gerson, Noel B. Survival: Jamestown, First English Colony in America. New York: Julian Messner, 1967. 86-93, 183-86. Illustrations by Barry Martin.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Holloway, James. "Indian Legend Lives On in England." New York Times 17 September 1969: section 10, p. 24.

Lewis, R. W. B. The Poetry of Harte Crane: A Critical Study. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1967.

Wahl, Jan. Pocahontas in London. New York: Delacorte Press, 1967. Illustrations by John Alcorn.
[illustrated; juvenile]

1968

Fiedler, Leslie A. The Return of the Vanishing American. New York: Stein and Day, 1968. 50-55, 63-90, 150-87 passim.

Fleming, E. McClung. "Symbols of the United States: From Indian Queen to Uncle Sam." Frontiers of American Culture. Ed. Ray B. Browne, et al. Lafayette: Purdue UP, 1968. 1-24.
[illustrated]

Holder, Alan. "'What Marvelous Plot . . . Was Afoot?' History in Barth's The Sot-Weed Factor." American Quarterly 20.3 (1968): 596-604.

Jones, Howard Mumford, with the aid of Sue Bonner Walcutt. The Literature of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1968. 49-50.

Moore, Virginia. "Pocahontas in London." Hollins Critic (February 1968). (Frances Mossiker, Pocahontas: The Life and the Legend. New York: Knopf, 1976. 254.)
[poetry]

1969

Butterfield, R. W. The Broken Arc: A Study of Hart Crane. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1969.

Deloria, Vine, Jr. Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto. New York: Macmillan, 1969. 1-5.
[Native American]

Durbin, Louise. "Pocahontas in England." Virginia Cavalcade 18.3 (1969): 4-12.
[illustrated]

Shames, Priscilla. "The Long Hope: A Study of American Indian Stereotypes in American Popular Fiction, 1890-1950." Diss. University of California, Los Angeles, 1969.
[dissertation]

Smith, Henry Nash. Review of The Return of the Vanishing American by Leslie Fiedler. American Literature 40.4 (1969): 586-88.

Wilkie, Katherine E. Pocahontas: Indian Princess. Middletown: Weekly Reader Books, 1969. Illustrations by William Hutchinson. (Champaign: Garrard, 1969.)
[illustrated; juvenile]

Woodward, Grace Steele. Pocahontas. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1969.
[illustrated]

1970

Barbour, Philip L. "Notes on So-called Relics of Powhatan and Pocahontas." Pocahontas and Her World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. 233-34.
[painting]

Barbour, Philip L. Pocahontas and Her World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970.

Bell, Michael Davitt. "History and Romance in Catherine Sedgwick's Hope Leslie." American Quarterly 22.2 (Summer 1970): 217.

Cox, Paul. "The Characterization of the American Indian in American Indian Plays 1800-1860 as a Reflection of the American Romantic Movement." Diss. New York University, 1970.
[dissertation]

Debo, Angie. A History of the Indians of the United States. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1970. 42.

"Founding Mothers." Vogue 155 (June 1970): 112-13.

Fried, Frederick. Artists in Wood. New York: Bramhall House, 1970. 16, 110, col. fig. 18b.
[illustrated]

Hawke, David Freeman. Captain John Smith's History of Virginia: A Selection. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1970.

Jonson, Ben. "The Vision of Delight." 1617. Ben Jonson: Selected Masques. Ed. Stephen Orgel. New Haven: Yale UP, 1970. 149-60.
[play]

Lombard, Charles. "Chateaubriand's American Reception." Chateaubriand Today: Proceedings of the Commemoration of the Bicentenary of the Birth of Chateaubriand. Ed. Richard Switzer. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1970. 221-28.

Pictographic story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. Pamunkey, c. 1970. Christian F. Feest, "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey." European Review of Native American Studies 1.1 (1987): 5-12. (expanded in The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. Ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick: Transaction P, 1996. 49-70.)
[artifact]

Pottery vessel with pictographic story of Captain John Smith and Pocahontas. Daisy Bradbury, Pamunkey, c. 1970. Christian F. Feest, "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey." European Review of Native American Studies 1.1 (1987): 5-12. (expanded in The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. Ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick: Transaction P, 1996. 49-70.)
[artifact]

Randolph, Edmund. History of Virginia. 1809-1813. Ed. Arthur H. Shaffer. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1970.

U.S. Naval History Division. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Volume 5. Washington: G.P.O., 1970.
[homage]

1971

Barbour, Philip L. "Pocahontas." Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Ed. Edward T. James. Vol. III. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1971. 78-81.

Bulla, Clyde Robert. Pocahontas and the Strangers. New York: Scholastic, 1971. Ilustrations by Peter Burchard.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Emerson, Everett. Captain John Smith. New York: Twayne, 1971. 47-48, 72, 80-85, 122-23. (Revised edition, 1993)

Gittings, J.G. Pocahontas: An American Indian Princess. London: Hulton Educational, 1971.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Petter, Henri. The Early American Novel. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1971. 389-90. Pans John Davis and provides a survey of other resources for the Pocahontas story.

Vogler, Thomas A. Preludes to Vision: The Epic Venture in Blake, Wordsworth, Keats, and Hart Crane. Berkeley: U of California P, 1971.

1972

Crowley, John W. "James Nelson Barker in Perspective." Educational Theatre Journal 24.4 (1972): 363-69. Briefish introduction to Barker's life with some attention to Indian Princess and Superstition. Barker, who eventually saw himself as a politician and became as successful one, saw that plays could shape national identity, could keep alive the spirit of freedom, and should not appeal only to the upper class. In Indian Princess, the "wilderness seems destined to be tamed by miscegenation," and "the potential tragedy of annihilation at the hands of savagery becomes the comedy of civilization."

Horan, James D. The McKenney-Hall Portrait Gallery of American Indians. New York: Crown, 1972. 324-25. Portraits from McKenney-Hall 1844, with brief descriptive information and long introduction on McKenney.
[painting]

"John Smith and Pocahontas." The Wonderful Stories of Professor Kitzel (series). Animated short film. Dir: Shamus Culhane. Worldvision. 1972.
[film]

Paul, Sherman. Hart's Bridge. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1972.

1973

Bowman, John Clarke. Powhatan's Daughter. New York: Viking Press, 1973.
[novel]

Ewell, Barbara. "John Barth: The Artist of History." Southern Literary Journal 5.2 (1973): 32-46.

Geiogamah, Hanay. "Foghorn." New Native American Drama: Three Plays by Hanay Geiogamah. 1973. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1980. 45-82. (Stories of Our Way: An Anthology of American Indian Plays. Ed. Hanay Geiogamah and Jaye T. Darby. Los Angeles: UCLA American Indian Studies Center, 1999.) Pocahontas appears in section 5 regaling a group of giggling girlfriends about an encounter with a "big" Captain Smith, who loses his erection and promises, promises, promises that it will not happen again, a scene reminiscent of John Barth (1960) and which Tamara Underiner (2011) sees as symbolizing the impotence of the white man's claim to the land.
[play; Native American]

Green, Rayna. "The Only Good Indian: The Image of the Indian in the Popular Imagination." Diss. Indiana University, 1973.
[dissertation]

Knotts, Tom. Indian Princesses and Soldiers: Ulelah, Pocahontas, Malee. Yankeetown: The Withlacoochee Press, 1973.

Paine, Lauran. Captain John Smith and the Jamestown Story. New York: Hippocrene Books, Inc., 1973. 99-118, 140-41, 192-93.

Phillips, Leon [Gerson, Noel Bertram]. First Lady of America: A Romanticized Biography of Pocahontas. Richmond: Westover, 1973.

Sheehan, Bernard W. Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American Indian. New York: Norton, 1973. 175. Sheehan cites a manuscript at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, that shows Jefferson had a conversation with Samuel Whitcomb in 1824 in which he said he had proudly told an Indian Chief that both his daughters married descendants of Pocahontas. Peden 1949 prints the manuscript but says it's in the Massachusetts Historical Society. See Tilton 1994, 191, note 8 for elaboration on the Jefferson connection. Sheehan calls the Rolfe-Pocahontas marriage "the great archetype of Indian-white conjugal union."

Zolla, Elemire. The Writer and the Shaman. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973. 18-24.

1974

Gridley, Marion E. "Pocahontas: The Savior of Jamestown." American Indian Women. New York; Hawthorn, 1974. 22-32.

Parry, Ellwood. The Image of the Black Man in American Art, 1590-1900. New York: George Braziller, 1974. 8-10.
[illustrated]

Ruf, Barbara. "John Davis: Poet, Novelist, and Traveler." Ph.d. diss. University of Tennessee, 1974. Perhaps to date (2013) the most substantial literary analysis of Davis -- recognized as "the first to have uncovered [the Smith/Pocahontas story], popularized it, and sentimentalized it."
[dissertation]

Uroff, M. D. Hart Crane: The Patterns of His Poetry. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1974.

1975

Bullough, Geoffrey, ed.. Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare. Vol. 8. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975. 240-41.

Green, Rayna. "The Pocahontas Perplex: The Image of Indian Women in American Culture." Massachusetts Review 16.4 (1975): 698-714.
[illustrated]

Herbst, Jurgen. "The New Life of Captain John Smith." Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 44.1 (1975): 47-68.

Kolodny, Annette. The Lay of the Land. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1975. 5.

Kribbs, Jayne. "John Davis: A Man for His Time." Costerus 3 (1975): 113-45. Thorough literary biography of the career of the man whom Tilton 1994 credits with beginning the literary representation of Pocahontas. In a publishing climate that encouraged "literary mediocrity," Davis "determined the popular literary trends, then produced a work that would suit them -- and thus would sell. . . . He wrote like the masses, for the masses, in the standardized, fixed formulas of prose and verse."

Ross, Ishbel. Power with Grace: The Life Story of Mrs. Woodrow Wilson. New York: Putnam, 1975. 13-14, 175.

Vaughan, Alden T. American Genesis: Captain John Smith and the Founding of Virginia. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.

Weixlmann, Joseph. "' . . .such a devotee of Venus is our Capt . . .': The Use and Abuse of Smith's Generall Historie in John Barth's The Sot-Weed Factor." Studies in American Humor 2 (October 1975): 105-15.

Young, Neil. "Pocahontas." 1975. Neil Young Unplugged. Reprise, 1993.
[music]

1976

Alexander, Michael, ed. "Virginia -- The Jamestown Settlement." Discovering the New World, Based on the Works of Theodore de Bry. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. 190-202.
[illustrated]

DuPriest, Maud. Cherokee Recollections: The Story of the Indian Women's Pocahontas Club. Stillwater: Thales Microuniversity Press, 1976.

Evans, J. Martin. America: The View from Europe. New York: Norton, 1976. 121.

Mossiker, Frances. Pocahontas: The Life and the Legend. New York: Knopf, 1976. (New York: Da Capo Press, 1996.)
[illustrated]

Reed, Ishmael. Flight to Canada. New York: Random House, 1976. 98. "You'll never change. Daughter of the West. Pocahontas rushing to place her body between the white man and the arrow intended for him. You and your Anglican Injuns."
[novel]

Sugg, Richard P. Hart Crane's The Bridge: A Description of Its Life. Birmingham: U of Alabama P, 1976.

Viola, Herman J. The Indian Legacy of Charles Bird King. Washington: Smithsonian and Doubleday, 1976. 25. Brief description of the Indian Queen, "Washington's most popular hotel," with sixty "well-proportioned and well-furnished" rooms and a "large swinging sign" with a "brightly painted portrait of Pocahontas."
[homage]

1977

Bailey, Bernadine. American Shrines in England. South Brunswick and New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1977. 23-28.
[illustrated]

Feest, Christian F. Review of Pocahontas: The Life and the Legend by Frances Mossiker. Ethnohistory 24.3 (1977): 272-73. "Mossiker's book has obviously been written for a general non-specialized audience which will thankfully acknowledge the variety of information offered here. . . . It contains some but not too many factual errors, considerably more cases of overinterpretation, and practically no new insights."

Howard Chandler Christy: Artist/Illustrator of Style. Allentown [Pennsylvania] Art Museum. September 25 through November 6, 1977.
[illustrated]

Jenkins, William Warren. "Three Centuries in the Development of the Pocahontas Story in American Literature." Diss. U of Tennessee, 1977.
[dissertation]

Leary, Lewis. "The Adventures of Captain John Smith as Heroic Legend." Essays in Early Virginia Literature Honoring Richard Beale Davis. Ed. J. A. Leo Lemay. New York: Burt Franklin, 1977. 13-34.

Levernier, James, and Hennig Cohen, eds. The Indians and Their Captives. Westport: Greenwood, 1977. 12-19. Account from Smith's Generall Historie.

Seelye, John. Prophetic Waters: The River in Early American Life and Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 1977. 57-80, 85-87, 343-45.

Wohl, Burton. Soldier in Paradise. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1977.
[novel]

1978

Anderson, Marilyn J. "The Image of the Indian in American Drama during the Jacksonian Era, 1829-1845." Journal of American Culture 1.4 (1978): 800-810.

Border, Rosemary. The Indian Princess. London: Macdonald Educational, 1978. Illustrations by Tony Morris.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Combs, Robert. Vision of the Voyage: Hart Crane and the Psychology of Romanticism. Memphis: Memphis State UP, 1978.

Congdon, Lee. "The Hungarian Pocahontas: Laura Polanyi Striker." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 86 (1978): 275-80.

Cox, Gail Diane. "An American Princess in London." American History Illustrated 13.6 (1978): 4-7, 47-50.
[illustrated]

Gerson, Noel B. The Glorious Scoundrel: A Biography of Captain John Smith. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1978. 87-96, 205-10.
[illustrated]

Kidwell, Clara Sue. "The Power of Women in Three Native American Societies." Journal of Ethnic Studies 6 (1978): 113-21.

Larson, Charles R. "The Children of Pocahontas." American Indian Fiction. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1978. 17-33.

Mulvey, Kathleen A. "The Growth, Development, and Decline of the Popularity of American Indian Plays before the Civil War." Diss. New York University, 1978.
[dissertation]

Richards, Dorothy Fay. Pocahontas, Child-Princess. Elgin: Child's World, 1978. Illustrations by John Nelson.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Sanders, Ronald. Lost Tribes and Promised Lands. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978. 263-97.

1979

Anderson, Marilyn J. "The Best of Two Worlds: The Pocahontas Legend as Treated in Early American Drama." Indian Historian 12 (1979): 54-59, 64.

Grose, Burt D. "'Here Come the Indians': An Historical Study of the Representations of the Native American upon the North American Stage, 1808-1969." Diss. University of Missouri, 1979.
[dissertation]

Holland, Gill. "Pocahontas and the drunken waiter." Pocahontas and the drunken waiter. Davidson: Briarpatch Press, 1979. A play on the so-called "Virginia Maske" that Smith describes in which he receives the loving attention of a large group of scantily clad Indian girls. Here Smith half-heartedly asks God to save him from himself before he gives in, "popped his eyes at their black bottoms," and experiences the etcetera.
[poetry]

Jassem, Kate. Pocahontas: Girl of Jamestown. Mahwah: Troll, 1979. Illustrations by Allan Eitzen.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Scheick, William J. The Half-Blood: A Cultural Symbol in 19th-Century American Fiction. Lexington: U of Kentucky P, 1979. 26-27.

Welch, James. The Death of Jim Loney. New York: Harper and Row, 1979. Pocahontas-like inter-marriage plot element (see Baringer).
[Native American; novel; pocahontas-like]

1980

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Jamestown 1544-1699. New York: Oxford UP, 1980.

Ferres, John H. "The Indian Maiden in Leonard Cohen's Beautiful Losers and John Barth's The Sot-Weed Factor." Journal of American Culture 2.4 (1980): 690-98.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The French and Italian Notebooks. Ed. Thomas Woodson. Columbus: Ohio State UP. 1980. 153. Hawthorne recounts a visit to the studio of Joseph Mozier in Rome in April 1858 in which he saw the Pocahontas statue (1854) and liked it and one other statue: "These two last were the only ones that gave me any pleasure or that really had any merit; for his cleverness and ingenuity appear in homely subjects, but are quite lost in attempts at a higher ideality."

Jordan, June. "Poem for Nana." Passion: New Poems, 1977-1980. Boston: Beacon Press, 1980. 4.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Settling with the Indians. Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield, 1980. 119.

Sheehan, Bernard W. Savagism and Civility: Indians and Englishmen in Colonial Virginia. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980. 128-31.

1981

Bakker, Jan. "Parallel Water Journeys into the American Eden in John Davis's The First Settlers of Virginia and F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby." Early American Literature 16.1 (1981): 50-53. Compares Fitzgerald's "green breast of the new world" passage with Davis: Pocahontas is a hostage, Nataguas has discovered rum, the Indian villages are sacked. Davis's scene is an "unrecognized statement of a major tragic theme in American fiction."

Billington, Ray Allen. Land of Savagery, Land of Promise: The European Image of the American Frontier in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W. W. Norton, 1981. 6.

Gladsky, Thomas S. "The Sot-Weed Factor as Historiography." Publications of the Arkansaw Philological Association 7.2 (1981): 37-47.

Goodman, Jennifer Robin. "The Captain's Self-Portrait: John Smith as Chivalric Biographer." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 89 (1981): 27-38.

Lombard, Charles. "Introduction: The Indian Princess and Pocahontas. The Romantic Indian: Sentimental Views from Nineteenth-century American Literature. Vol. 2. Delmar: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1981. v-x. The introduction to the volume that contains facsimile editions of Barker 1808 and Owen 1837. Barker's Pocahontas "seems more the product of a European finishing school," and the play "reveals the effect that [Rousseau and Chateaubriand] had on Barker when he was composing the play." Owen "turned to Chateaubriand's idealized Indian": Smith's description of Pocahontas resembles Atala, and her rescue of Smith parallels Atala's rescue of Chactas.
[play]

Risjord, Norman K. "The Meeting of Cultures: Captain John Smith and Pocahontas." Representative Americans: The Colonists. Lexington: D. C. Heath and Company, 1981. 3-22.
[illustrated]

1982

Clark, David R., ed. "The Bridge." Critical Essays on Hart Crane. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1982. 95-191.

Levenson, J. C., et al., eds. The Letters of Henry Adams. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 1982. 258-59, 279-81, 287.

Reep, Diana. The Rescue and Romance. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State UP, 1982. 92-93. Pocahontas-like resonance in a novel by E. D. E. N. Southworth.

Scheel, Kurt. "Wir zeigen uns den papierenen Mond: Die Mondmetaphern in Arno Schmidts 'Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas'." Gebirgslandschaft mit Arno Schmidt. Ed. Jörg Drews. Munich: Text und Kritik, 1982. 41-45.
[foreign language]

Sears, Priscilla. A Pillar of Fire to Follow: American Indian Dramas: 1808-1859. Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1982. Analyses of plays by Barker, Custis, Owen, Barnes, Brougham.
[play]

Stedman, Raymond William. "La Belle Sauvage." Shadows of the Indian: Stereotypes in American Culture. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1982. 17-41.
[illustrated]

Trachtenberg, Alan. "The Shadow of a Myth." Hart Crane: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Alan Trachtenberg. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1982. 111-30.

Unterecker, John. "The Architecture of The Bridge." Hart Crane: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Alan Trachtenberg. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1982. 80-96.

1983

Bergmann, Linda S. "'The Whys and Wherefores of't': History and Humor in The Sot-Weed Factor." Markham Review 12 (1983): 31-36.

Betts, Richard A. "The Joke as Informing Principle in The Sot-Weed Factor." College Literature 10.1 (1983): 38-49.

Burns, Marilyn J. Pocahontas Blood. Silver Spring: Virginia Tree, 1983. Have not been able to locate.
[genealogy]

Castro, Michael. Interpreting the Indian. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1983. 47-69. Discussion of Vachel Lindsay, Hart Crane, William Carlos Williams.

Fritz, Jean. The Double Life of Pocahontas. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1983. Illustrations by Ed Young.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Hadas, Pamela White. "Pocahontas from Her New World." Beside Herself: Pocahontas to Patty Hearst. New York: Knopf, 1983. 3-16.
[poetry]

Poesch, Jessie. The Art of the Old South. New York: Knopf, 1983. 280. On John Gadsby Chapman.
[painting]

Sorel, Nancy Caldwell. "Captain John Smith and Pocahontas." Atlantic Monthly 252 (September 1983): 89.
[illustrated]

1984

Couture, Richard T. To Preserve and Protect: A History of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Dallas: Taylor Publishing, 1984.
[illustrated]

Erdrich, Louise. "The True Story of Mustache Maude." Frontiers 7.3 (1984): 62-67.
[short story; Native American]

Gladsky, Thomas S. "John Esten Cooke's My Lady Pokahontas: The Popular Novel in History." Southern Studies 23 (1984): 299-305.

Jones, Eugene H. "Native Americans as Shown on the Stage, 1753-1916." Diss. City University of New York, 1984.
[dissertation]

1985

Brown, Paul. "'This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine': The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonialism." Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism. Ed. Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985. 17-41.

Brown, Stuart E., Jr., Lorraine F. Myers, and Eileen M. Chappel. Pocahontas' Descendants. Berryville: Pocahontas Foundation, 1985.
[illustrated; genealogy]

Fox, Joseph L. Captain John Smith: Hero and Conqueror. Great Neck: Todd & Honeywell, 1985. 59-63, 103-6.
[juvenile]

Gladsky, Thomas S. "Good Neighbors: History and Fiction in John Barth's The Sot-Weed Factor." Clio 14.3 (1985): 259-68.

Moore, Elizabeth Vann, and Richard Slatten. "The Descendants of Pocahontas: An Unclosed Case." Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 23 (1985): 3-16.
[genealogy]

Santrey, Laurence. Pocahontas. Mahwah: Troll Associates, 1985. Illustrations by David Wenzel.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Sargent, Mark L. "Rekindled Fires: Jamestown and Plymouth in American Literature, 1765-1863." Diss. Claremont Graduate School, 1985. 116-86.
[dissertation]

1986

Axtell, James. “Subduing the Wilde Savages.” Times Literary Supplement 21 Nov. 1986: 1302. Review of Barbour’s Complete Works.

Barbour, Philip, ed. The Complete Works of Captain John Smith. 3 vols. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986.

Dearborn, Mary. Pocahontas's Daughters: Gender and Ethnicity in American Culture. New York: Oxford UP, 1986. Esp. 1-20, 97-158.

Giles, Paul. Hart Crane: The Contexts of The Bridge. London: Cambridge UP, 1986.

Gillies, John. "Shakespeare's Virginian Masque." English Literary History 53 (1986): c. 677.

Hulme, Peter. "John Smith and Pocahontas." Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492-1797. London: Methuen, 1986. 137-73.

Jenkins, William Warren. "The Princess Pocahontas and Three Englishmen Named John." No Fairer Land: Studies in Southern Literature before 1900. Ed. J. Lasley Dameron and James W. Mathews. Troy: Whitston Publishing, 1986. 8-20. The three "Johns" who contributed to the Pocahontas narrative are John Smith, John Rolfe, and John Davis. Jenkins summaries the lives of the three and capsules each of Davis's literary works about Pocahontas, concluding that Smith made her a "cover girl," Rolfe "Mother of the Year," and Davis, "Miss America."

Lawrence, James Reed. From Pocahontas to the Bollings and Krimms. [Deatesville: James Reed Lawrence, 1986].
[genealogy]

Norton, Anne. Alternative Americas: A Reading of Antebellum Political Culture. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1986. 148-49, 182-83.

Smith, John. The Complete Works of John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. 3 Vols. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986.

Sollors, Werner. Beyond Ethnicity: Consent and Descent in American Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 1986. 79-80, 107-9, 133-37.
[illustrated]

Vaughan, Alden T. “Beyond Pocahontas.” New York Times Book Review 29 June 1986: 27-28. Review of Barbour’s Complete Works.

Vogler, Thomas. "A New View of Hart Crane's Bridge." Hart Crane. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1986. 69-90.

1987

Brown, Stuart E., Jr., Lorraine F. Myers, and Eileen M. Chappel. Pocahontas' Descendants: Supplement. Berryville: Pocahontas Foundation, 1987.
[genealogy]

Cliff, Michelle. No Telephone to Heaven. New York: Dutton, 1987. Chapter 5.
[novel]

Feest, Christian F. "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey." European Review of Native American Studies 1.1 (1987): 5-12. (expanded in The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. Ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick: Transaction P, 1996. 49-70.)
[illustrated]

Lemay, J. A. Leo. "The Voice of Captain John Smith." Southern Literary Journal 20 (1987): 113-31.

Lemay, J. A. Leo. "Robert Beverley's History and Present State of Virginia and the Emerging American Political Ideology." American Letters and the Historical Consciousness: Essays in Honor of Lewis P. Simpson. Ed. J. Gerald Kennedy and Daniel Mark Fogel. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1987. 67-111. "Beverley showed an extraordinary flair for fastening upon the very ideas of early Virginia that were to become of greatest interest both to the myth-makers . . . and the historians." For instance, Smith/Pocahontas, the Lost Colony, Virginia Dare, and so forth.

O'Dell, Scott. The Serpent Never Sleeps: A Novel of Jamestown and Pocahontas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
[illustrated; juvenile; novel]

Riley, Glenda. Review of Pocahontas's Daughters: Gender and Ethnicity in American Culture by Mary Dearborn. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 111.2 (1987): 264-66. On the general ethnic female tradition in America, opening with an account of Pocahontas that is woven throughout the text. "The difference between female and male ethnic authors do not, in the author's view, justify the tradition of 'exoticizing, excluding, and ultimately colonizing' their symbolic mother, Pocahontas, nor them, her daughters."

Sheehan, Bernard W. Review of The Complete Works of Captain John Smith by Philip L. Barbour. American Historical Review 92 (1987): 736-37.

Slaughter, Thomas P. Review of The Complete Works of Captain John Smith by Philip L. Barbour. Reviews in American History 15 (1987): 220-25.

Smits, David. "'Abominable Mixture': Towards the Repudiation of Anglo-Indian Intermarriage in Seventeenth-Century Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95 (1987): 177-92.

Sundquist, Asebrit. Pocahontas & Co.: The Fictional American Indian Woman in Nineteenth-Century Literature: A Study of Method. New Jersey: Humanities Press International, 1987.

Walker, Nancy. Review of Pocahontas's Daughters: Gender and Ethnicity in American Culture by Mary Dearborn. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 6.2 (1987): 352-53. "Although -- indeed, in part because -- Pocahontas did not write her own story, she becomes for Dearborn the paradigm of the female ethnic writer in America, who, denied full identity because of both her gender and her ethnic 'otherness,' has used the position of 'outsider' as a vantage point from which to reveal some truths about American identity and values."

1988

Allen, Paula Gunn. "Pocahontas to Her English Husband, John Rolfe." Skins and Bones: Poems 1979-87. Albuquerque: West End Press, 1988. 8-9.
[poetry; Native American]

Baym, Nina. Review of Pocahontas's Daughters: Gender and Ethnicity in American Culture by Mary Dearborn. Modern Language Review 83.4 (1988): 996-97. Dearborn "proposes that all ethnic writing by American women replicates, to some degree and with more or less self-awareness, the mediating role that Pocahontas enacted at the dawn of American history."

Brant, Beth. "Grandmothers of a New World." Ikon 8 (1988): 48-60. (Writing as Witness. Toronto: Women's Press, 1994. 83-103.) Essay on Pocahontas and Cherokee Nancy Ward. Described as an "excerpt from a speech delivered at the University of Illinois, Champaign, Urbana for Woman's History month, March, 1987." See annotation for book version 1994, where there are some changes, though not significant. This final interesting line, however, is not in the 1994 version: "A powhatan shaman and a Cherokee Beloved Woman -- they did not fail their communities. Their dream should be ours, together. What we can do in their memory and honor is to continue the search for truth in all things."
[Native American]

Feest, Christian F. "The Indian in Non-English Literature." History of Indian-White Relations. Ed. Wilcomb E. Washburn. Vol. 4 of Handbook of North American Indians. Gen. Ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1988. 582-86.

Fiedler, Leslie A. "The Indian in Literature in English." History of Indian-White Relations. Ed. Wilcomb E. Washburn. Vol. 4 of Handbook of North American Indians. Gen. Ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1988. 573-81.

Green, Rayna D. "The Indian in Popular American Culture." History of Indian-White Relations. Ed. Wilcomb E. Washburn. Vol. 4 of Handbook of North American Indians. Gen. Ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1988. 587-606.

Greene, Carol. Pocahontas: Daughter of a Chief. Chicago: Children's Press, 1988.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Jones, Eugene H. Native Americans as Shown on the Stage, 1753-1916. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1988. 51-62, 89-101, 137-48.

Kasson, Joy S. "Power and Powerlessness: Death, Sexuality and the Demonic in Nineteenth-Century American Sculpture." Women's Studies 15 (1988): 343-67.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Captain John Smith: A Select Edition of His Writings. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1988.
[illustrated]

Larkins, Sharon. "Using Trade Books to Teach about Pocahontas." Georgia Social Studies Journal 19.1 (1988): 21-25.
[juvenile]

Lemay, J. A. Leo. An Early American Reader. Washington: United States Information Agency, 1988. 390-402.

Marsden, Michael, and Jack G. Nachbar. "The Indian in the Movies." History of Indian-White Relations. Ed. Wilcomb E. Washburn. Vol. 4 of Handbook of North American Indians. Gen. Ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1988. 607-16.

O'Gorman, James F. Aspects of American Printmaking, 1800-1950. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1988. 92-94.
[lithograph]

Scapp, Ron. "Lack and Violence: Towards a Speculative Sociology of the Homeless." Practice 6.2 (1988): 39.

Schmidt, Arno. Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1988.
[foreign language; short story]

Sheridan, Eugene R. “Captain John Smith Goes to Jamestown.” Documentary Editing 10.2 (June 1988): 11-13.

Sherman, Richard B. "'The Last Stand': The Fight for Racial Integrity in Virginia in the 1920s." Journal of Southern History 44.1 (1988): 69-92.

1989

Berthoff, Werner. Hart Crane: A Re-Introduction. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1989.

Brown, Stuart E., Jr. Pocahontas. Berryville: Pocahontas Foundation, 1989. Image 9 in our archive contained in Brown here is also in Brown 1995 with notation that it was done by Jean Baptiste Nolin, Jr. c. 1739 and that it was provided by the Library of Congress.
[illustrated; genealogy]

Cory, Mark E. "Romancing America: Reflections of Pocahontas in Contemporary German Fiction." German Quarterly 62.3 (1989): 320-28.
[foreign language]

Lincoln, Kenneth. "Indians Playing Indians." Melus 16.3 (1989-1990): 91-98. Summary with some critical commentary of Hanay Geiogamah's three plays (Body Indian, Foghorn, and 49) under the heading of "Native Americans portray themselves with post-Holocaust humor on the contemporary stage." In regard to Foghorn, in which Pocahontas appears, Geiogamah says, "Foghorn's vignettes act out the anger and pain of being Indian for five hundred years under Euroamerican occupation. The play opens the floodgates of Indian caricatures frozen into a cigarstore mask. It was originally performed as the lobotomy of a magnified head, the foghorns harassing Indians just off Alcatraz in 1969. Its joking taps a deep historical resentment and cauterizes a contemporary wound that festers in social ills. And the play's humor lies in recognition, in truthtelling, in 'playing' out the hurt. Finally, Foghorn purges the anguish and celebrates what it means to be alive today in Indian America." Pocahontas sings her "Indian Love Call" theme song and describes to a group of giggling girlfriends (in section 5) an encounter with a "big" Captain Smith, who loses his erection and promises, promises, promises that it will not happen again, a scene reminiscent of John Barth (1960) and which Tamara Underiner (2011) sees as symbolizing the impotence of the white man's claim to the land. Says Geiogamah, "So to me . . . it's like a small miracle if you can bring laughter into somewhere, it's a blessing."
[play; Native American]

Lincoln, Kenneth. "MELUS Interview: Hanay Geiogamah." MELUS 16.3 (1989-1990) 69-81. Geiogamah has this to say about the early concept for Foghorn, in which Pocahontas appears: "You see the whole thing was staged as a lobotomy of the projected head. It was really crazy. I'm almost embarrassed to talk about it. It shows how simplistically stupid I was at the time. We wanted to set it on Alcatraz. We wanted it to be a statement of militancy, an expression of 'We know what you snakeeyes think of us.' So Foghorn started out with this little fight scene among the people on Alcatraz, and then this foghorn came on -- you know, towards the end the authorities were turning on those foghorns to harass the Indi'ns. So the surrealism took over immediately, and they had this dynamite to blow up the foghorn. There's a black-out scene with this huge head, the big mouth-like thing open. Instead of dynamiting the head, they began to perform a kind of lobotomy on the head; each of those scenes was being removed from the operation. But that was such a cockamamey device that the more I saw it, the sillier it seemed to me, so we just took it all out." And further on humor: "The audience loved Foghorn. The actors would really get into it. We'd turn the sound up just as loud as we could without breaking the limits. We had the visuals as big as we could magnified in zoom reverse. Everything was just wild, absolutely wild, and it got wilder and wilder. It doesn't matter whether the structure of the play is ramshackle or not. That's what was going on. . . . I see the Indi'n capacity for humor as a blessing. And I see it as one of the fundamental miracles of our lives. If s a miraculous thing that's pulled us through so much. It's a force that's part of religion. I don't see religion so much as just being our bundles of our prayers. It's everything from the past that we've brought forward with us, our memories, ancestors, especially that, all of these things are religion to me -- singing, dancing, stories, suffering, all of that. And respect and caring for each other. So in that sense humor is definitely a part of religion. I truly believe that the older Indi'ns laughed, and laughed, and laughed."
[play; Native American]

Malloy, Jeanne M. "William Byrd's Histories and John Barth's The Sot-Weed Factor." Mississippi Quarterly 42 (1989): 160-72.

Rountree, Helen. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1989.

Safer, Elaine B. The Contemporary American Comic Epic. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1989. 56-58. On Barth.

Shenkman, Richard. Legends, Lies, and Cherished Myths of American History. New York: Perennial Library, 1989. 110-11.

Silverstone, Paul H. Warships of the Civil War Navies. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1989. 89-90.

Wilmeth, Don. "Noble or Ruthless Savage: The American Indian on Stage and in the Drama." Journal of American Drama and Theatre 1.2 (1989): 39-78.

Wilmeth, Don. "Tentative Checklist of Indian Plays (1606-1987)." Journal of American Drama and Theatre 1.3 (1989): 34-54.

1990

Baigell, Matthew. "Territory, Race, Religion: Images of Manifest Destiny." Smithsonian Studies in American Art 4.3-4 (Summer/Fall 1990): 3-21.

Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches, and Bases. Berkeley: U of California P, 1990. xi, 1. Enloe says she began this book on women-as-consuumers by thinking about Pocahontas and "got an inkling of how relations between governments depend not only on capital and weaponry, but also on the control of women as symbols, consumers, workers and emotional comforters": "A school teacher plans a lesson around the life of Pocahontas. . . . The students come away from the lesson believing the convenient myth that local women are likely to be charmed by their own people's conquerors."
[gender]

Faust, J. Frederick. "'An Abundance of Blood Shed on Both Sides': England's First Indian War, 1609-1614." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98.1 (1990): 3-56, esp. 46-49.

Fausz, J. Frederick. "An 'Abundance of Blood on Both Sides': England's First Indian War, 1609-1614." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98.1 (1990): 3-56.

Feest, Christian F. The Powhatan Tribes. New York: Chelsea House, 1990.
[illustrated]

Islas, Arturo. Migrant Souls. New York: Avon, 1990. Pocahontas-like plot element.

Loeffelholz, Mary. "Miranda in the New World: The Tempest and Charlotte Barnes's The Forest Princess." Women's Re-Visions of Shakespeare. Ed. Marianne Novy. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1990. 58-75.

Merrell, James H. Review of The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture by Helen C. Rountree. William and Mary Quarterly 47.2 (1990): 303-5. "Rountree has written the best introduction we have to the Powhatans" and sheds light on debates over whether Smith was rescued or adopted (neither) and why Pocahontas accepted her roles with the English ("Her status as a princess among the Powhatans was only temporary").

Mojica, Monique. "Princess Pocahontas and the Blue Spots." Canadian Theatre Review 64 (1990): 66-77.
[play; Native American]

Rountree, Helen. Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1990.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy. New York: Knopf, 1990. 279.

Seals, David. The Powwow Highway. New York: Crown, 1990. Pocahontas-like inter-marriage plot element (see Baringer).
[Native American; novel; Pocahontas-like]

1991

Cliff, Michelle. "Caliban's Daughter: The Tempest and the Teapot." Frontiers 12.2 (1991): 36-51.

Donnell, Susan. Pocahontas. New York: Berkley, 1991.
[illustrated; novel]

Galloway, Margaret E. "Native American Women And The Pocahontas Complex." Journal of the American Studies Association of Texas 22 (1991): 83-88.
[gender]

Hayes, Kevin J. "Defining the Ideal Colonist: Captain John Smith's Revisions from A True Relation to the Proceedings to the Third Book of the Generall Historie." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 99.2 (1991): 123-44.

Hayes, Kevin J. Captain John Smith: A Reference Guide. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991.

Lemay, J. A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1991. "The Pocahontas/Smith meetings have all the allure of the Romeo/Juliet story, the star-crossed lovers from warring families. They embody the pastoral dream of love, of the lion lying down with the lamb, of the peaceable kingdom. Pocahontas/Smith is the mythic American Dream; Powhatan/Smith is the nightmare reality."

Mojica, Monique. Princess Pocahontas and the Blue Spots. 1990. Toronto: Women's Press, 1991.
[play; Native American]

Puglisi, Michael J. "Captain John Smith, Pocahontas and a Clash of Cultures: A Case for the Ethnohistorical Perspective." History Teacher 25.1 (1991): 97-103.

Ransome, David R. "Pocahontas and the Mission to the Indians." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 99.1 (1991): 81-94.

Schmidt, Arno, and John E. Woods. "Lake Scenery with Pocahontas." Southern Humanities Review 25.4 (1991): 321-61.
[short story]

Vizenor, Gerald. The Heirs of Columbus. Hanover: Wesleyan UP, UP of New England, 1991. 93-117.
[novel; Native American]

1992

Accorsi, William. My Name is Pocahontas. New York: Holiday House, 1992.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Benjamin, Anne. Young Pocahontas: Indian Princess. Mahwah: Troll Associates, 1992. Illustrations by Christine Powers.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Brown, Stuart E., Jr., Lorraine F. Myers, and Eileen M. Chappel. Corrections and Additions to Pocahontas' Descendants. Berryville: Pocahontas Foundation, 1992.
[genealogy]

Fryd, Vivien Green. Art and Empire: The Politics of Ethnicity in the United States Capitol, 1815-1860. New Haven: Yale UP, 1992. Esp. 19-25, 35-37, 47-51, 146.
[illustrated]

Green, Rayna. "Mythologizing Pocahontas." Musical Repercussions of 1492: Encounters in Text and Performance. Ed. Carol E. Robertson. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press,1992.

Kidwell, Clara Sue. "Indian Women as Cultural Mediators." Ethnohistory 39.2 (1992): 97-107.

Knapp, Jeffrey. An Empire Nowhere: England, America, and Literature from Utopia to The Tempest. Berkeley: U of California P, 1992. 11-12, 210-12, 218, 238-40, 327.

Kribbs, Jayne K. "'Reserved for My Pen': John Davis's Place in American Literature." Early American Literature and Culture: Essays Honoring Harrison Meserole. Ed. Kathryn Zabelle Derounian-Stodola. Newark: U of Delaware P, 1992. 211-26. Bascially the same as Kribbs 1975: "Davis was not after all, one of the geniuses of his age. Yet his intelligence, industry and talent caused him to make a splash in our literary pond from which rings still make faint ripples today." The Pocahontas works are what he is remembered for.

Lemay, J. A. Leo. Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith? Athens: U of Georgia P, 1992. The place to go for a comprehensive analysis of the debunking controversy begun well over a century before by Deane and Adams. Lemay hopes to end what Bradford Smith called the "Great Debate" over the Smith-Pocahontas rescue by thoroughly studying all the references Smith made to Pocahontas; considerations bearing on the dispute such as evidence from the Indians, Purchas, and other "old Virginia hands"; the arguments by Deane, Adams, and Henry; and surveying views by modern scholars. He holds the rescue did happen, affirming and adding to the conclusion of Henry. For instance, "Anyone who thinks that the Pocahontas episode did not happen must believe that Smith's enemies, as well as his friends and acquaintances and others whom he did not know, all conspired with him in keeping the truth of the Pocahontas episode a secret."
[debunking]

Menke, Timm. "Gotteslästerung und Pornographie oder Kunst? Arno Schmidts Erzählung 'Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas' im ideologischen Kontext der fünfziger Jahre." Germanic Notes and Reviews 23.2 (1992): 57-63.
[foreign language]

Strong, Pauline Turner. "Captive Selves, Captivating Others: The Practice and Representation of Captivity across the British-Amerindian Frontier, 1575-1775." Diss. University of Chicago, 1992.
[dissertation]

Strong, Pauline Turner. "Captivity in White and Red: Convergent Practice and Colonial Representation on the British Amerindian Frontier, 1606-1736." Crossing Cultures: Essays in the Displacement of Western Civilization. Ed. Daniel Segal. Tucson: U of Arizona P, 1992. 33-104.

Tilton, Robert S. "American Lavinia: The Pocahontas Narrative in Ante-Bellum America." Diss. Stanford University, 1992.
[dissertation]

Williamson, Margaret Holmes. "Pocahontas and John Smith: Examining a Historical Myth." History and Anthropology 5.3-4 (1992): 365-402.

1993

Bank, Rosemary K. "Staging the 'Native': Making History in American Theatre Culture, 1828-1838." Theatre Journal 45 (1993): 461-86.
[illustrated]

Cabibbo, Paola. "John Smith e l'invenzione di Pocahontas." Ed. Paola Cabibbo and Luca Briasco. La letteratura americana dell'età coloniale. Rome: La Nuova Italia Scientifica, 1993. 29-58.
[foreign language]

Chiles, Griffin. "Pocahontas of the Powhatans." 1993. Jamestown Settlement, Jamestown, Virginia.
[sculpture]

Clampitt, Amy. Matoaka: A Poem in Celebration of the Tercentenary of the College of William and Mary in Virginia. [Williamsburg]: College of William and Mary, 1993. (in The Collected Poems of Amy Clampitt, New York: Knopf, 1997) See Spiegelman 2005.
[poetry]

Holler, Anne. Pocahontas: Powhatan Peacemaker. New York: Chelsea House, 1993.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Hutner, Heidi Jane. "Representing the 'Other' Woman: Colonial Discourse in Restoration Drama." Diss. University of Washington, 1993.
[dissertation]

Kennedy, Nancy Margaret. "Reconfiguring the Past: Challenging the Notion of a Definitive Native Female Identity in Two Plays." Diss. University of Guelph, 1993.
[dissertation]

Lindgren, James M. Preserving the Old Dominion: Historic Preservation and Virginia Traditionalism. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1993.

McCaslin, Nellie. Mercy in Moccasins. Studio City: Players Press, 1993.
[play]

Monceaux, R. L. Morgan. "Matowaka." 1993. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 48.)
[painting]

Raphael, Elaine, and Don Bolognese. Pocahontas: Princess of the River Tribes. New York: Scholastic, 1993.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Sagan, Miriam. Pocahontas Discovers America. Easthampton: Adastra Press, 1993.
[poetry]

Winters, Anne Kilner. "'The burlesque of our faith': The City in Hart Crane's The Bridge." Diss. University of California, Berkeley, 1993.
[dissertation]

Young, Neil. "Pocahontas." 1975. Neil Young Unplugged. Reprise, 1993.
[music]

1994

Bach, Rebecca Ann. "Producing the 'New World': The Colonial Stages of Ben Jonson and Captain John Smith." Diss. University of Pennsylvania, 1994.
[dissertation]

Bell, Betty Louise. "Pocahontas: 'Little Mischief' and the 'Dirty Men.'" Studies in American Indian Literature 6.1 (1994): 63-70.

Brant, Beth. "Grandmothers of a New World." Writing as Witness. Toronto: Women's Press, 1994. 83-103. See 1988. Brant is a Mohawk writer and activist. Pocahontas and Cherokee Nancy Ward are both seen by whites as friends but by Indians as traitors. They need a true history. Both had a "vision," a vision of the future, a vision of a mixed-race future, a vision of a New World. "These women lived with spirits"; spirits spoke through them. Pocahontas did not rescue Smith but adopted him, a conscious political act as a means of survival, as an "alternative to genocide," as an act of diplomacy to help save her community. Pocahontas was the first "ambassador" to the English and a prophet with a "destiny to fulfill -- that of keeping her people alive." Her plan seems to go awry with her death changing the future she planned for her son, but she was a fighter for her people and an Indian to the end. We must end the white legend that has successfully made her an "incidental woman" and restore her honor.
[Native American]

Brown, Stuart E., Jr., Lorraine F. Myers, and Eileen M. Chappel. Pocahontas' Descendants. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1994.
[genealogy]

Craig, W. S. The Adventure of Pocahontas, Indian Princess. New York: Goodtimes Publishing, 1994. Smith comes in peace, and Powhatan agrees to his promise to restrict hunting. The English break that promise when starving, however, and Smith is taken prisoner. Pocahontas, who finds Smith "handsome," argues that the men were hungry then asserts her "Right of Claiming." Pocahontas teaches Smith the "secrets of the forest," Smith teaches her about England, and when he is freed for good behavior, Smith takes Pocahontas to London, where she meets the Queen.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Doherty, Brian. Pocahontas Coloring Book. New York: Dover, 1994. Illustrations by Thea Kliros.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Doherty, Brian. The Story of Pocahontas. New York: Dover, 1994.
[juvenile]

Elango, K. "Hanay Geiogamah: A Funny and Fierce Voice on Stage." Indian Journal of American Studies 24.2 (1994): 31-35.
[play; Native American]

Erdrich. Louise. The Bingo Palace. New York: Harper Collins, 1994. Pocahontas-like inter-marriage plot element (see Baringer).
[Native American; novel; Pocahontas-like]

Gibbs, Linda Joan. One Hundred and Fifty Years of American Painting. Provo: Brigham Young UP, 1994. Discussion of the Nehlig painting.
[painting]

Giroux, Henry A. "Animating Youth: The Disneyfication of Children's Culture." Socialist Review 94.3 (1994): 65-79. Pre-Pocahontas but relevant.
[juvenile]

Gleach, Frederic W. "Pocahontas and John Smith Revisited." Actes du Vingt-Cinquieme Congres des Algonquinistes. Ed. William Cowan. Ottawa: Carleton University, 1994. 167-86.

Gradie, Charlotte. Review of Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith? by J. A. Leo Lemay. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 102.1 (1994): 104. "Lemay does a fine job of tracing the development of the controversy over the John Smith-Pocahontas story. His conclusion is well argued and should not surprise those who are familiar with Lemay's other work on Smith [Lemay 1991], in which he proclaims himself an apologist for the captain."
[debunking]

Howe, Mary Ellen. "Pocahontas." 1994. (William M. S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994. 49.)
[painting]

Hume, Ivor Noel. "No Fayre Lady: The Several Faces of Pocahontas." Colonial Williamsburg Autumn (1994): 58-67.
[illustrated]

Hume, Ivor Noel. The Virginia Adventure. New York: Knopf, 1994. Chap. 9.

Kidwell, Clara Sue. "What Would Pocahontas Think Now?" Callaloo 17.1 (1994): 149-59.

Lubbers, Klaus. Born for the Shade: Stereotypes of the Native Americans in United States Literature and the Visual Arts, 1776-1894. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994. "The fact that [Pocahontas] is the only representative of her race who appears at least once in every chapter of my book testifies to her multifunctionality. Of noble birth, selfless in helping the imperiled settlers, wife to an Englishman and converted to his faith, she was everybody's darling."

Meyers, Terry L. "Comments on Amy Clampitt's 'Matoaka'." William and Mary Magazine 61.5 (1994 Winter): 60-61.
[poetry]

Murphy, Kevin D. "'Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend': An Exhibition Review." Winterthur Portfolio 29.4 (1994): 265-75.
[painting]

Penner, Lucille Recht. The True Story of Pocahontas. New York: Random House, 1994. Illustrated by Pamela Johnson.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Rasmussen, William M. S., and Robert S. Tilton. Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1994.
[illustrated]

Rountree, Helen C. Review of Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith? by J. A. Leo Lemay. Journal of American History 81.1 (1994): 236-37. Rountree suggest two other kinds of evidence needed to prove Smith's 1624 account correct: "the standards for 'historical' writing as early seventeenth-century authors such as Smith saw it, specifically, whether it was permissible to go as far as inventing incidents to convey a point of view" and "accurate references to Powhatan Indian culture" (such as adoption and initiation rituals).
[debunking]

Schmidt, Arno. "Lake Scenery with Pocahontas." Collected Novellas. Normal: Dalkey Archive Press, 1994.
[short story]

Sehring, Adolf. "Indian Princess -- Pocahontas." 1994. (Dr. Linwood "Little Bear" Custalow and Angela L. Daniel "Silver Star," The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2007. ix.)
[sculpture; Native American]
[View Images: page ix]

Seidlitz, Lauri Shannon. "Native Theatre for the Seventh Generation: On the Path to Cultural Healing." Diss. Dalhousie University, 1994.
[dissertation]

Tilton, Robert S. Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. New York: Cambridge UP, 1994.
[illustrated]

1995

Augustin, Siegfried. Die Geschichte der Indianer: Von Pocahontas bis Geronimo 1600-1900. Munchen: nymphenburger, 1995.

Baym, Nina. American Women Writers and the Work of History. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1995. 203-5.

Brown, Stuart E., Jr. Pocahontas. Baltimore: Clearfield, 1995.

Colt, George Howe. "Who Was Pocahontas?" Life (July 1995): 64-69.
[illustrated]

Crestani, Eliana. "James Nelson Barker's Pocahontas: The Theatre and the Indian Question." Nineteenth Century Theatre 23.1-2 (1995): 5-32. Crestani examines the Indian Princess as the "first attempt in American dramaturgy to deal with the vast question of what was to be perceived as an appropriate relationship between Euro-Americans and Native Americans." The play has "various and conflicting ways" of thinking about this, expressing the same "contradictory political behavior" of the Jefferson government on the issue. Barker sends "double-messages" regarding the relationship with indigenous peoples. Passive English characters highlight how the natives "willingly dissolved" into white culture. The recognition of white superiority means the natives accept the necessity of assimilation and "spontaneously accept the process of their civilization." Indian Princess is "one of the first products in American culture to work toward acceptance and therefore the legitimation of such political processes as removal and displacement of native peoples."

D'Entremont, John. Review of Pocahontas. Journal of American History 82.3 (1995): 1302-5.

Dougherty, Karla. The Legend of Pocahontas: Originally Titled The Princess Pocahontas. New York: Children's Classics, 1995. Illustrations by George Wharton Edwards. (See Virginia Watson, The Princess Pocahontas. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company, 1916.) Part of a series of children's classics from "bygone days" done in handsome, expensive editions made to last. This is Watson "retold" by Dougherty. Be careful comparing the two. The language is modernized a bit, some sections are dropped, and a quick and dirty, hardly thorough comparison notes a very interesting addition: a new final three paragraphs in which the dying Pocahontas faces west to the green forests where "the Great Spirits, both Indian and Christian alike, were joined together in peace and harmony." See "The Death of Pocahontas" 1833.
[illustrated; juvenile; novel]

Felperin, Leslie. Review of Pocahontas. Sight and Sound 5.10 (1995): 57-58.

Giago, Tim. "Cartoon Pocahontas Is An Insult." Indian Country Today 28 July 1995.
[film]

Giroux, Henry A. "Animating Youth: The Disneyfication of Children's Culture." Socialist Review 24 (1995): 23-55.

Gleiter, Jan, and Kathleen Thompson. Pocahontas. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 1995. Illustrations by Deborah L. Chabrian.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Grant, Sally. Pocahontas: ?1596-1621. Dereham: Larks Press, 1995.

Hanes, Mari. Two Mighty Rivers: Son of Pocahontas. Sisters: Multnomah Books (Questar Publishers), 1995.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Hochswender, Woody. "Pocahontas: A Babe in the Woods." Harper's Bazaar (June 1995): 154-57.

Holland, Sharon. Pocahontas. New York: HarperPaperbacks, 1995. From the film script by Julia Jane Lewald for Sony Wonder Videos.

Holmes, Andy. Pocahontas: The True Story of an American Hero and Her Christian Faith. New York: Little Moorings, 1995. Illustrations by Jim Conaway.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Holzschuher, Cynthia. A Guide for Using Pocahontas in the Classroom. [A Literature Unit for Pocahontas by Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire] Westminster: Teacher Created Materials, Inc., 1995. Illustrations by Karon Walstad.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Hulme, Peter. Review of Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative by Robert Tilton. Journal of American Studies 29.2 (1995): 335-36. Tilton's work "constitutes an important contribution both to a new kind of literary history -- because of its way of contextualizing minor works -- and to a cultural history which is concerned with 'constructions'. . . . Tilton's treatment of the Pocahontas story almost inevitably seems staid alongside Fiedler's, and it never really comes to grips with the underlying American fascination for a theme that cannot be treated without confronting the difficult question of misegenation."

Ingoglia, Gina. Disney's Pocahontas: Illustrated Classic Edition. New York: Disney Press, 1995.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Jojola, Ted. "Some Preliminary Notes on Pocahontas." American Indian Libraries Newsletter 18.1 (1995): 1-3.
[Native American; film]

Kikuchi, Akira. "The Life of John Smith: With Some Literary Historical Problems Concerning the Pocahontas Episode." Journal of Seishu University 2 (1995).
[foreign language]

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. "Disney's 'politically correct' Pocahontas--Race in Contemporary American Cinema: Part 5." Cineaste 21.4 (1995): 36-37.

Korman, Justine. Disney's Pocahontas: The Voice of the Wind. New York: Golden Book, 1996. Illustrated by Peter Emslie and Don Williams. A restless, exploring Pocahontas encounters a bear in a cave and listens to the wind.
[juvenile; illustrated; film]

Lampe, Peter. Pocahontas: die Indianer-Prinzessin am Englischen Hof. Munchen: Diederichs, 1995.
[foreign language; illustrated]

Litchfield, Gwynn R. Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend. [Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1995].

The Making of Pocahontas. Dir. Dan Booth. Laserdisc. Walt Disney Corporation. 1995.
[film]

Maslin, Janet. "History as Buckskin-Clad Fairy Tale." New York Times 13 June 1995: 1.46.

McMahon, Annette Flad. "Will Newton's Adventure with Captain John Smith." Bernard F. McMahon, Jamestown Virginia 1607. Bethpage: Columbia Publishing Company, 1995. 56.
[poetry; illustrated]

McMahon, Bernard F. Jamestown Virginia 1607. Bethpage: Columbia Publishing Company, 1995.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Means, Russell. "'Pocahontas' is an important and historic achievement." News from Indian Country late July 1995: 28. Indian activist Means plays Powhatan in the Disney film, and here defends the film as "the best and most responsible film that has ever been made about American Indians." "People who are negative about this movie suffer from a loss of innocence. They have forgotten where they come from." Children all over the world will be introduced to Indians "through a beautiful, strong, independent and wise woman who has fortitude, perseverance and supreme self-confidence." Indians are portrayed as "four-dimensional" people, "which includes "spirituality with the environment." The film "has started a revolution." The "real reason" for European arrival -- to rob, rape, pillage, and kill -- is finally admitted. The movement toward gaining "dignity" and "respect" in the eyes of the world has begun. Criticism of the film by white media is "a manifestation of institutionalized racism," aimed at keeping us in our place. "Pocahontas presents nothing but positives for American Indians." (See articles by Whelshula and Pewewardy in the same issue for contrasting perspectives.)
[film; Native American]

Mills, Kay. From Pocahontas to Power Suits: Everything You Need to Know about Women's History in America. New York: Plume, 1995. Fluff: "A lively guide to the whys and wherefores of women's too-often hidden role in American history, culture, and politics." Short-answer format. The opening two questions are "Whatever happened to Pocahontas? and "What do Pocahontas and Anne Hutchinson have in common?"

Mintz, Steven. Native American Voices: A History and Anthology. St. James: Brandywine Press, 1995. 47-49. Interestingly, a sketch of Pocahontas serves as the introduction to the body of this anthology. In effect, the book begins with her. "An important cultural mediator between two cultures, Pocahontas's life demonstrates the difficulty of achieving an accommodation between the Indian and English ways of life."
[Indian history]

Morris, Vera. Legend of Pocahontas. Englewood: Pioneer Drama Service, 1995.
[play]

Muldoon, Paul. "Barbie, but No Bimbo." Times Literary Supplement 13 October 1995: 21.

Nestle Cool Creations Pocahontas Ice Cream Cups Commercial. Advertisement "celebrating the magic of Disney's Pocahontas now in theaters." Disney tie-in to the movie.
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Peroncini, Gianfranco. Pocahontas: la donna che cambiò il destino. Milano: EDIMAR, 1995.
[foreign language]

Pewewardy, Cornel. "'Pocahontas': The White Man's Indian." News from Indian Country 9.14 (1995): 31.
[Native American; juvenile; film]

Pocahontas. Dir. Mike Gabriel and Eric Goldberg. Walt Disney Company, 1995.
[film; juvenile]

Pocahontas. Produced for Golden Films by Diane Eskenazi. Enchanted Tales series. New York: Sony Music Entertainment, 1995.
[film; juvenile]

Pocahontas: Ambassador of the New World. Dir. Adam Friedman and Monte Markham. A&E Television Network, 1995.
[film]

Pocahontas: Her True Story. Executive producer Bob Muller. All American Video, 1995.
[film]

Pocahontas: The Legend. Dir. Danielle Suisse. Perf. Sandrine Holt, Miles OKeefe. GoodTimes Entertainment, 1995. Perhaps released 1995 in Canada, 1999 in the United States.
[film]

Rattler, Terri. "Letters to the Entertainment Editor: Do We Teach History or Fiction to our Children?" Indian Country Today 6 July 1995: DI.

Rebello, Stephen. The Art of Pocahontas. New York: Hyperion, 1995. "The story of the creation of Pocahontas, of the inspiration and imagination that a brilliant team of filmmakers brought to a project that presented a unique set of artistic challenges, is the story told in The Art of Pocahontas. Never before has the vision underlying a Disney film been so thoroughly illuminated, from the earliest presentations of concept art and story ideas through the final animation work. The cornerstone of The Art of Pocahontas is, of course, the art itself: over 400 beautiful color and black-and-white illustrations detailing every aspect of production: concept art that took the first steps of establishing the Arcadian mood of the film; character sketches that chart the gradual refinements and animation of the leading figures; storyboards that with a few brilliant strokes of pencil or charcoal express the drama of Pocahontas's story; and the stunning background art, idyllic landscapes composed of strong vertical and horizontal elements, modeled after the natural beauty of the Virginia countryside. In The Art of Pocahontas we hear the voices of the film's director, producer, art director, composer, lyricist, scriptwriters, background artists, and animators describing their contributions to the project: the early scouting trips to Virginia to research Native American culture and period detail; the visual brainstorming that helped define the look of the film; the preparation of a script that would be true to the spirit of Pocahontas's life and legend yet present her story in a new way to a worldwide audience; the design of the key human characters of Pocahontas and John Smith, as well as featured animal players and the magical Grandmother Willow; the song development process; the preparation of background art that would be faithful to the fierce beauty of the American landscape yet have its own style; and the production of the special environmental effects of wind and water, crucial to a film so thoroughly rooted in the natural world."
[juvenile]

Reece, Colleen L. Pocahontas. Uhrichsville: Barbour and Company, 1995. Illustrated by Tim Holtrop.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Rosenzweig, Ilene. "And Disney Created Woman." Allure 5.6 (June 1995): 81-82, 87.

Rountree, Helen C. Young Pocahontas in the Indian World. Yorktown: J & R Graphic, 1995.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Schama, Simon. "The Princess of Eco-Kitsch." New York Times 14 June 1995: A21.

Sharpes, Donald K. "Princess Pocahontas, Rebecca Rolfe (1595-1617)." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 19.4 (1995): 231-39.
[illustrated]

Shoemaker, Nancy. "Native-American Women in History." OAH Magazine of History 9.4 (1995): 10-14.

Slater, Teddy. Pocahontas: Painting with the Wind, A Book about Colors. New York: Disney Press. Illustrated by Ed Ghertner and Del Thompson. Picture book based on the Disney film. Each illustration features a different color and is keyed by a line of text.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Stewart, Pat Ronson. Pocahontas: Full-color Sturdy Book. New York: Dover Publications, 1995.
[juvenile]

Strong, Pauline Turner. "The Search for Otherness." Invisible America: Unearthing Our Hidden History. Ed. Mark P. Leone and Neil Asher Silberman. New York: Henry Holt, 1995. 24-25.
[illustrated]

Sundquist, Eric J. Empire and Slavery in American Literature, 1820–1865. New York: Cambridge UP, 1995: 112–14.
[play]

Talaiake, Dr. Gerald Alfred. “Reaction.” Indian Country Today 6 July 1995.
[film]

"The Ten Most Popular Halloween Costumes." Time 6 November 1995: 22.

Tilton, Robert S. Review of Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith? by J. A. Leo Lemay. William and Mary Quarterly 52.4 (1995): 714-16. Tilton points out some difficulties in Lemay's strategies and suggests that the work of Helen Rountree 1989 and 1990 adds "ammunition to the doubters' arsenal" and that any "attempt to prove that the rescue took place as Smith reported will have to deal in a substantive way with the issues Rountree raises."
[debunking]

Wasowicz, Laura. "The Children's Pocahontas: From Gentle Child of the Wild to All-American Heroine." Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 105.2 (1995): 377-415.
[illustrated]

Whelshula, Martina, and Faith Spotted Eagle. "Pocahontas Rates an 'F' in Indian Country." Indian Country Today 6 July 1995: D1-2.
[film; Native American]

Whelshula, Martina. "Protest 'Pocahontas'." News from Indian Country late July 1995: 29. Letter to the editor: "For the sake of money and big business, Disney Corporation exploits Native American history," sexualizing Pocahontas "in what can be considered the most provocative children's cartoon figure yet." "We do not want our young Indian girls to feel they have to live up to the body image defined by the white males of this society. We also do not want our young Indian boys to feel they are not of value to our communities. The cartoon implies that the ultimate prize is the white male."
[film; Native American; gender]

Whitt, Laurie Anne. "Cultural Imperialism and the Marketing of Native America." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 19.3 (1995): 1-31.

Young Pocahontas. A Fred Wolf Film. UAV, 1995.
[juvenile; film]

1996

Adams, Patricia. The Story of Pocahontas, Indian Princess. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 1996. Illustrations by Tony Capparelli.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Bartos-Hoppner, Barbara. Pocahontas Hauplingstochter. Wien: Esslinger, 1996.
[foreign language]

Bray, John. The Indian Princess. New York: New World Records, 1996. New World Records 80232-2.
[music]

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1996. 68.

Buescher, Derek T., and Kent A. Ono. "Civilized Colonialism: Pocahontas as Neocolonial Rhetoric." Women's Studies in Communication 19.2 (1996): 127-53.
[illustrated]

Champeau, Mary Pat. "Pocahontas: Between Two Worlds." 10 Women Who Helped Shape America: Short Plays for the Classroom. Ed. Sarah Glasscock. New York: Scholastic, 1996. 19-26.
[play; juvenile]

Dean, Janet Elaine. "Mediating Women: Gender and the Frontier in the American Imagination, 1804-1853." Diss. Columbia University, 1996.
[dissertation]

Edgerton, Gary, and Kathy Merlock Jackson. "Redesigning Pocahontas: Disney, the 'White Man's Indian,' and the Marketing of Dreams." Journal of Popular Film and Television 24.2 (1996): 90-98.

Feest, Christian F. "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey." The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. Ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick: Transaction P, 1996. 49-70.
[illustrated]

Fiske, Jo-Anne. "Pocahontas's Granddaughters: Spiritual Transition and Tradition of Carrier Women of British Columbia." Ethnohistory 43.4 (1996): 663-81.

Gleach, Frederic W. "Controlled Speculation: Interpreting the Saga of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." Reading Beyond Words: Contexts for Native History. Ed. Jennifer S. H. Brown and Elizabeth Vibert. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 1996. 21-42.

Gourse, Leslie. Pocahontas. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1996. Illustrations by Meryl Henderson.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Henke, Jill Birnie, et al. "Construction of the Female Self: Feminist Readings of the Disney Heroine." Women's Studies in Communication 19.2 (1996): 229-49.

Iannone, Catherine. Pocahontas: The True Story of the Powhatan Princess. New York: Chelsea House, 1996.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Jackson, Kathy Merlock. "Walt Disney: Its Persuasive Products and Cultural Contexts." Journal of Popular Film and Television 24.2 (1996): 50-52.
[film]

Korman, Justine. Disney's Pocahontas: The Raccoon's Tale. New York: Golden Book, 1996. Illustrated by Darrell Baker. The Disney film story from Meeko's perspective.
[juvenile; illustrated; film]

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Review of Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative by Robert S. Tilton. American Historical Review 101.4 (1996): 1265-66. "Tilton's analysis is weakened by a reluctance to close consistently with issues of class and gender. Pocahontas was always represented not only as a woman but also as a princess. Tilton mentions the very different meaning that would have attached to a Euroamerican union with a native man, or with a woman of lower status, but he does not confront such issues systematically. The latter chapters, with their focus on miscegenation, blur these issues further and imply that race was the only issue."

Lemay, J. Leo. Rev. of Robert Tilton, Pocahontas: Evolution of an American Narrative. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 104.2 (1996): 285-86.

Lemire, Elise Virginia. "Making Miscegenation: Discourses of Interracial Sex and Marriage in the United States, 1790-1865." Diss. Rutgers University, 1996. 160-204.
[dissertation]

Lepore, Jill. Review of The Scarlet Letter and Pocahontas. American Historical Review 101.4 (October 1996): 1166-68.

Leslie, Esther. "Pocahontas." History Workshop Journal 41 (1996): 235-39.

Rathbun, Paul Roland. "American Indian Dramaturgy: Situating Native Presence on the American Stage." Diss. University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1996.
[dissertation]

Robertson, Karen. "Pocahontas at the Masque." Signs 21.3 (1996): 551-83.

Scheckel, Susan. "Domesticating the Drama of Conquest: Barker's Pocahontas on the Popular Stage." ATQ 10.3 (1996): 231-43. This essay "explores how the figure of Pocahontas was reimagined and represented on the American popular stage as part of the project of defining American national identity. It also considers, more generally, how race and gender inflected nineteenth-century discourses of U.S. nationalism." Pocahontas is the foster mother of the infant colony, achieving mythic stature "preserving, nurturing, and legitimizing what will become the American nation." The romantic plot parallels and intertwines that heroic one, obscuring the "violence of conquest by translating conquest into the terms of domesticity. . . . Romantic conquest rather than colonial conquest takes center stage." Colonial conquest, in fact, occurs through "the power of love when Pocahontas falls in love with the Euro-American conqueror and his culture." Barker produced a "romanticized version of American history that resolved conflicts implicit in past acts of conquest and revolution and defined national identity in terms that reinforced a sense of moral and cultural integrity."

Schmitt-V. Mühlenfels, Astrid. "James Nelson Barker's Concepts of a Democratic Theater in America." Ed. Alfred Hornung, et al. Democracy and the Arts in the United States. Munich: Fink; 1996. 279-88. Focuses on Barker's essays and Superstition play but good background on his nationalism, which informs Indian Princess as well: "Barker writes no artistic manifestoes; instead, he writes nationalistic manifestoes . . . and essays in practical dramatic criticism.

Strong, Pauline Turner. "Animated Indians: Critique and Contradiction in Commodified Children's Culture." Cultural Anthropology 11.3 (1996): 405-24.
[illustrated]

Wakim, Yvonne B. "Get Crazy Horse Off That Beer Can and Let Pocahontas Go Home." AIGA Journal of Graphic Design 14.1 (1996): 18-19. Wail of pain and anger at the blasphemous, silly, and insulting appropriation of Indian images on commercial products. For instance, Pocahontas: "Pocahontas was a little girl of eleven or twelve, not a curvaceous seventeen-year-old. Her image was stolen, as were our children when they were sent to boarding schools to become de-Indianized. It seems almost comedic that not long ago, Native children were ripped away from their families and sent hundreds of miles from home so they could have the 'Indianness' beaten out of them, and now the well-dressed child probably sports a picture of Pocahontas on her jacket, notebook, and panties."
[Native American]

1997

Brown, Stuart E., Jr., and Lorraine F. Myers. Third Corrections and Additions to Pocahontas' Descendants. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1997.
[illustrated; genealogy]

Bush, Marcella M. "From Mythic History to Historic Myth: Captain John Smith and Pocahontas in Popular History." Diss. Bowling Green State U, 1997.
[dissertation]

Gleach, Frederic W. Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1997.

Hammer, Langdon, and Brom Weber. O My Land, My Friends: The Selected Letters of Hart Crane. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1997.

Johnson, Sue M. "Hanay Geiogamah." Native American Writers of the United States. Ed. Kenneth Roemer. Detroit: Gale; 1997. 101-4.
[play; Native American]

Mackenthum, Gesa. Metaphors of Dispossession: American Beginnings and the Translation of Empire, 1492-1637. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1997.

Olson, Charles. "Captain John Smith" and "Five Foot Four, but Smith Was a Giant." Collected Prose. Ed. Donald Allen and Benjamin Friedlander. Berkeley: U of California P, 1997. 318-23.

Pabst, Ingrid. Pocahontas. Remseck bei Stuttgart: Fischer, 1997.
[foreign language]

Perdue, Theda. "Columbus Meets Pocahontas in the American South." Southern Cultures 3.1 (1997): 4-21. (Taking Off the White Gloves: Southern Women and Women Historians. Ed. Michele Gillespie and Catherine Clinton. Columbia: U of Missouri P, 1998.)

Plaidy, Jean. The King's Adventurer: Captain John Smith and Pocahontas. Leicester: Ulverscroft, 1997. (Rpt. of Ellalice Tate, This Was a Man. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1961.)

Pocahontas. Jetlag Productions, GoodTimes Entertainment. 1997.
[film]

Riggs, David. Embattled Shrine: Jamestown in the Civil War. Shippensburg: White Mane Publishing, 1997. 93.
[illustrated]

Shaughnessy, Diane. Pocahontas: Powhatan Princess. New York: PowerKids Press, 1997.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Ward, Annalee Ruth. "Unearthing a Disney World View: The Rhetorical Dimensions of Disney Morality in The Lion King, Pocahontas, and Disney's the Hunchback of Notre Dame." Diss. Regent University, 1997.
[dissertation]

Weatherston, Rosemary. "When Sleeping Dictionaries Awaken: The Re/turn of the Native Woman Informant." Post Identity 1.1 (1997): 113-44.

Weiprecht, Brigitte. Pocahontas und andere Töchter Manitous. Göttingen: Lamuv-Verlag, 1997.
[foreign language]

Yaguchi, Yujin. "Pokahontasu no boken: Amerika bunka to indian." Language and Culture Studies Series 15 (1997): 31-43.
[foreign language]

1998

Coronato, Rocco. "Inducting Pocahontas." Symbiosis: A Journal of Anglo-American Literary Relations 2.1 (1998): 24-38.

Döring, Tobias. "Pocahantas/Rebecca." Figuren der/des Dritten Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998. 179-209.
[foreign language]

DeTurk, Scott. Pocahontas. Book by Vera Morris; music & lyrics by Scott DeTurk. Englewood: Pioneer Drama Service, 1998.
[play; music]

Gagnon, Monika Kin. "Race-ing Disney: Race and Culture in the Disney Universe." Diss. Simon Fraser University, 1998.
[dissertation]

Godwin, Sam. Pocahontas, Runaway Princess. Hove: Macdonald Young Books, 1998.
[juvenile]

Hodgkins, Christopher. "The Nubile Savage: Pocahontas as Heathen Convert and Virgilian Bride." Renaissance Papers (1998): 81-90.

Isaacs, Sally Senzell. America in the Time of Pocahontas: 1500-1754. Des Plaines: Heinemann Library, 1998.

Kapur, Jyotsna. "Out of Control: Television, Hollywood and the Transformation of Childhood in Late Capitalism." Diss. Northwestern University, 1998.
[dissertation]

Linton, Joan Pong. "Coda: The Masks of Pocahontas." The Romance of the New World: Gender and the Literary Formations of English Colonialism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998. 185-91.

Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World. Dir. Bradley Raymond and Tom Ellery. Walt Disney Pictures, 1998. Direct-to-video sequel to Disney's 1995 Pocahontas: "takes the Indian princess to London, where she must use all of her diplomacy skills to avert a war between England and her tribe. Everything goes smoothly until Pocahontas stops the brutal torture of a bear that is meant as the main entertainment at a royal ball. In the king's eyes, the action labels her a savage, and when she accuses him of being the savage, he throws her in jail. As it turns out, the evil Ratcliffe, who is an adviser to the king, has lied about the Indian threat back in America, and just before the armada is about to sail, Pocahontas and her new suitor, John Rolfe, reveal Ratcliffe's lies to the king. Along the way, the once-thought-dead Capt. John Smith reappears, putting Pocahontas into a romantic triangle." Little regarded, not much reviewed, virtually no notice by mainstream press (for the little to see go to Rotten Tomatoes: http://www.rottentomatoes.com.)
[film; juvenile]

Scheckel, Susan. "Domesticating the Drama of Conquest: Pocahontas on the Popular Stage." The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1998. 41-69, 130-39.
[illustrated]

Slapin, Beverly, and Doris Seale. "How to Tell the Difference." Through Indian Eyes: The Native Experience in Books for Children. Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Center, 1998. How to tell the difference between portrayals of what would hurt Native children and foster stereotypical thinking in non-Native children. Used by Eaton 2006 to critique portrayals of Pocahontas.
[juvenile]

Urtheil, Heather Leia. "Producing the Princess Collection: An Historical Look at the Animation of a Disney Heroine." Diss. Emory University, 1998.
[dissertation]

Waselkov, Gregory. Review of Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures by Frederic W. Gleach. William and Mary Quarterly 55.1 (1998): 148-50. Gleach reinterprets "some of the most famous events" of early Virginia. He redefines Smith's captivity "as a Powhatan rite of passage intended to adopt Smith and all his fellow colonists," and he considers the rescue plausible as a "real event" designed to "signal Smith's new status as a Powhatan war chief." Pocahontas's later rebuke of Smith had to do with what she saw as his failure to live up to a "social contract."

Young, Elliott. "Red Men, Princess Pocahontas, and George Washington: Harmonizing Race Relations in Laredo at the Turn of the Century." Western Historical Quarterly 29.1 (1998): 49-88.

Young, Philip. "Pocahontas (1596?-1617)." Portraits of American Women: From Settlement to the Present. Ed. G. J. Barker-Benfield and Catherine Clinton New York: Oxford UP, 1998. 15-34.

1999

Abrams, Ann Uhry. The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999.
[illustrated]

Aidman, Amy. "Disney's Pocahontas: Conversations with Native American and Euro-American Girls." Growing Up Girls: Popular Culture and the Construction of Identity. Ed. Sharon R. Mazzarella and Norma Odom Pecora. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

Baringer, Sandra. "'Captive Woman?': The Rewriting of Pocahontas in Three Contemporary Native American Novels." Studies in American Indian Literature 11.3 (1999): 42-63. David Seals, The Powwow Highway; Louise Erdrich, The Bingo Palace; James Welch, The Death of Jim Loney.
[Native American; novel]

Bird, S. Elizabeth. "Tales of Difference: Representations of American Indian Women in Popular Film and Television." Mediated Women: Representations in Popular Culture. Ed. Marian Meyers. Cresskill: Hampton Press, 1999. 91-109.

Brown, Kathleen. "In Search of Pocahontas." The Human Tradition in Colonial America. Ed. Ian K. Steele and Nancy L. Rhoden. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1999. 71-95.

Donaldson, Beth. "Pocahontas as Gift: Gender and Diplomacy on the Anglo-Powhatan Frontier." Journal of the American Studies Association of Texas 30.10 (1999): 1-17.

Edwards, Leigh H. "Blood Relations: The Cultural Work of Miscegenation in Nineteenth-Century American Literature." Diss. University of Pennsylvania, 1999.
[dissertation]

Edwards, Leigh H. "The United Colors of Pocahontas: Synthetic Miscegenation and Disney's Multiculturalism." Narrative 7.2 (1999): 147-68.

Elliott, Michael A. "Native American Literature in the Age of Pocahontas." ESQ 45.2 (1999): 161-95.

Faery, Rebecca Blevins. Cartographies of Desire: Captivity, Race, and Sex in the Shaping of an American Nation. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1999. 80-144; 145-229 passim.

Fudge, Erica. "Pocahontas's Baptism: Reformed Theology and the Paradox of Desire." Critical Survey 11.1 (1999): 15-30.

Gould, Philip. "The Pocahontas Story in Early America." Prospects 24 (1999): 99-116.

Henke, Jill Birnie, and Diane Zimmerman Umble. "And She Lived Happily Every [sic] After . . . The Disney Myth in the Video Age." Mediated Women: Representations in Popular Culture. Ed. Marian Meyers. Cresskill: Hampton Press, 1999. 321-37.

Hudson, Margaret. Pocahontas. Des Plaines: Heinemann Interactive Library, 1999.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999. 150-54.

Kyle, Katie Letcher. "Was Pocahontas Half-English? Folklore, Fact, and Fiction." Virginia Cavalcade 48.2 (1999): 52-63.
[illustrated]

NAWPA Authors' Roundtable. March 19, 1999. A transcription of an informal discussion that took place in King Library at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. The discussants were gathering to attend a conference the next day entitled "Celebration of Native Women Playwrights." The conference included paper presentations, performances by Shirley Cheechoo and Spiderwoman Theater, and a staged reading of Vera Manuel's The Strength of Indian Women. The editors of the NAWPA anthology brought together the authors in attendance at the conference to discuss various aspects of their work, and issues surrounding Native women in theatre, to include in the anthology. Discussion participants (in speaking order): Rebecca Howard (RH); JudyLee Oliva (JLO); Diane Glancy (DG); Monique Mojica (MM) [author of Pocahontas and the Blue Spots]; Shirley Huston-Findley (SHF); Marcie Rendon (MR); Paul Jackson (PJ); LeAnne Howe (LAH); Victoria Kneubuhl (VK).
[play; Native American]
[Electronic Version]

Oberg, Michael Leroy. Dominion and Civility: English Imperialism and Native America, 1585-1685. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1999. 54-67.

Pewewardy, Cornel. "Why One Can't Ignore Pocahontas." American Indian Stereotypes in the World of Children: A Reader and Bibliography. Ed. Arlene B Hirschfelder, Paulette Fairbanks Molin, and Yvonne Wakim. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1999.
[Native American; juvenile; film]

Ross, John F. "Picturing Pocahontas: An Image at the National Portrait Gallery May Be the Truest Account We Have of the Indian Princess." Smithsonian 29.10 (1999): 34.
[illustrated]

Stripes, James. "A Strategy of Resistance: the 'Actorvism' of Russell Means from Plymouth Rock to the Disney Studios." Wicazo Sa Review 14.1 (1999): 87-102.

Strong, Pamela Turner. Captive Selves, Captivating Others: The Politics and Poetics of Colonial American Captivity Narratives. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999. 19-20, 43-76.

Theweleit, Klaus. Pocahontas in Wonderland: Shakespeare on Tour. Frankfurt am Main: Stroemfeld/Roter Stern, 1999.
[foreign language; illustrated]

2000

Hazell, Rebecca, and Helen Cann. "Captive Princess." The Barefoot Book of Heroic Children. New York: Barefoot Books, 2000. 42-49. Illustrations by Helen Cann.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Jenner, Caryn. The Story of Pocahontas. New York: Dorling Kindersley Pub., 2000.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Joseph, Betty. "Re(playing) Crusoe/Pocahontas: Circum-Atlantic Stagings in The Female American." Criticism 42.3 (2000): 317-35.

Klein, Sherry Lee. "Reading Thackeray's Actresses." Diss. University of Alberta, 2000.
[dissertation]

Knowles, Ric. "Marlon Brando, Pocahontas, and Me." Essays on Canadian Writing 71 (2000): 48-60.

McBride, Kari Boyd. "Native Mothers, Native Others: La Malinche, Pocahontas, and Sacajawea." Maternal Measures: Figuring Caregiving in the Early Modern Period. Ed. Naomi J. Miller and Naomi Yavneh. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000. 306-16.

McDonough, Yona Zeldis. "Pocahontas." Sisters in Strength: American Women Who Made a Difference. New York: Henry Holt, 2000. Illustrations by Malcah Zeldis. 7-9.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Milton, Joyce. Pocahontas: An American Princess. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 2000. Illustrations by Shelly Hehenberger.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Pinazzi, Annamaria. "The Theater of Hanay Geiogamah." American Indian Theater in Performance. Ed. Hanay Geiogamah and Jaye T. Darby. Los Angeles: UCLA American Indian Studies Center, 2000.
[play; Native American]

Rowlett, L. L. "Disney's Pocahontas and Joshua's Rahab in Postcolonial Perspective." Culture, Entertainment and the Bible. Ed. George Aichele. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. 66-75.

Vicary, Tim. Pocahontas. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. Illustrations by Thomas Sperling. A "Stage 1" book. Pocahontas's rescue of Smith is pre-arranged by Powhatan, who then gives Smith to the 13-year-old. Pocahontas broaches marriage to Smith, but he turns her down because of her young age and his lack of experience with women. When she meets with Smith later in London, Pocahontas forces him to admit that he was "wrong" in leaving her, and she curtly dismisses him. Smith never married, perhaps because "he could not forget the sad, dark eyes of Pocahontas."
[juvenile; illustrated]

2001

Brown, Stuart E., Jr., and Lorraine F. Myers. 4th Corrections and Additions to Pocahontas' Descendants. [Baltimore]: Clearfield, 2001.
[genealogy]

Dawson, Jan C. Review of The Pilgrims and Pocahontas: Rival Myths of American Origin by Ann Uhry Abrams. Journal of Southern History 67.1 (2001): 144-45. "Abrams makes a substantial scholarly contribution by carefully contextualizing, within the public history of their times, subtle differences among the representations." But "rather than these regional parables competing to sustain the nation, however, the weight of Abrams' subsequent evidence better supports the conclusion that, prior to the eve of the Civil War, the rival parables become more rather than less particularized historical anchors for emergent sectionalism."

Dundes, Lauren. "Disney's Modern Heroine Pocahontas: Revealing Age-Old Gender Stereotypes and Role Discontinuity under a Facade of Liberation." Social Science Journal 38.3 (2001): 353-65.

Hutner, Heidi. "The Tempest, The Sea Voyage, and the Pocahontas Myth." Colonial Women: Race and Culture in Stuart Drama. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. 21-44.

Kirwan, James. "The Postmodernist's Journey into Nature: From Philo of Alexandria to Pocahontas and Back Again, by Way of Jean-Francois Lyotard." From Virgin Land to Disney World: Nature and Its Discontents in the USA of Yesterday and Today. Ed. Bernd Herzogenrath. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001. 33-52.

Knowles, Ric. "Translators, Traitors, Mistresses, and Whores: Monique Mojica and the Mothers of the Métis Nations." Siting the Other: Re-visions of Marginality in Australian and English-Canadian Drama. Ed. by Marc Maufort and Franca Bellarsi. Brussels: Peter Lang, 2001. 247-66.
[Native American]

Ono, Kent A., and Derek T. Buescher. "Deciphering Pocahontas: Unpackaging the Commodification of a Native American Woman." Critical Studies in Media Communication 18.1 (2001): 23-42.
[film]

Palmer, Janet Patricia. "Animating Cultural Politics: Disney, Race, and Social Movements in the 1990s." Diss. U of Michigan, 2001.
[dissertation]

Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe, and Roger D. Herring. "Debunking the Pocahontas Paradox: The Need for a Humanistic Perspective." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 40.2 (2001): 185-200.

Preda, Roxana. "The Angel in the Ecosystem Revisited: Disney's Pocahontas and Postmodern Ethics." From Virgin Land to Disney World: Nature and Its Discontents in the USA of Yesterday and Today. Ed. Bernd Herzogenrath. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001. 317-40.

Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2001.

Rountree, Helen C. "Pocahontas: The Hostage Who Became Famous." Sifters: Native American Women's Lives. Ed. Theda Perdue. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. 14-28.

Russell, Elizabeth. "The Princess and the Prostitute: A Study of Eighteenth-Century Representations of Native American Women." Diss. Auburn University, 2001.
[dissertation]

Sullivan, George. Pocahontas. New York: Scholastic Reference, 2001.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Vollmann, William T. Argall: The True Story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. New York: Penguin, 2001.
[novel]

Zabus, Chantal. "Two Colonial Encounters and the Philosophy of the Gift." Colonies, Missions, Cultures in the English Speaking World (2001): 123-33.

2002

Deer Cloud, Susan. "Her Pocahontas." Sister Nations: Native American Women Writers on Community. Ed. Heid E. Erdrich and Laura Tohe. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2002. 110-11.
[poetry; Native American]

Edwards, Judith. Jamestown, John Smith, and Pocahontas in American History. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 2002. 39-50, 81-91.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Gleach, Frederic W. "Powhatan Identity in Anthroplogy and Popular Culture (and Vice Versa)." Southern Indians and Anthropologists: Culture, Politics, and Identity. Athens: U of Georgia P, 2002. 5-18.

Gosda, Randy T. Pocahontas: A Buddy Book. Edina: Abdo Pub., 2002.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Mondloch, Helen. "Rescue and Redemption -- The Great Debate Over Pocahontas and John Smith." World and I 17.9 (2002): 172-81. America's Newspapers database
[illustrated]

O'Brien, Pamela Colby. "The Happiest Films on Earth: A Textual and Contextual Analysis of How and Why Walt Disney Altered the Fairy Tales and Legends of Snow White, Cinderella, The Little Mermaid, and Pocahontas." Diss. Indiana University, 2002.
[dissertation]

Raatma, Lucia. Pocahontas. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2002.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Schaefer, Lola M. Pocahontas. Mankato: Pebble Books, 2002.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Sonneborn, Liz. Pocahontas, 1595-1617. Mankato: Blue Earth Books, 2002.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Stymeist, David. "'Strange Wives': Pocahontas in Early Modern Colonial Advertisement." Mosaic 35.3 (2002): 109-25.

Tremblay, Gail. "Reflecting on Pocahontas." Frontiers 23.2 (2002): 121-26.
[illustrated]

Warburton, Rachel Mary. "Mobility and Desire: Seventeenth-Century English Women's Travel and Utopian Writings." Diss. University of Alberta, 2002.
[dissertation]

Ward, Annalee R. "Pocahontas: The Symbolic Boundaries of Moral Order." Mouse Morality: The Rhetoric of Disney Animated Film. Austin: U of Texas P, 2002. 33-56.
[dissertation]

Zemlicka [Knudsen?], Shannon, and Jeni Reeves. Pocahontas. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 2002.
[juvenile; illustrated]

2003

Allen, Paula Gunn. Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003.
[Native American]

Ayers, Brenda, ed. The Emperor's Old Groove: Decolonizing Disney's Magic Kingdom. New York: Peter Lang, 2003. Pocahontas (1995) and Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World (1998): "Disney's attempt to validate multicultural diversity may appear to be a worthy, even admirable, endeavor. However, the contributors of this book argue that the Disney company's version of multiculturalism is really the same old groove--a surreptitious colonizing force that manipulates the psychological, cultural, and political identities of consumers, predominantly children. Demystifying the mechanisms and ideals through which Disney manages public values and expands its empire of illusory American culture, The Emperor's Old Groove interrogates animation role models that perpetuate insidious racial, cultural, and gender stereotypes."
[film]

Becker, Sandra. Pocahontas. Mankato: Weigl Publishers, 2003.
[juvenile]

Bernhard, Virginia. "Pocahontas Was Not the Only One: Indian Women and Their English Liaisons in Seventeenth-Century Virginia." Searching for Their Places: Women in the South across Four Centuries. Ed. Thomas H. Appleton Jr. and Angela Boswell. Columbia: U of Missouri P, 2003. 13-36.

Bruchac, Joseph. Pocahontas. Orlando: Silver Whistle, 2003. Harcourt 2005. Bruchac is Abenaki. His book alternates chapters of the same incident by Smith and by Pocahontas -- the Smith chapter headed by an excerpt from an historical source, the Pocahontas chapter headed by a Powhatan story. In the final pair of chapters, Smith expects to be killed, but Pocahontas (age 11) picks up the story in which "Little Red-Haired Warrior" Smith smiles as he is adopted into the Powhatan family, causing Pocahontas's heart to become "so full that it feels like the river when it overflows as the tide rises." "We shall live together in peace," she concludes, as she beholds her new brother.
[juvenile; novel; Native American]

Burch, John. Review of Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat by Paula Gunn Allen. Library Journal 128.16 (Oct 1, 2003): 16. Allen "flaunts her Native American heritage" in order to differentiate her biography from those done by non-natives. Without any "cited evidence," Allen constructs an image of Pocahontas as shaman-priestess, allowing her "to sprinkle her feminist Native American perspective liberally throughout." Burch even suggests that Allen's "native perspective is suspect at best," since she is of a different culture than Pocahontas.

Gardner, Barbara E. "Pocahontas Reclaimed: The Powhatans Theatrical Rebuttal to Disney's Revisionist Myth." Masters Thesis. Rowan University, 2003.
[thesis]

Gleach, Frederic W. "Controlled Speculation and Constructed Myths: The Saga of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." Reading beyond Words: Contexts for Native History. 2nd. ed. Ed. Jennifer S. H. Brown and Elizabeth Vibert. Peterborough: Broadview, 2003. 39-74.

Gleach, Frederic W. "Pocahontas at the Fair: The Crafting of Identities at the 1907 Jamestown Exposition." Ethnohistory 50.3 (2003): 419-45.

LeSourd, Nancy. The Personal Correspondence of Elizabeth Walton and Abigail Matthews: The Story of Pocahontas, 1613. Grand Rapids: Zonderkidz, 2003.
[juvenile]

Liang, Iping. "Opposition Play: Trans-Atlantic Trickstering in Gerald Vizenor's The Heirs of Columbus." Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 29.1 (2003): 121-41.

Parekh, Pushpa Naidu. "Pocahontas: The Disney Imaginary." The Emperor's Old Groove: Decolonizing Disney's Magic Kingdom. Ed. Brenda Ayres. New York: Peter Lang, 2003. 167-78.

Parekh, Pushpa Naidu. "Pocahontas: The Disney Imaginary." The Emperor's Old Groove: Decolonizing Disney's Magic Kingdom. Ed. Brenda Ayers. New York: Peter Lang, 2003.
[film]

Polette, Nancy. Pocahontas. New York: Children's Press, 2003.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Price, David. Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Heart of a New Nation. New York: Knopf, 2003.
[novel]

Reinhart, Kelly. The True Story of Pocahontas. Genoa, Canterbury: Black Cat Publishing, 2003. A "Step 1" book. Short readings on several incidents in Pocahontas's life followed by tests and exercises on the readings. "Pocahontas was always happy," and after she saves Smith she dreams of London. She marries Rolfe, and "there were all types of good food to eat" at the wedding reception.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Robertson, Karen. "The First Captive: The Kidnapping of Pocahontas." Women, Violence, and English Renaissance Literature: Essays Honoring Paul Jorgensen. Ed. Linda Woodbridge. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003. 73-100.

Shifflett, Matthew. "Matoaka: Pocahontas in the Age of Identity." MFA thesis. Virginia Commonwealth University, 2003.
[thesis; play]
[Electronic Version]

Simmon, Scott. "Pocahontas Meets Custer: The Invaders." The Invention of the Western Film: A Cultural History of the Genre's First Half-Century. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. 55-78.

Stoner, Ruth. "Pocahontas, Mother of the New Woman in Charlotte Barnes's The Forest Princess." Nor Shall Diamond Die: American Studies in Honour of Javier Coy. Ed. Carme Manuel. Valencia: Universitat de València, 2003. 507-15.

Strong, Pauline Turner. "Playing Indian in the 1990s: Pocahontas and The Indian in the Cupboard." Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film. Ed. Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2003. 187-205.

Szabo, Joyce M. "Across the Great Divide: Jimmie Durham's Subversive (Self) Portraits." Diss. University of New Mexico, 2003.
[dissertation]

Vassar, Andrew Paul. "Hanay Geiogamah, Kiowa-Delaware Playwright: A Critical Biography." Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities And Social Sciences 64.1 (2003): 146-47.
[play; Native American; dissertation]

Weinberger, Kimberly. Let's Read About -- Pocahontas. New York: Scholastic, 2003. Illustrations by Stephen Marchesi.
[illustrated; juvenile]

White, Ed. "Captaine Smith, Colonial Novelist." American Literature 75.3 (2003): 487-513.

Wynns, Scarlet L., and Lawrence B. Rosenfeld. "Father-Daughter Relationships in Disney's Animated Films." The Southern Communication Journal 68.2 (2003): 91-107.

2004

Boudreau, Mary Catherine. "Images and Messages Internalized by Third Graders Comparing Two Formats of Beauty and the Beast and Pocahontas." Diss. Wayne State University, 2004.
[dissertation]

Brown, Stuart E., and Lorraine F Myers. Pocahontas' Descendants: A Revision, Enlargement, and Extension of the List as Set Out by Wyndham Robertson in his Book Pocahontas and Her Descendants (1887), fourth and fifth corrections and additions. Baltimore: Clearfield, 2004.
[genealogy]

Dequina, Michael. Review of Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World. The Movie Report 7 August 2004. "While Journey to a New World is the best of the crop of Disney's direct-to-video animation sequels (which also includes two awful-to-mediocre Aladdin sequels and an insulting Beauty and the Beast 'midquel' that is true blasphemy), it's still a slapdash effort, with none of gorgeous colors and animation of the first film, and little of its emotional resonance. Smith is regressed to the cocky swashbuckler he was at the beginning of the first film, making Poca's ultimate choice between him and Rolfe, which should have been a dramatically conflicted one, rather obvious and easy. Predictably, the new songs are a pale shadow of the Alan Menken-Stephen Schwartz feature score, but there is one memorable tune: Poca's introspective 'Where Do I Go From Here?' which serves as the movie's signature theme."
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Hamilton, Pernille I. "Pocahontas I et Kristent Engelsk Verdenbillede: En Litteraer Tilgangs Mulgheder." [Pocahontas in a Christian English World Order: Possibilities in a Literary Approach] Jyske Historiker [Denmark] 105 (2004): 109-25.
[foreign language]

Jaroff, Rebecca Dunn. "Charlotte Barnes: A Life in the Theatre." Women's Contributions to Nineteenth-Century Theatre. Valencia: U of Valencia, 2004. 59-70.

Kiyomi, Kutsuzawa. "Disney's Pocahontas: Reproduction of Gender, Orientalism, and the Strategic Construction of Racial Harmony in the Disney Empire." Atlantis: A Women's Studies Journal/Revue d'Etudes sur les Femmes 2 (2004): 43-53.

Kuwabong, Dannabang. "Mother as Transformer: Strategic Symbols of Matrilineage Recuperation in Princess Pocahontas and the Blue Spots." From Motherhood to Mothering: The Legacy of Adrienne Rich's Of Woman Born. Ed. Andrea O'Reilly. Albany: State U of New York P, 2004. 89-102. Mojica.
[play; Native American]

Maillard, Kevin M. "The t'aint of taint: Memory and the Denial of Mixed Race in the United States." Diss. University of Michigan, 2004.
[dissertation]

McLeese, Don. Pocahontas. Vero Beach: Rourke Pub., 2004.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Nettleton, Pamela Hill. Pocahontas: Peacemaker and Friend to the Colonists. Minneapolis: Picture Window Books, 2004. Illustrations by Jeff Yesh.
[illustrated; juvenile]

Petropoulos, Jacqueline. "Women Writing Race: The Politics of Identity and Theatrical Representation in Canada during the 1980s." Diss. York University (Canada), 2004.
[dissertation]

Pinsky. Mark. "Pocahontas (1995): Animating Animism." The Gospel according to Disney: Faith, Trust, and Pixie Dust. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2004. 160-66.

Shackleton, Mark. "Monique Mojica's Princess Pocahontas and the Blue Spots and Thomas King's Green Grass, Running Water: Countering Misrepresentations of 'Indianness' in Recent Native North American Writing." Towards a Transcultural Future: Literature and Human Rights in a "Post"-Colonial World. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2004. 257-66.
[Native American; novel; play]

Sharpes, Donald K. Review of Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat by Paula Gunn Allen. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 28.3 (2004): 162-65. Sharpes begins by indicating that Allen's "intriguing hypothesis" has done a "unique service by giving an enlightened perspective into the mindset of Native peoples," but then he spanks her just about everywhere: weakness in understanding historiography, unsuccessful contrast between western and native beliefs, falsely claiming historical writing as Christian and democratic, assuming one can project contemporary culture backwards, absence of key primary texts, invalid description of brain studies. For example, "To insinuate that being a Native person gives even a scholar the right to understand how all Natives think is presumptuous. Native peoples are as distinct from each other as are peoples living in Europe. Thus to believe that a Southwest Native can intuitively understand the beliefs of the Mattaponi, especially a Mattaponi living five hundred years ago, is as audacious as thinking that a present-day Pole could intuitively understand an Italian from the sixteenth century if both spoke Latin." Also, the Mattaponi and the Chickahominy still exist In Virginia, but there is no evidence of any contact with them. "Her intriguing insights are intriguing but cannot stand as research since there is no way to authenticate her assumptions."

Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Review of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma by Camilla Townsend. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 112.4 (2004): 419. Townsend's Pocahontas "was assertive, youthful, and athletic, but more importantly, a figure who furthered the marital strategies of diplomacy promoted by the Powhatan Confederacy."

Smith, Juliet. "Why Should We Remember . . . Pocahontas?" Child Education 81.12 (2004): 52-53.

Townsend, Camilla. Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma. New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
[illustrated]

2005

Aleiss, Angela. Making the White Man's Indian: Native Americans and Hollywood Movies. New York: Praeger, 2005.
[film]

Atterbury, Kyra. "Wild Thing: Pocahontas and Native American Female Sexuality." M.A. thesis. Temple University, 2005.
[thesis]

Ball-Stahl, Kelly Christine. "Environmental Values in American Popular-Culture Narratives." Diss. University of Minnesota, 2005.
[dissertation]

Delano, Marfe Ferguson. "Pocahontas." American Heroes. Washington: National Geographic, 2005.
[juvenile]

Detsi-Diamanti, Zoe. “The Drama of Colonialism: National Identity and the Construction of the Indian/Other in Early-19th-Century American Plays.” Prospects 30 (2005): 87–110, 97–99.
[play]

Drews, Jörg. "Martial der Zweite, oder: Der Dümmer als Lagune und Canal Grande. Arno Schmidts niedersächsische Prosa-Epigramme." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 227-42.
[foreign language]

Dunker, Axel. "'Immer diese Vergangenheiten.' Kolonialismus und Geschlecht in Arno Schmidts Erzahlung Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 193-206.
[foreign language]

Espinosa, Alice. "The Peripheral Empire: English Literary Adaptations of Spanish Colonial Authority, 1580-1640." Diss. University of North Carolina, 2005.
[dissertation]

Gressor, Megan, and Kerry Cook. "Pocahontas and Captain John Smith." An Affair To Remember: The Greatest Love Stories of All Time. Gloucester: Fair Winds Press, 2005. 32-37.

Hoberman, J. “Mr and Mrs Smith.” Village Voice 13 December 2005. Review of Terrence Malick's The New World.
[Electronic Version]

Hofmann, Philipp. "'Pop-Art-Werk mit Pocahontas.' Kontrolle und Chaos bei Schmidt und Cohen." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 147-66.
[foreign language]

Hopkins, Lisa. "Pocahontas and The Winter's Tale." Shakespeare 1.1-2 (2005): 121-35.

Hulsey, Dallas. "The Iconography of Nationalism: Icons, Popular Culture, and American Nationalism." Diss. Louisiana State University, 2005.
[dissertation]

Jhappan, Radha, and Daiva Stasiulis. "Anglophilia and the Discreet Charm of the English Voice in Disney's Pocahontas Films." Rethinking Disney: Private Control, Public Dimensions. Ed. Mike Budd and Max H. Kirsch. Middletown: Wesleyan UP, 2005. 151-77.

Kraft, Stephan. "Pocahontas deutsch. Von Versuchen eine Geschichte zu erzählen." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 15-62.
[foreign language]

Kyora, Sabine, and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds. Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005.
[illustrated; foreign language]

Kyora, Sabine. "'Kein Wort mehr gegen – Pocahontas.' Einleitende Überlegungen zu einer Indianer-Prinzessin." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 9-14.
[foreign language]

Kyora, Sabine. "Pocahontas' Schwestern. Indianerinnen in der deutschen Literatur des 19. Jahrhunderts." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 63-80.
[foreign language]

LeMaster, Michelle. "Pocahontas: (De)Constructing an American Myth." William and Mary Quarterly 62.4 (2005): 774-81. Reviews books by Townsend 2004, Rountree 2005, Allen 2003, and Price 2003. Which will receive separate entries.

LeMaster, Michelle. "Pocahontas: (De)Constructing an American Myth." Review of Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Heart of a New Nation by David A. Price. William and Mary Quarterly 62.4(2005): 774-81. Pocahontas is "but a bit player in this story. She conveniently fulfills the part of the eager convert and friend to the English (and admirer of John Smith, of course). Price's easy acceptance of the rescue myth starkly illustrates the way in which the Pocahontas of this story continues to serve as the instrument of Smith's self-aggrandizing (and of modern nationalistic wishful thinking) rather than as an independent historical actor with an agenda of her own. Overall the story Price tells is decidedly Anglocentric, re-creating the narrative of a triumphant conquest of barbaric peoples."

LeMaster, Michelle. "Pocahontas: (De)Constructing an American Myth." Review of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma by Camilla Townsend. William and Mary Quarterly 62.4(2005): 774-81. "The narrative will sound familiar, and there is little new ethnographic evidence. The key appeal of this book is the insight it offers on Pocahontas herself, much of which is of necessity speculative. Townsend's Pocahontas is a heroic woman, who acted for the sake of her people."

LeMaster, Michelle. "Pocahontas: (De)Constructing an American Myth." Review of Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown by Helen C. Rountree. William and Mary Quarterly 62.4(2005): 774-81. Lemaster says this is the strongest of the four works she reviews in this article. Rountree aims to tell the story from "an Indian rather than an English point of view." Her Pocahontas appears only in "short glimpses" and does not have much official political or diplomatic importance. Instead, Pocahontas creates "an informal position for herself through the power of her outgoing personality and her father's fondness for her." She suffered Stockholm syndrome when abducted, and her marriage was a "genuine love match."

LeMaster, Michelle. "Pocahontas: (De)Constructing an American Myth." Review of Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat by Paula Gunn Allen. William and Mary Quarterly 62.4(2005): 774-81. This is a "work of literature rather than a traditional biography." Laguna Pueblo Allen favors Indian narrative tradition over western historical conventions, and some will be uncomfortable with her "arresting assertions" without support, such as the contention that Pocahontas was assassinated. The book offers an "intriguingly novel" interpretation of Pocahontas that might be "more of an illuminating exercise in modern pan-Indian spirituality than a distinctly Powhatan product."

Peters, Jill. "The Role of Pocahontas and Sacagawea in the Creation of New American Mythology." Midwestern Folklore 31.1 (2005): 16-26.

Pisani, Michael V. Imagining Native America in Music. New Haven: Yale UP, 2005. 73-74.
[music]

Rathjen, Friedhelm. "Sprechen Sie deutsch? Arno Schmidts Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas als Fremdsprachentext." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 207-26.
[foreign language]

Richards, Jeffrey H. "James Nelson Barker and the Stage American Native." Drama, Theatre, and Identity in the American New Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. 166-87. Richards focuses a good bit on the impact of Barker's models: "Barker's reading of Smith, filtered and transformed through [George] Colman and innumerable other plays of whites conquering Asians, is that history is less war and negotiation and more sex and theatre, and that the representation of sex on stage, tied to the potential consumption of the Native virgin, should be both coy and conquering." The message of the play is that "the phallic permeates not only love and war, but theatre and imperialism as well." The play is "nothing other than an elaborate fore-play, linking audience desire, authorial infantile sexuality, and imperial history in an endlessly repeated moment in which Native -- and natal -- innocence is teasingly consumed in an erotics of power." Barker "solidifies American identity as of overwhelming whiteness, capable of absorbing color without displaying any palpable makr of difference."

Ridner, Judith. Review of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma by Camilla Townsend. History Teacher 39.1 (2005). Townsend's Pocahontas "is a tragic figure who likely suffered an intense sense of loneliness and isolation while living among the English. Despite all outward appearances to the contrary, she remained at her core one of Powhatan's people; and her life choices, however circumscribed, were often intended to serve her people's needs, even if indirectly." "Townsend has indeed moved us a long way towards demythologizing Pocahontas and recreating her as a real woman with her own hopes, fears, and frustrations."

Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2005.

Süselbeck, Jan. "Work in Progress...? Klaus Theweleits Pocahontas-Projekt." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 243-60.
[foreign language]

Schößler, Franziska. "Der Fetisch Haut – Coopers Roman Conanchet oder die Beweinte von Wish-ton-Wish und Arno Schmidts Erzählung Seelandschaft mit Pocahontas." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 167-92.
[foreign language]

Schwagmeier, Uwe. "'Mufkaiuwh' – Pocahontas-Figurationen im 20. Jahrhundert. US-amerikanische Imaginationen zwischen Pubertät, Promiskuität und Prostitution." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 81-128.
[foreign language]

Scully, Pamela. "Malintzin, Pocahontas, and Krotoa: Indigenous Women and Myth Models of the Atlantic World." Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 6.3 (2005).

Sita, Lisa. Pocahontas: The Powhatan Culture and the Jamestown Colony. New York: PowerPlus Books, 2005.
[juvenile]

Spiegelman, Willard, ed. Love, Amy: The Selected Letters of Amy Clampitt. New York: Columbia UP, 2005. See Clampitt 1993. In his introduction, Spiegelman writes that Clampitt "made a fuss in 1992, when William and Mary commissioned [her] to compose and deliver a poem in honor of the college’s three hundredth anniversary. The authorities thought that her 'Matoaka,'—about Pocahontas—might offend the sensibilities of Prince Charles, who would be on the same platform, and asked her to read it on a separate occasion." Clampitt's "icy formal letter" to the Tercentenary Commission's Martha Hamilton-Phillips of September 16, 1992, is included (280-81). The poem was later read at a special session in the William and Mary Library.
[poetry]
[Electronic Version]

Szalla, Valeska. "'Guten Tag gefällt mir besser' – Zur Bedeutung konventionell definierter Gestik in Disneys Pocahontas." Sabine Kyora and Uwe Schwagmeier, eds., Pocahontas Revisited: Kulturwissenschaftliche Ansichten eines Motivkomplexes. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2005. 129-46.
[foreign language]

Valaskakis, Gail Guthrie. Indian Country: Essays on Contemporary Native Culture. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 2005.
[Native American]

Williamson, Margaret Holmes. Review of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma by Camilla Townsend. Journal of Southern History 71.4 (2005): 866. A "disappointing book." It is not clear what the Powhatan dilemma is; on shaky evidence Smith is seen as a pedophile. Townsend's method of "restoring Pocahontas to her own cultural context and giving us the Powhatan view is to imagine the thoughts and reactions of the Powhatans rather than to represent the culture in its own terms." "In short, those seeking the real Pocahontas . . . should look elsewhere."

2006

Adams, Colleen. Pocahontas: The Life of an Indian Princess. New York: Rosen Pub. Group's PowerKids Press, 2006.
[juvenile]

Armstrong, Jennifer, and Roger Roth. "1607 -- Pocahontas of Virginia." The American Story: 100 True Tales from American History. New York: Knopf, 2006.
[juvenile]

Balestrini, Nassim W. "Ideology and Art: Pocahontas in Three Early American Plays." US Icons and Iconicity. Ed. Walter Hölbling, Klaus Rieser-Wohlfarter, and Susanne E Rieser. Wien: LIT, 2006.
[play]

Bernstein, Vivian. Pocahontas. Chicago: Wright Group / McGraw Hill, 2006.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Boehm, Deborah. "Brave New World." Native Peoples January/February 2006: 74-77. Malick's New World.
[film]

Bonnet, Audrey. Pocahontas, Princesse des Deux Mondes: Histoire, Mythe et Représentations. Rennes: Perséides, 2006.
[foreign language]

Brown, Bryan. "Did Pocahontas Save Jamestown?" Junior Scholastic 109.1 (2006): 16-19.
[juvenile; play]

Carbone, Elisa. Blood on the River: Jamestown 1607. New York: Viking 2006. Narrated by Smith's page Samuel.
[juvenile]

Chavarria, Ashley. "Disney's Pocahontas: A Critical Standpoint." B.A. Thesis. California Polytechnic State University, 2006.
[thesis]

Chenoweth, Avery, and Robert Llewellyn. Empires in the Forest: Jamestown and the Beginning of America. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2006.

De Wagter, Caroline. "Performing The American Multi-Ethnic 'Other' in Hwang's Bondage and Geiogamah's Foghorn." BELL: Belgian Journal Of English Language and Literature 4 (2006): 81-92.
[play; Native American]

Eaton, Gale. "Pocahontas: Four Political Fictions." Well-dressed Role Models: The Portrayal of Women in Biographies for Children. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2006. Compares biographies of Pocahontas at twenty-five-year intervals: 1946 (d'Aulaires, Seymour), 1971 (Bulla), 1996 (Gourse). Just post-war, the d'Aulaires and Seymour "celebrate friendship between individuals while masking the nature of conflict between nations"; both justified Pocahontas's "cooperation with the colonists on the grounds of Powhatan ignorance and mindless adherence to custom." Against a background of raising sensitivity of teachers to the special needs of minority groups, Bulla is "careful not to belittle the intelligence of Powhatan and his councillors." In 1996 children's writers were trying hard "to avoid sexist as well as racist stereotypes," and Gourse's Pocahontas is "a strong and intelligent agent." All three are compared to Slapin and Seale's essay (1990) on how to tell the difference between portrayals of what would hurt Native children and foster stereotypical thinking in non-Native children and are found wanting.
[gender; juvenile]

Ford, Carin T. Pocahontas: American Indian Princess. Berkeley Heights: Enslow, 2006.
[juvenile]

Garrett, Daniel. "The American Sublime, the Sublime American: The New World by Terrence Malick." cinetext. 8 July 2006.
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Gleach, Frederic W. "Pocahontas: An Exercise in Myth-Making and Marketing." New Perspectives on Native North America: Cultures, Histories, and Representations. Ed. Sergei Kan and Pauline Turner Strong. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2006. 433-55.
[illustrated]

Gleach, Frederic W. "The Ritual World of Pocahontas." Natural History 115.9 (November 2006): 40-46.
[illustrated; photograph]

Golden, Margaret. "Pocahontas: Comparing the Disney Image with Historical Evidence." Social Studies and the Young Learner 18.4 (2006): 19-23.
[juvenile]

Haas, Ruth. "Pocahontas: Jamestown's Friend." Rediscovering Jamestown. Ed. Nancy Egloff, Paula Kripaitis Neely, and Meg Chorlian. Wien: LIT, 2006.

Haden, John. Mrs. John Rolfe of Heacham, Better Known as Pocahontas. Grantham: Barny Books, 2006.
[juvenile]

Jalowitz, Alan C. "The Daughters of Penelope: Tradition and Innovation in American Epics by Women." Approaches to the Anglo and American Female Epic, 1621-1982. Ed. Bernard Schweizer. Burlington: Ashgate, 2006. About Nathalia Crane's Pocahontas (1930).
[gender]

Jaroff, Rebecca. "Opposing Forces:(Re)Playing Pocahontas and the Politics of Indian Removal on the Antebellum Stage." Comparative Drama 40.4 (2006-2007): 483-504. Charlotte Barnes. George Washington Custis.
[play]

Jones, K. "Acts of God." Film Comment 42.2 (2006): 24-26, 28. Malick's The New World.
[film]

Juettner, Bonnie. "Pocahontas (c. 1595-1617)." 100 Native Americans Who Changed History. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2006.

Killsback, Leo. "The New World." Wicazo Sa Review 21.2 (2006): 197-201.

Kudlinski, Kathleen V. My Lady, Pocahontas. Tarytown: Marshall Cavendish, 2006.
[juvenile]

Kuhlman, Keely Susan. "Transatlantic Travel and Cultural Exchange in the Early Colonial Era: The Hybrid American Female and Her New World Colony." Diss. Washington State University, 2006.
[dissertation]

Landau, Elaine. Explore Colonial Jamestown with Elaine Landau. Berkeley Heights: Enslow, 2006.
[juvenile]

Marubbio, M. Elise. Killing the Indian Maiden: Images of Native American Women in Film. Lexington: U of Kentucky P, 2006. 3, 13-14, 176, 223-24, 228-31.
[film; gender]

Mattingly, Cheryl. "Pocahontas Goes to the Clinic: Popular Culture as Lingua Franca in a Cultural Borderland." American Anthropologist 108.3 (2006): 494-501.

The New World. Dir. Terrence Malick. Perf. Colin Farrell, Q'Orianka Kilcher. New Line Home Entertainment, 2006.
[film]

Osburn, Katherine M. B. "Native American Women across Time." Review of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma by Camilla Townsend. Journal of American Ethnic History 25.2-3 (2006). Townsend explores the gendered "assimilation" of Pocahontas, especially, an "insightful analysis of the famous painting of 1616 suggests how Pocahontas might have negotiated ethnicity, class, and gender roles in her new identity. . . . This famous image represents Pocahontas's carefully crafted role as cultural broker -- she retained her Indian distinctiveness despite her new role as an English noblewoman." Similarly, Townsend "deconstructs the hagiography of Pocahontas," connecting Smith's "fabrication" of the rescue to the pervasive mythology in discovery literature of the "sexually compliant Indian woman." "The woman who emerges in this biography is a welcome negation of the New Age, ethnic Barbie doll of popular culture."
[painting]

Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Review of Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown by Helen C. Rountree. American Historical Review 111.3 (2006). Glowingly positive review all around: "Rountree's impeccable credentials have created an exhaustively detailed version of the interaction between Indians and the English invaders." "It was Pocahontas who played the least influential role in determining how the encounter unfolded. Pocahontas was barely remembered by her contemporaries; her brief life and her even shorter notoriety in England faded with her early death."

Taubin, Amy. "The New World." Sight and Sound 16.2 (2006): 44-48. Malick's The New World.
[film]

VanZandt, Cynthia J. "Jamestown, Pocahontas, and the Atlantic World." Itinerario 30.1 (2006): 87-91.

Vaughan, Alden T. "Pocahontas and Friends." Transatlantic Encounters: American Indians in Britain, 1500-1776. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.

Walters, Wendy S. "After the Death of the Last: Performance as History in Monique Mojica's Princess Pocahontas and the Blue Spots." Crossing Waters, Crossing Worlds: The African Diaspora in Indian Country. Ed. Tiya Miles and Sharon Patricia Holland. Durham: Duke UP; 2006. 226-59.
[play; Native American]

Ward, Kyle Roy. "Captain John Smith and Pocahontas." History in the Making: An Absorbing Look at How American History Has Changed in the Telling over the Last 200 Years. New York: New Press, 2006.

Wiliamson, Margaret Holmes. Review of Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown by Helen C. Rountree. Journal of American History 93.2 (2006). "The book fails in its intent." Rountree's discussion of "Pocahontas's alleged rescue of John Smith and the probable cause of her death are novel and worthwhile." Otherwise, "the gravest flaw is Rountree's reliance on her own experiences and imagination rather than on the anthropological advances of the past forty years in the understanding of culture and intercultural encounters."

Wilson, Gretchen. "Pocahontas Proud." Redneck Woman: Stories from My Life. New York: Warner Books, 2006.

2007

The New World on Reel American History. Lehigh University. 2007-- Substantial ongoing project by students at Lehigh University contains bibliography, scene analyses, issue essays, and more on Terrence Malick's film.
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Bannister, Mike. Pocahontas in Ludgate. Darlington: Arrowhead, 2007.
[poetry]

Birkle, Carmen. "Intercultural Interfaces in Visual Representations of Pocahontas." Intercultural America. Ed. Alfred Hornung et al. Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag, 2007.

Carter, Elliott. "Suite from Pocahontas." Music of Elliott Carter. 1982. New York: DRAM, 2007.
[music]

Clausen, Christopher. "Between Two Worlds." American Scholar 76.3 (2007): 80-90.

Custalow, Dr. Linwood "Little Bear," and Angela L. "Silver Star" Daniel. The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2007. This, we might say, is the ultimate debunking of the Pocahontas mythology. It's the oral history of Pocahontas "passed down generation by generation within the Mattaponi tribe." It is "vastly different" and was "hidden for nearly 400 years . . . out of fear of violent retribution if it were told publicly." Smith's life was never in danger; he was in the process of being made a werowance; Pocahontas would not have been allowed at the ceremony. Argall's men killed Kocoum, Pocahontas's husband, but their son lived. Pocahontas was deeply depressed at Jamestown and suffered a nervous breakdown. In addition, she was raped, possibly by more than one person and repeatedly. Her child was born before her marriage, father unknown, possibly Governor Dale. It is doubtful she loved Rolfe; she married because she had a child. Pocahontas was murdered in England, perhaps by poison.
[illustrated; Native American; debunking]

D'Entremont, John. Rev. of The New World, by Terrence Malick. Journal of American History 94.3 (2007): 1023-26.
[film]

Deans, Bob. The River Where America Began: A Journey Along the James. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

Detsi-Diamanti, Zoe. "Burlesquing 'Otherness' in Nineteenth-Century American Theatre: The Image of the Indian in John Brougham’s Met-a-mora; or, The Last of the Pollywogs (1847) and Po-Ca-Hon-Tas; or, The Gentle Savage (1855)." American Studies 48.3 (2007): 101-24.
[play]

Doherty, Kieran. Sea Venture: Shipwreck, Survival, and the Salvation of the First English Colony in the New World. New York: St. Martin's, 2007. 215-36.

Fausz, J Frederick. Review of . . . The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History. . . . Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 115.4 (2007): 576-81. Reviews the Custalow and Daniel True History in the context of six other books marking the 2007 Jamestown Quadricentennial. The book has the "potential" but cannot resolve the "conundrums in the history" of early Virginia. "This flawed book is also plagued with endless repetition and a holier-than-thou bias of victimization," and "In assessing the credibility of this 'other side of history,' readers should consider that its publication coincides with the current controversy over the King William Reservoir dam along the Mattaponi River." Fausz treats such shocking details as the murder of Pocahontas matter of factly and seems to lump the book with those by "opportunistic popular writers" after "timely, lucrative topics."

Heuvel, Lisa. Review of The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History by Linwood “Little Bear” Custalow and Angela L. “Silver Star” Daniel. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 31.3 (2007): 240-43. Published in the quadricentennial year, this book "raises an important question: How do various indigenous peoples in Virginia and around the world reclaim historical figures and events appropriated by majority cultures?" "A postmodern message resonates from" this book. "There are many sides to history, and some contest much of the colonial Virginia saga schoolchildren have grown up with. This narrative exemplifies how specific alternative histories reside in different cultures and can produce much different portraits of historical figures. . . . readers may find themselves reexamining one of America's most beloved origin myths. This book's publication is another step toward understanding the American saga from multiple perspectives. A taking back of history -- and possibly of Pocahontas -- is in process as part of the 2007 commemoration."

Jager, Rebecca K. "Negotiating Change on the Frontier: Indian Women Who Brokered the Collision of Cultures." Diss. University of New Mexico, 2007.
[dissertation]

Krull, Kathleen, and David Diaz. Pocahontas: Princess of the New World . New York : Walker, 2007.
[juvenile]

Matterson, Stephen. "New Configurations: The Framing of Pocahontas." The Irish Reader: Essays for John Devitt. Dublin: Otior Press, Trinity College Dublin, 2007.

Morrison, James. “Making worlds, making pictures: Terrence Malick’s The New World.” Poetic Visions of America: The Cinema of Terrence Malick. Ed. Hannah Patterson. London: Wallflower, 2007.
[film]

Neyland, Robert S. "Pocahontas Unanimated: The Life of a Powhatan Princess." Box Office Archaeology: Refining Hollywood's Portrayals of the Past. Ed. Julie M. Schablitsky. Walnut Creek: Left Coast, 2007.

Pocahantas excerpts 1908, Edison. 1908. Hollywood: Film Technology Company, Inc. 2007.
[film]

Pocahontas Revealed. Dir. Kirk Wolfinger and Lisa Quijano Wolfinger. PBS (Nova), 2007.
[film]

Rennie, Neil. Pocahontas, Little Wanton: Myth, Life and Afterlife. London: Quaritch, 2007.

Robinson, Hilary. Pocahontas the Peacemaker. London: Franklin Watts, 2007.
[juvenile]

Sharpe, Matthew. Jamestown: A Novel. Brooklyn: Soft Skull Press, 2007.
[novel]

Sonneborn, Liz. "Pocahontas." A to Z of American Indian Women. New York: Facts On File, 2007.
[gender]

Studelska, Jana Voelke. "Pocahontas, a Woman of Two Worlds." Women of Colonial America. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2007.
[gender]

Trumbauer, Lisa. Pocahontas y las primeras colonias. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2007.
[juvenile; foreign language]

Wernitznig, Dagmar. Europe's Indians, Indians in Europe: European Perceptions and Appropriations of Native American Cultures from Pocahontas to the Present. Lanham: UP of America, 2007.

Whitehead, Bobbie. "Inclusion of Virginia Indians in Jamestown Anniversary Makes History." Indian Country Today 30 May 2007. The Powhatans were part of the ceremonial activities, showing the tribe is still "alive."

Woolley, Benjamin. Savage Kingdom: The True Story of Jamestown, 1607, and the Settlement of America. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007.

2008

Bak, John S. "James Nelson Barker's The Indian Princess: The Role of the Operatic Melodrama in the Establishment of an American Belles-Lettres." Studies in Musical Theatre 2.2 (2008): 175-91.
[play; music]

Bernand, Carmen. "Celles Par Qui Les Métissages Arrivent: Malintzin, Pocahontas, Lucía Et La Maldonada." CLIO: Histoire, Femmes Et Sociétés. 27 (2008): 101.

Brimner, Larry Dane. Pocahontas: Bridging Two Worlds. Marshall Cavendish Children's Books, 2008.
[juvenile]

Carpenter, Cari. Seeing Red: Anger, Sentimentality, and American Indians. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 2008.

Downs, Kristina. "Mirrored Archetypes: The Contrasting Cultural Roles Of La Malinche And Pocahontas." Western Folklore 67.4 (2008): 397-414.
[gender]

Dyer, Gary. "The Transatlantic Pocahontas." Nineteenth-Century Contexts 30.4 (2008): 301-22.

Eastman, Carolyn. "The Indian Censures the White Man: 'Indian Eloquence' and American Reading Audiences in the Early Republic." William and Mary Quarterly 65.3 (2008): 535-64.

Hopkins, Lisa. "Pocahontas and the The Winter's Tale." The Cultural Uses of the Caesars on the English Renaissance Stage. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.

Lawton, Wendy. The Captive Princess: A Story Based on the Life of Young Pocahontas. Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2008.
[juvenile]

Ledgerwood, Maja. Pocahontas: Princess of Faith & Courage. Illustrated by Tyson Ledgerwood. AuthorHouse, 2008.
[juvenile; illustrated]

Mielke, Laura L. "A Tale Both Old and New: Jamestown at 400." Review of Pocahontas: Medicine Woman, Spy, Entrepreneur, Diplomat by Paula Gunn Allen. American Quarterly 60.1 (2008): 173-82. Reviews Price 2005, Allen 2003, Townsend 2004, and Rountree 2005. Which will have separate entries. "Allen's use of [Algonquin oral traditions] . . . literally requires a leap of faith on the part of the reader," and it's a "shame" that a few errors "might justify reader resistance to an alternative history." Allen's most important point is that Pocahontas is neither traitor nor victim but as "Beloved Woman" was "always in charge, always aware of her spiritual role in a cosmic transformation time." She knew she would be abducted; she knew her death was necessary,

Post, Constance J. "Performing Hybridity in Historical Melodrama of the Early Republic." Passionate Politics: The Cultural Work of American Melodrama from the Early Republic to the Present. Ed. Ralph J. Poole and Ilka Saal. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars , 2008. 47-70. Discusses James Nelson Barker's The Indian Princess in an essay "concerned with the ideological cultural formations of historical melodramas of the early republic, specifically, the interplay between nationalism and hybridities of race, gender, and class in a society that valorized white men of property."
[play]

Whitley, David. "Wilderness and Power: Conflicts and Contested Values from Pocahontas to Brother Bear." The Idea of Nature in Disney Animation. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.

2009

Burgoyne, Robert. "The Columbian Exchange: Pocahontas and The New World." Screening the Past 25 (September 2009). "Taking the myth of national origin at its most nascent point, Terrence Malick's The New World (USA 2005) both challenges and reinforces the traditional story of the encounter, depicting it as both harrowing and full of utopian possibility, presenting the narrative as a tone poem of contrasting and dissonant parts. On the one hand, it amplifies the erotic and emotional bond between Smith and Pocahontas, conveying a tantalizing possible world of interlayered consciousness, interwoven cultures and natures, the merging of differences rendered through dual interior monologues and flowing associative images, all connected by a gliding, drifting camera. On the other hand, it portrays the founding of Jamestown as an environmental disaster, providing an eco-critical reading of the history of the earliest colony. . . . In this essay, I argue that The New World reorients the story of the settlement of Jamestown, one of the foundational myths of nation, in a way that effectively defamiliarizes the viewer's experience of place, history, and identity. The film folds together the fictional romance of Smith and Pocahontas with the historically documented story of Jamestown, structuring the narration and the focalizing perspective around these two characters, and later around the figures of John Rolfe and Pocahontas, who become husband and wife. A radical and poetic experiment in narrative form, the film can be considered a form of historical 'revisioning,' as Robert Rosenstone describes the process of re-imagining the historical past."
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Buscombe, Edward. "What's New in the New World?" Film Quarterly 62.3 (2009): 35-40. On the new DVD version of Terrence Malick's film: The new DVD release has added twenty minutes to the 1 50-minute length of the theatrical release. (The image on the box, of Smith slashing wildly at a naked savage, does the movie no service at all, suggesting as it does some banal blood-and-thunder potboiler.) For the most part the added minutes are taken up with a few extra shots inserted into a number of scenes. The opening sequence of the Indians swimming is longer, John Smith's first journey up the river at the beginning of the film has more detail, and several of the scenes between Smith and Pocahontas are elongated in the later version. This does little to change the overall impact of the film, merely lending it a more relaxed, expansive feel. (Curiously, some sequences have actually been tightened in the extended version.) Malick has also added a series of chapter titles, the first one, "A New Start," coming with rather heavy-handed irony immediately before we see Smith with a rope around his neck, waiting to be hanged. One notable sequence has been added. At the end Pocahontas has a conversation in England with her uncle in which she says she has made a great many mistakes. "I hope that some day my people will forgive me." The scene adds further poignancy to her death, which follows shortly.
[film]

Carter, Jill. "Blind Faith Remembers . . . This Ain't No Masque: Princess Pocahontas and the Blue Spots as Transformative Ritual for the Grandmothers, the Ones Who Remain, and for the Ones Who Are Yet to Come." Performing Worlds into Being: Native American Women's Theater. Ed. Ann Elizabeth Armstrong, Kelli Lyon Johnson, and William A. Wortman. Oxford: Miami UP, 2009. Mojica
[play; Native American]

Deller, Jeremy. "Marlon Brando, Pocahontas, And Me." Aspen: Aspen Art Press, 2009. "Taking Neil Young's often-quoted line from the song 'Pocahontas' on his 1979 masterwork, Rust Never Sleeps, English artist Jeremy Deller's exhibition Marlon Brando, Pocahontas, And Me explores some wide-ranging themes shared by Deller and Young, including American identity, history, politics, war, medical innovation, information technologies and music. This volume presents installation shots of the exhibition at the Aspen Art Museum--which incorporates work from a diverse roster of historical and contemporary artists including Jeff Blankfort, George Catlin, Paul Chan, Mark Dion, Sam Durant, Joseph Clarence Fornelli, Ilka Hartmann, William Henry Jackson, Koba (Wild Horse), An-My Le, Alfred Jacob Miller, Charles Pollock and Sean Snyder."
[illustrated]

Haugo, Ann. "Persistent Memories: An Interview with Spiderwoman Theater." Performing Worlds into Being: Native American Women's Theater. Ed. Ann Elizabeth Armstrong, Kelli Lyon Johnson, and William A. Wortman. Oxford: Miami UP, 2009. 60-74. Mojica.
[play; Native American]

Lyytinen, Maria. "The Pocahontas Myth And Its Deconstruction In Monique Mojica's Play: Princess Pocahontas And The Blue Spots." Native American Performance and Representation. Ed. S. E. Wilmer. Tucson: U of Arizona P, 2009. 78-94.
[play; Native American]

Macdonald, Iain. "Nature and the Will to Power in Terrence Malick's The New World." The Thin Red Line. Ed. David Davies. London: Routledge, 2009.
[film]

McCray, Brigitte. "William Styron's Sophie's Choice and Hart Crane's 'The Harbor Dawn'." Explicator 67.4 (2009): 246-49.

Michaels, Lloyd. Terrence Malick. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2009. 78-99. Chapter on Terrence Malick's The New World.
[film]

Mojica, Monique. "Stories from the Body: Blood Memory and Organic Texts." Native American Performance and Representation. Ed. S. E.Wilmer. Tucson: U of Arizona P, 2009. 97-109.
[play; Native American]

Rountree, Helen C. "Pocahontas, Little Wanton: Myth, Life, and Afterlife." Virginia Magazine of History & Biography 117.3 (2009): 288-89.

Scott, Shelley. "Embodiment As A Healing Process: Native American Women and Performance." Native American Performance and Representation. Ed. S. E. Wilmer. Tucson: U of Arizona P, 2009. 123-35.

Sinnerbrink, Robert. "From Mythic History to Cinematic Poetry: Terrence Malick's The New World Viewed." Screening the Past Issue 26: 22 December 2009.
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Tratner, Michael. "Translating Values: Mercantilism And The Many 'Biographies' Of Pocahontas." Biography 32.1 (2009): 128-36.

Turner, Erin H. Wise Women: From Pocahontas to Sarah Winnemucca, Remarkable Stories of Native American Trailblazers. Guilford: TwoDot, 2009.
[gender]

2010

Burgoyne, Robert. "The Columbian Exchange: Pocahontas and The New World." Film Nation: Hollywood Looks At U.S. History. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2010.
[film]

Cusack, Beth. "The Life, Legend, and Legacy of Pocahontas." Early America Review 9.3 (2010): 6.

Jones, Victoria G. Pocahontas: A Life in Two Worlds. New York: Sterling, 2010.
[juvenile]

Mintz, Steven. "Movies, History, and the Disneyfication of the Past: The Case of Pocahontas." Hollywood's America: Thwentieth-Century America through Film. Ed. Steven Mintz and Randy W. Roberts. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Disney's Pocahontas illustrates five psychological mechanisms that Americans have used to evade the true meaning of our collective past": a screen memory, "splitting," projection or displacement, transference, "depersonalization." The Disney Pocahontas "is a wonderfully well intentioned movie. It contains a "plea for tolerance and ecological awareness," and it critiques "ethnocentrism, materialism, possessiveness, and greed." Yet the film is historically misleading. "It is inconceivable that Disney could create a heartwarming cartoon musical based on the story of Anne Frank. Yet that is precisely what the studio has done with Pocahontas."
[film]

Repphun, Eric. "Look Out Through My Eyes: The Enchantments of Terrence Malick." Sydney Studies in Religion 2010: 21-23. "The New World (2005) is concerned with exploring the rift between enchanted and disenchanted worlds, this time told primarily through two respective cultures' relationship with nature. . . . The film trades almost entirely on the collision of Smith's disenchanted world and his lover's enchanted world. . . . The Algonquin village, Werowocomoco, meticulously re-created from the most current historical research, practically jumps off of the screen. Malick makes it both a lived-in home for his strikingly rendered Algonquin and a place very much in harmony with its particular place in nature. . . . Jamestown is all dirt, mud and confusion."
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Stading, Vera. "Re-Figuring Stereotypes and Intertribal Performance In Hanay Geiogamah's Foghorn." Native American Studies across Time and Space: Essays on the Indigenous Americas. Ed. Oliver Scheiding. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag, 2010. 199-213.
[play; Native American]

Sterk, Darryl Cameron. "The Return Of The Vanishing Formosan: Disturbing The Discourse Of National Domestication As The Literary Fate Of The Aboriginal Maiden In Postwar Taiwanese Film And Fiction." Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities And Social Sciences 71.6 (2010): 2121.

2011

"Likely Pocahontas Wedding Site Unearthed." American History 46.1 (2011): 7.

Conn, Joel. "A Pocahontas By Any Other Name: A Legend Regarding Naming From Scotland." Contemporary Legend 1.3 (2011): 1-27.

Donougho, Martin. "'Melt Earth to Sea': The New World of Terrence Malick." Journal of Speculative Philosophy 25. 4 (2011): 359-74.
[film]

Dussais, Alison M. "Protecting Pocahontas's World: The Mattaponi Tribe's Struggle against Virginia's King William Reservoir Project." American Indian Law Review 36.1 (2011-2012): 1-123. Analysis of the decade or more struggle to preserve Mattaponi land and water rights that ended successfully in 2009, and which might be seen as a context for Custalow and Daniel 2007.

Dussias, Allison M. "Protecting Pocahontas's World: The Mattaponi Tribe's Struggle against Virginia's King William Reservoir Project." American Indian Law Review 36.1 (2011-2012): 1-123.

Friedel, Tracy L. "I Thought Pocahontas Was A Movie": Perspectives On Race/Culture Binaries In Education And Service Professions." Great Plains Research 21.1 (2011): 119.

Haag, Oliver. "Europe's Indians, Indians in Europe: European Perceptions and Appropriations of Native American Cultures from Pocahontas to the Present." Canadian Journal of Native Studies 31.1 (2011): 222-23.

Irwin, John T. "The Historical Pocahontas and the Mythical Quetzalcoatl." Hart Crane's Poetry: 'Appollinaire Lived In Paris, I Live In Cleveland, Ohio'. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2011.

Mojica, Monique. "Stories from the Body: Blood Memory and Organic Texts." Native American Performance and Representation. Ed. S. E. Wilmer. Tempe: U of Arizona P, 2011. 97-109. "I am going to attempt to describe a very important aspect of where my work comes from."
[play]

Padurano, Dominique. "Isn't That A Dude?": Using Images To Teach Gender and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S. History Classroom--Pocahontas: A Case Study." History Teacher 44.2 (2011): 191-208.
[gender; illustrated]

Underiner, Tamara. "Violence Averted Only To Return: Visiting The Archive Of 'Pocahontas Plays'." Violence in American Drama: Essays on Its Staging, Meanings, and Effects. Ed. Alfonso Ceballos Muñoz, et al. Jefferson: McFarland, 2011. 28-43. Focuses on the contribution of drama to the construction of the Pocahontas narrative, especially the plays by Barker, Custis, Owens, Barnes, the Pamunkey, Geiogamah, and Mojica.
[play; Native American]

2012

Brayton, Tim. "Disney Sequels: Like Nothing I've Ever Seen Before." Antagony & Ecstasy 28 September 2012. Review of Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World.
[film]
[Electronic Version]

Fay, Gale. Pocahontas. New York: Heinemann-Raintree, 2012.
[juvenile]

MacKenzie, Sarah. "Representations of Gendered Violence in Monique Mojica’s Princess Pocahontas and the Blue Spots and Marie Clements’ The Unnatural and Accidental Women." Inquire: Journal of Comparative Literature 2.2 (June 2012).
[play]
[Electronic Version]

Robertson, Karen. "Playing Indian: John Smith, Pocahontas, And A Dialogue About A Chain Of Pearl." Indography: Writing the 'Indian' in Early Modern England. Ed. Jonathan Gil Harris. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. 105-15.

Schmidt, Ethan A. "Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia." American Indian Quarterly 36.3 (2012): 288-317.

Siebert, Monica. "Historical Realism and Imperialist Nostalgia in Terrence Malick's The New World." Mississippi Quarterly 65.1 (2012): 139-55.
[film]

2013

Berglund, Jeff. "Pocahontas." Seeing Red: Hollywood's Pixeled Skins. Ed. LeAnne Howe, Harvey Markowitz, and Denise K. Cummings. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2013.
[film]

Kudlinski, Kathleen V. My Lady Pocahontas. Las Vegas: Amazon Children's Publishing, 2013.
[juvenile]

O'Barr, William M. "Images of Native Americans in Advertising. " Advertising & Society Review 14.1 (2013): 1-51.

Strong, Pauline Turner. American Indians and the American Imaginary: Cultural Representation Across the Centuries. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2013.

Tatum, Charles. "Lew Landers' 'Captain John Smith and Pocahontas'." Charles Tatum's Review Archive 7 May 2013. Brief review of the 1953 film: "This film is a very swift seventy-five minutes, but the film makers cram in enough misogyny and racism to make it feel like twice its running time. . . . Many of the lines are unintentionally hysterical ('I a roving adventurer, she an Indian princess'), I haven't laughed this hard at a 1950's historical epic since John Wayne in 'The Conqueror.' I am not kidding, the words 'Captain John Smith' are uttered no less than a dozen times in the opening ten minutes of the film. . . . I am pretty sure the Disney cartoon from a few years back [1995] got more right historically than this film."
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[Electronic Version]

2014

Thifault, Paul. "Race, Religion, and Nationalism in the Early Pocahontas Plays." ESQ: A Journal of the American Renaissance 60.1 (2014): 1-34.
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